Chronic Liver Diseases

The liver is the body’s detoxifier. It’s responsible for breaking down food (including nutrients and fats), medications, and toxins. When it functions properly it’s able to direct poisons and toxins out of the blood stream and away from the body. When it becomes taxed from excess toxins, cholesterol, and saturated fats, we can experience liver pain.

Read more on Home Remedies for Liver Care and Liver Cirrhosis Treatment and also visit on Herbal Remedy for Kidney Stones

Liver pain can indicate conditions like cirrhosis, fatty liver or other acute or chronic liver diseases. Alcohol abuse is the most common cause of cirrhosis; inflammation of the liver basically means the liver isn’t able to filter toxins, poisons, drugs and the like so they can be flushed out of the body. Other causes of liver impairment include hepatitis, autoimmune deficiency, and even acetaminophen (Tylenol) overuse.
Liver Pain Causes
1. Liver cirrhosis
2. Fatty liver disease
3. Liver cancer
4. Hepatitis
5. Other acute or chronic liver diseases
6. Alcohol abuse
7. Autoimmune disease
8. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) overuse
9. Certain other diseases like type 2 diabetes, congestive heart failure, tuberculosis, etc.
10. Scroll through for more information on liver pain causes

Liver Pain Symptoms
Liver disorders usually do not exhibit any liver pain symptoms in earlier stages. Body efficiently manages loss of liver function to a certain extent. Liver cirrhosis or liver cancer are therefore known as ‘silent killers’. Some of the commonly noticed symptoms of liver impairment are:
1. Jaundice, skin and whites of the eyes turn yellow
2. Stomach problems like constipation and diarrhea
3. Abdominal pain, swelling, bloating
4. Itchy skin
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Weight loss

Liver Pain Treatment
The first thing to do is to cease eating strong foods such as those with spices added to it. Spice can aggravate the internal condition of almost any part of the body. In particular, curry powder, red, green and Habanero chillies and pepper are really the worst of the damage causing bunch.
You would be well advised to stay away from them all for a while and concentrate on fairly bland food. Adding salt and a touch of soothing olive oil to the food will be a good enough way to maintain an easing of any pain that may also cause a burning sensation. Apart from this, it is also a good idea to add probiotics to the diet.

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The best natural source of probiotics is fresh yogurt. This also contains bifidus, which is an excellent nutrient to get rid of the unhealthy and live bacteria as well as prevent certain types of tumors. You can add all of these to your daily diet for a few days and observe if there is a difference. Generally, the difference will be felt within as quickly as a couple of days.
The other thing to concentrate on is water intake. Keep in mind that the liver is the organ which works as the toxin processing plant of the body. It has the formidable task of separating toxins from nutrients and ensuring that toxic waste is flushed out to the kidneys, from where it goes out via urine. Less of water means that these two organs will have to put in a lot of overtime and will be more tired than ever.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Applying for disability for a chronic liver disease?
    Is it possible for me to recieve disability for a chronic liver disease, biliary atresia? It makes my spleen not function as well as it should so I consistently get sick and weak feeling. On top of this, I am physically restrained because I cannot ger overly tired or damage my spleen due to falling, leaning, or pushing against it. Would this make me a candidate?

    • ANSWER:
      Here is a link that may be of help to you.
      According to this: if you have been diagnosed
      with end stage liver disease and have
      biliary atresia….you would be covered under
      disability for 1 year and then be evaluated
      again.

      http://www.ssa.gov/disability/professionals/bluebook/105.00-Digestive-Childhood.htm

      However, when a patient has multiple medical
      conditions, they will take “all “of them into
      account…so it is best to be sure that all are
      listed. If the doctor has placed you under
      any restriction for what you can or cannot do…
      ask if he would write them down. Keep the
      original, but give them a copy of it when you
      send in your application. Having a doctor
      state that you cannot work and placing that
      in writing is a great plus to helping you get
      disability benefits.

      Hope this helps you. To go to the link provided,
      just click on it.

  2. QUESTION:
    how chronic liver disease, esophageal varices and hematemesis are interconnected?
    pathophysiology of how chronic liver disease is connected to hematemesis?

    • ANSWER:

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  3. QUESTION:
    What would be raised on liver function test in chronic liver disease?
    I have unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia serum total is 94umol/L. Everything else is normal?

    • ANSWER:
      The liver cells make enzymes. If the liver cells become damaged,
      then these enzymes would leak out and go higher in the blood.
      These would be the ALT, AST, GGT, and Alkaline phosphatase.

      The liver functions tests are the Albumin, PT, PTT, INR, and the
      Bilirubin.

      Albumin is a protein that the liver cells makes, which holds fluid
      inside our vessels and also transport bilirubin, that is in the blood,
      to the liver. It tends to go lower in the blood as the liver disease
      progresses, since the liver cells are not able to make it efficiently.

      INR, PT, PTT are to check the time that the blood does clot.
      Because the liver cells are damaged, they cannot make the
      clotting factors to help the blood to clock…therefore it would
      take the blood longer to clot in these patients.

      Bilirubin is a substance made from our dead red blood cells.
      This can be done in the spleen or the liver. Bilirubin is
      a pigment (greenish/yellowish) substance that colors other
      things. Unconjugated bilirubin means that it is in the blood
      and the albumin will pick it up to transport to the liver.
      When it reaches the liver, the liver takes it and converts
      it to a soluble form (conjugated) to become part of the
      bile. Bilirubin has to reach a certain level in the blood before
      Jaundice appears (the yellowing of the whites of the eyes and
      skin and the darkening of the urine).

      Because you stated that all other labs were normal….if this is hyperbilirubinemia…
      could be Gilberts syndrome. However, no one blood testing is 100 % accurate.
      The doctor may do more blood tests to see if this returns to the normal range
      before proceeding with further testing. Each lab has it own reference range
      of what they consider to be the normal range of a healthy person.
      I have read that for a first day test, that anything below 99 is considered
      to be normal. You would have to check your lab sheet to see if this is
      considered to be abnormal for you.

      I hope this information has been of some help. Best wishes

  4. QUESTION:
    What exactly is chronic liver disease?
    Is chronic liver disease a name for just one disease–chronic liver cirrhosis? or is it a general name for an array of diseases concerning the liver (Hepatitis C, cirrhosis, chronic liver failure…).

    • ANSWER:
      A chronic disease is one that is long term or recurrent. Hepatitis C can take over 20 years before liver failure starts to appear. Cirrhosis is when there is permanent scarring of the liver that does not go away. The only cure is a liver transplant. It takes many, many years to develop to cirrhosis. Chronic is a term that can be used in all types of diseases and conditions.

  5. QUESTION:
    The most probable causes for chronic liver disease?

    is the most likely alcohol?

    thank you for al the wonderful answers btw!

    • ANSWER:
      Loading your body with more toxins than the liver can get rid of be it alchohol, unhealthy food, drugs or whatever.

  6. QUESTION:
    Could taking 4000 mg of tylenol for 1 week cause chronic liver disease?
    And if so, how long would it take for the liver to get so damaged to need a transplant?

    (It’s for a school paper, thanks)

    • ANSWER:
      possibly yes, tylenol is extremely toxic when broken down by the liver

  7. QUESTION:
    What is the safest antibiotic in Chronic liver disease?for gram positive and gram negative organisms?

    • ANSWER:
      It is in interesting question and is tough to answer without knowing specifically what disease I am looking to treat. But I am going to assume you come into my ER, looking septic, and I am just gonna give you broad spectrum antibiotics until I can culture you and de-escalate from there. I learn along the way you have chronic liver disease. I feel that the use of cefepime and vancomycin would still be warranted because both are renally excreted. Cefepime is cleared primarily by urinary excretion (85%). Vancomycin is cleared primarily by urinary excretion (75%). This may be different in your area, but around here we get a fair amount of community acquired MRSA infections.
      A very generic answer that can change due to many other factors, especially.
      Also, you could add metronidazole for anaerobe coverage. Metronidazole — Excretion: Renal (60-80%)

  8. QUESTION:
    liver echotexture may indicate fatty infiltration or chronic liver disease?
    what does it mean when the diagnose is heterogeneous liver echotexture may indicate fatty infiltratio or chronic liver diseas. No discrete liver lesion seen

    • ANSWER:
      I am going to be honest it is very hard to tell you what this means without the context of what they were looking for. This sounds like an ultrasound reading? The reading does not sound bad to me, you have no lesions (cancer) but could have some changes going on. I am not sure what they were looking for so I cannot help you with this result and what it means to you. Your best bet is to talk to the doctor who ordered this test, ask him/her what he/she was looking for and if anything was found that would require further testing. If you do not know the doctor, take the result to your primary care doctor and talk to them.

  9. QUESTION:
    Is it true that people with chronic liver disease hurt all the time,and if so why?

    • ANSWER:
      What is cirrhosis?

      Cirrhosis is a complication of many liver diseases that is characterized by abnormal structure and function of the liver. The diseases that lead to cirrhosis do so because they injure and kill liver cells, and the inflammation and repair that is associated with the dying liver cells causes scar tissue to form. The liver cells that do not die multiply in an attempt to replace the cells that have died. This results in clusters of newly-formed liver cells (regenerative nodules) within the scar tissue. There are many causes of cirrhosis; they include chemicals (such as alcohol, fat, and certain medications), viruses, toxic metals (such as iron and copper that accumulate in the liver as a result of genetic diseases), and autoimmune liver disease in which the body’s immune system attacks the liver.

      Why does cirrhosis cause problems?

      The liver is an important organ in the body. It performs many critical functions, two of which are producing substances required by the body, for example, clotting proteins that are necessary in order for blood to clot, and removing toxic substances that can be harmful to the body, for example, drugs. The liver also has an important role in regulating the supply to the body of glucose (sugar) and lipids (fat) that the body uses as fuel. In order to perform these critical functions, the liver cells must be working normally, and they must have an intimate relationship with the blood since the substances that are added or removed by the liver are transported to and from the liver by the blood.

      The relationship of the liver to the blood is unique. Unlike most organs in the body, only a small amount of blood is supplied to the liver by arteries. Most of the liver’s supply of blood comes from the intestinal veins as the blood returns to the heart. The main vein that returns blood from the intestines is called the portal vein. As the portal vein passes through the liver, it breaks up into increasingly smaller and smaller veins. The tiniest veins (called sinusoids because of their unique structure) are in close contact with the liver cells. In fact, the liver cells line up along the length of the sinusoids. This close relationship between the liver cells and blood from the portal vein allows the liver cells to remove and add substances to the blood. Once the blood has passed through the sinusoids, it is collected in increasingly larger and larger veins that ultimately form a single vein, the hepatic vein that returns the blood to the heart.

      In cirrhosis, the relationship between blood and liver cells is destroyed. Even though the liver cells that survive or are newly-formed may be able to produce and remove substances from the blood, they do not have the normal, intimate relationship with the blood, and this interferes with the liver cells’ ability to add or remove substances from the blood. In addition, the scarring within the cirrhotic liver obstructs the flow of blood through the liver and to the liver cells. As a result of the obstruction to the flow of blood through the liver, blood “backs-up” in the portal vein, and the pressure in the portal vein increases, a condition called portal hypertension. Because of the obstruction to flow and high pressures in the portal vein, blood in the portal vein seeks other veins in which to return to the heart, veins with lower pressures that bypass the liver. Unfortunately, the liver is unable to add or remove substances from blood that bypasses it. It is a combination of reduced numbers of liver cells, loss of the normal contact between blood passing through the liver and the liver cells, and blood bypassing the liver that leads to many of the manifestations of cirrhosis.

      A second reason for the problems caused by cirrhosis is the disturbed relationship between the liver cells and the channels through which bile flows. Bile is a fluid produced by liver cells that has two important functions: to aid in digestion and to remove and eliminate toxic substances from the body. The bile that is produced by liver cells is secreted into very tiny channels that run between the liver cells that line the sinusoids, called canaliculi. The canaliculi empty into small ducts which then join together to form larger and larger ducts. Ultimately, all of the ducts combine into one duct that enters the small intestine. In this way, bile gets to the intestine where it can help with the digestion of food. At the same time, toxic substances contained in the bile enter the intestine and then are eliminated in the stool. In cirrhosis, the canaliculi are abnormal and the relationship between liver cells and canaliculi is destroyed, just like the relationship between the liver cells and blood in the sinusoids. As a result, the liver is not able to eliminate toxic substances normally, and they can accumulate in the body. To a minor extent, digestion in the intestine also is reduced.

      What are the symptoms and signs of cirrhosis?

      Patients with cirrhosis may have few or no symptoms and signs of liver disease. Some of the symptoms may be nonspecific, that is, they don’t suggest that the liver is their cause. Some of the more common symptoms and signs of cirrhosis include:

      Yellowing of the skin (jaundice) due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the blood
      Fatigue
      Weakness
      Loss of appetite
      Itching
      Easy bruising from decreased production of blood clotting factors by the diseased liver.
      Patients with cirrhosis also develop symptoms and signs from the complications of cirrhosis that are discussed next.

      What are the complications of cirrhosis?

      Edema and ascites

      As cirrhosis of the liver becomes severe, signals are sent to the kidneys to retain salt and water in the body. The excess salt and water first accumulates in the tissue beneath the skin of the ankles and legs because of the effect of gravity when standing or sitting. This accumulation of fluid is called edema or pitting edema. (Pitting edema refers to the fact that pressing a fingertip firmly against an ankle or leg with edema causes an indentation in the skin that persists for some time after release of the pressure. Actually, any type of pressure, such as from the elastic band of a sock, may be enough to cause pitting.) The swelling often is worse at the end of a day after standing or sitting and may lessen overnight as a result of the loss of the effects of gravity when lying down. As cirrhosis worsens and more salt and water are retained, fluid also may accumulate in the abdominal cavity between the abdominal wall and the abdominal organs. This accumulation of fluid (called ascites) causes swelling of the abdomen, abdominal discomfort, and increased weight.

      Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP)

      Fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites) is the perfect place for bacteria to grow. Normally, the abdominal cavity contains a very small amount of fluid that is able to resist infection well, and bacteria that enter the abdomen (usually from the intestine) are killed or find their way into the portal vein and to the liver where they are killed. In cirrhosis, the fluid that collects in the abdomen is unable to resist infection normally. In addition, more bacteria find their way from the intestine into the ascites. Therefore, infection within the abdomen and the ascites, referred to as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or SBP, is likely to occur. SBP is a life- threatening complication. Some patients with SBP have no symptoms, while others have fever, chills, abdominal pain and tenderness, diarrhea, and worsening ascites.

      Bleeding from esophageal varices

      In the cirrhotic liver, the scar tissue blocks the flow of blood returning to the heart from the intestines and raises the pressure in the portal vein (portal hypertension). When pressure in the portal vein becomes high enough, it causes blood to flow around the liver through veins with lower pressure to reach the heart. The most common veins through which blood bypasses the liver are the veins lining the lower part of the esophagus and the upper part of the stomach.

      As a result of the increased flow of blood and the resulting increase in pressure, the veins in the lower esophagus and upper stomach expand and then are referred to as esophageal and gastric varices; the higher the portal pressure, the larger the varices and the more likely a patient is to bleed from the varices into the esophagus or stomach.

      Bleeding from varices usually is severe and, without immediate treatment, can be fatal. Symptoms of bleeding from varices include vomiting blood (the vomitus can be red blood mixed with clots or “coffee grounds” in appearance, the latter due to the effect of acid on the blood), passing stool that is black and tarry due to changes in the blood as it passes through the intestine (melena), and orthostatic dizziness or fainting (caused by a drop in blood pressure especially when standing up from a lying position).

      Bleeding also may occur from varices that form elsewhere in the intestines, for example, the colon, but this is rare. For reasons yet unknown, patients hospitalized because of actively bleeding esophageal varices have a high risk of developing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

      Hepatic encephalopathy

      Some of the protein in food that escapes digestion and absorption is used by bacteria that are normally present in the intestine. While using the protein for their own purposes, the bacteria make substances that they release into the intestine. These substances then can be absorbed into the body. Some of these substances, for example, ammonia, can have toxic effects on the brain. Ordinarily, these toxic substances are carried from the intestine in the portal vein to the liver where they are removed from the blood and detoxified.

      As previously discussed, when cirrhosis is present, liver cells cannot function normally either because they are damaged or because they have lost their normal relationship with the blood. In addition, some of the blood in the portal vein bypasses the liver through other veins. The result of these abnormalities is that toxic substances cannot be removed by the liver cells, and, instead, the toxic substances accumulate in the blood.

      When the toxic substances accumulate sufficiently in the blood, the function of the brain is impaired, a condition called hepatic encephalopathy. Sleeping during the day rather than at night (reversal of the normal sleep pattern) is among the earliest symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy. Other symptoms include irritability, inability to concentrate or perform calculations, loss of memory, confusion, or depressed levels of consciousness. Ultimately, severe hepatic encephalopathy causes coma and death.

      The toxic substances also make the brains of patients with cirrhosis very sensitive to drugs that are normally filtered and detoxified by the liver. Doses of many drugs that normally are detoxified by the liver have to be reduced to avoid a toxic buildup in cirrhosis, particularly sedatives and drugs that are used to promote sleep. Alternatively, drugs may be used that do not need to be detoxified or eliminated from the body by the liver, for example, drugs that are eliminated by the kidneys.

      Hepatorenal syndrome

      Patients with worsening cirrhosis can develop the hepatorenal syndrome. This syndrome is a serious complication in which the function of the kidneys is reduced. It is a functional problem in the kidneys, that is, there is no physical damage to the kidneys. Instead, the reduced function is due to changes in the way the blood flows through the kidneys themselves. The hepatorenal syndrome is defined as progressive failure of the kidneys to clear substances from the blood and produce adequate amounts of urine even though some other important functions of the kidney, such as retention of salt, are maintained. If liver function improves or a healthy liver is transplanted into a patient with hepatorenal syndrome, the kidneys usually begin to work normally. This suggests that the reduced function of the kidneys is the result of the accumulation of toxic substances in the blood when the liver fails. There are two types of hepatorenal syndrome. One type occurs gradually over months. The other occurs rapidly over a week or two.

      Hepatopulmonary syndrome

      Rarely, some patients with advanced cirrhosis can develop the hepatopulmonary syndrome. These patients can experience difficulty breathing because certain hormones released in advanced cirrhosis cause the lungs to function abnormally. The basic problem in the lung is that not enough blood flows through the small blood vessels in the lungs that are in contact with the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs. Blood flowing through the lungs is shunted around the alveoli and cannot pick up enough oxygen from the air in the alveoli. As a result the patient experiences shortness of breath, particularly with exertion.

      Hypersplenism

      The spleen normally acts as a filter to remove older red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets (small particles that are important for the clotting of blood.). The blood that drains from the spleen joins the blood in the portal vein from the intestines. As the pressure in the portal vein rises in cirrhosis, it increasingly blocks the flow of blood from the spleen. The blood “backs-up” and accumulates in the spleen, and the spleen swells in size, a condition referred to as splenomegaly. Sometimes, the spleen is so swollen that it causes abdominal pain.

      As the spleen enlarges, it filters out more and more of the blood cells and platelets until their numbers in the blood are reduced. Hypersplenism is the term used to describe this condition, and it is associated with a low red blood cell count (anemia), low white blood cell count (leucopenia), and/or a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). The anemia can cause weakness, the leucopenia can lead to infections, and the thrombocytopenia can impair the clotting of blood and result in prolonged bleeding.

      Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma)

      Cirrhosis due to any cause increases the risk of primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). Primary refers to the fact that the tumor originates in the liver. A secondary liver cancer is one that originates elsewhere in the body and spreads (metastasizes) to the liver.

      The most common symptoms and signs of primary liver cancer are abdominal pain and swelling, an enlarged liver, weight loss, and fever. In addition, liver cancers can produce and release a number of substances, including ones that cause an increased in red blood cell count (erythrocytosis), low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), and high blood calcium (hypercalcemia). For more, please read the Liver Cancer article.

      What are the common causes of cirrhosis?

      Alcohol is a very common cause of cirrhosis, particularly in the Western world. The development of cirrhosis depends upon the amount and regularity of alcohol intake. Chronic, high levels of alcohol consumption injure liver cells. Thirty percent of individuals who drink daily at least eight to sixteen ounces of hard liquor or the equivalent for fifteen or more years will develop cirrhosis. Alcohol causes a range of liver diseases; from simple and uncomplicated fatty liver (steatosis), to the more serious fatty liver with inflammation (steatohepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis), to cirrhosis.
      Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide spectrum of liver diseases that, like alcoholic liver disease, ranges from simple steatosis, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), to cirrhosis. All stages of NAFLD have in common the accumulation of fat in liver cells. The term nonalcoholic is used because NAFLD occurs in individuals who do not consume excessive amounts of alcohol, yet, in many respects, the microscopic picture of NAFLD is similar to what can be seen in liver disease that is due to excessive alcohol. NAFLD is associated with a condition called insulin resistance, which, in turn, is associated with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2. Obesity is the most important cause of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD is the most common liver disease in the United States and is responsible for 24% of all liver disease. In fact, the number of livers that are transplanted for NAFLD-related cirrhosis is on the rise. Public health officials are worried that the current epidemic of obesity will dramatically increase the development of NAFLD and cirrhosis in the population. For more, please read the Fatty Liver article.
      Cryptogenic cirrhosis (cirrhosis due to unidentified causes) is a common reason for liver transplantation. It is termed cryptogenic cirrhosis because for many years doctors have been unable to explain why a proportion of patients developed cirrhosis. Doctors now believe that cryptogenic cirrhosis is due to NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) caused by long standing obesity, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. The fat in the liver of patients with NASH is believed to disappear with the onset of cirrhosis, and this has made it difficult for doctors to make the connection between NASH and cryptogenic cirrhosis for a long time. One important clue that NASH leads to cryptogenic cirrhosis is the finding of a high occurrence of NASH in the new livers of patients undergoing liver transplant for cryptogenic cirrhosis. Finally, a study from France suggests that patients with NASH have a similar risk of developing cirrhosis as patients with long standing infection with hepatitis C virus. (See discussion that follows.) However, the progression to cirrhosis from NASH is thought to be slow and the diagnosis of cirrhosis typically is made in patients in their sixties.
      Chronic viral hepatitis is a condition where hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infects the liver for years. Most patients with viral hepatitis will not develop chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. For example, the majority of patients infected with hepatitis A recover completely within weeks, without developing chronic infection. In contrast, some patients infected with hepatitis B virus and most patients infected with hepatitis C virus develop chronic hepatitis, which, in turn, causes progressive liver damage and leads to cirrhosis, and, sometimes, liver cancers.
      Inherited (genetic) disorders result in the accumulation of toxic substances in the liver which lead to tissue damage and cirrhosis. Examples include the abnormal accumulation of iron (hemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson’s disease). In hemochromatosis, patients inherit a tendency to absorb an excessive amount of iron from food. Over time, iron accumulation in different organs throughout the body causes cirrhosis, arthritis, heart muscle damage leading to heart failure, and testicular dysfunction causing loss of sexual drive. Treatment is aimed at preventing damage to organs by removing iron from the body through bloodletting (removing blood). In Wilson disease, there is an inherited abnormality in one of the proteins that controls copper in the body. Over time, copper accumulates in the liver, eyes, and brain. Cirrhosis, tremor, psychiatric disturbances and other neurological difficulties occur if the condition is not treated early. Treatment is with oral medication that increases the amount of copper that is eliminated from the body in the urine.
      Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a liver disease caused by an abnormality of the immune system that is found predominantly in women. The abnormal immunity in PBC causes chronic inflammation and destruction of the small bile ducts within the liver. The bile ducts are passages within the liver through which bile travels to the intestine. Bile is a fluid produced by the liver that contains substances required for digestion and absorption of fat in the intestine, as well as other compounds that are waste products, such as the pigment bilirubin. (Bilirubin is produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin from old red blood cells.). Along with the gallbladder, the bile ducts make up the biliary tract. In PBC, the destruction of the small bile ducts blocks the normal flow of bile into the intestine. As the inflammation continues to destroy more of the bile ducts, it also spreads to destroy nearby liver cells. As the destruction of the hepatocytes proceeds, scar tissue (fibrosis) forms and spreads throughout the areas of destruction. The combined effects of progressive inflammation, scarring, and the toxic effects of accumulating waste products culminates in cirrhosis. For more, please read the Primary Biliary Cirrhosis article.
      Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an uncommon disease found frequently in patients with ulcerative colitis (see Ulcerative Colitis article). In PSC, the large bile ducts outside of the liver become inflamed, narrowed, and obstructed. Obstruction to the flow of bile leads to infections of the bile ducts and jaundice and eventually causes cirrhosis. In some patients, injury to the bile ducts (usually as a result of surgery) also can cause obstruction and cirrhosis of the liver.
      Autoimmune hepatitis is a liver disease caused by an abnormality of the immune system that is found more commonly in women. The abnormal immune activity in autoimmune hepatitis causes progressive inflammation and destruction of liver cells (hepatocytes), leading ultimately to cirrhosis.
      Infants can be born without bile ducts (biliary atresia) and ultimately develop cirrhosis. Other infants are born lacking vital enzymes for controlling sugars that leads to the accumulation of sugars and cirrhosis. On rare occasions, the absence of a specific enzyme can cause cirrhosis and scarring of the lung (alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency).
      Less common causes of cirrhosis include unusual reactions to some drugs and prolonged exposure to toxins, as well as chronic heart failure (cardiac cirrhosis). In certain parts of the world (particularly Northern Africa), infection of the liver with a parasite (schistosomiasis) is the most common cause of liver disease and cirrhosis.

      How is cirrhosis diagnosed and evaluated?

      The single best test for diagnosing cirrhosis is biopsy of the liver. Liver biopsies, however, carry a small risk for serious complications, and, therefore, biopsy often is reserved for those patients in whom the diagnosis of the type of liver disease or the presence of cirrhosis is not clear. The possibility of cirrhosis may be suggested by the history, physical examination, or routine testing. If cirrhosis is present, other tests can be used to determine the severity of the cirrhosis and the presence of complications. Tests also may be used to diagnose the underlying disease that is causing the cirrhosis. The following are some examples of how doctors discover, diagnose and evaluate cirrhosis:

      In taking a patient’s history, the physician may uncover a history of excessive and prolonged intake of alcohol, a history of intravenous drug abuse, or a history of hepatitis. These pieces of information suggest the possibility of liver disease and cirrhosis.
      Patients who are known to have chronic viral hepatitis B or C have a higher probability of having cirrhosis.
      Some patients with cirrhosis have enlarged livers and/or spleens. A doctor can often feel (palpate) the lower edge of an enlarged liver below the right rib cage and feel the tip of the enlarged spleen below the left rib cage. A cirrhotic liver also feels firmer and more irregular than a normal liver.
      Some patients with cirrhosis, particularly alcoholic cirrhosis, have small red spider-like markings (telangiectasias) on the skin, particularly on the chest, that are made up of enlarged, radiating blood vessels. These spider telangiectasias also can be seen in individuals without liver disease, however.
      Jaundice (yellowness of the skin and of the whites of the eyes due to elevated bilirubin in the blood) is common among patients with cirrhosis, but jaundice can occur in patients with liver diseases without cirrhosis and other conditions such as hemolysis (excessive break down of red blood cells).
      Swelling of the abdomen (ascites) and/or the lower extremities (edema) due to retention of fluid is common among patients with cirrhosis though other diseases can cause them commonly, e.g., congestive heart failure.
      Patients with abnormal copper deposits in their eyes or certain types of neurologic disease may have Wilson’s disease, a genetic disease in which there is abnormal handling and accumulation of copper throughout the body, including the liver, that can lead to cirrhosis.
      Esophageal varices may be found unexpectedly during upper endoscopy (EGD), and they strongly suggesting cirrhosis.
      Computerized tomography (CT or CAT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and ultrasound examinations of the abdomen done for reasons other than evaluating the possibility of liver disease may unexpectedly detect enlarged livers, abnormally nodular livers, enlarged spleens, and fluid in the abdomen that suggest cirrhosis.
      Advanced cirrhosis leads to a reduced level of albumin in the blood and reduced blood clotting factors due to the loss of the liver’s ability to produce these proteins. Thus, reduced levels of albumin in the blood or abnormal bleeding suggest cirrhosis.
      Abnormal elevation of liver enzymes in the blood (such as ALT and AST) that are obtained routinely as part of yearly health examinations suggests inflammation or injury to the liver from many causes as well as cirrhosis.
      Patients with elevated levels of iron in their blood may have hemochromatosis, a genetic disease of the liver in which iron is handled abnormally and which leads to cirrhosis.
      Auto-antibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-smooth muscle antibody and anti-mitochondrial antibody) sometimes are detected in the blood and may be a clue to the presence of autoimmune hepatitis or primary biliary cirrhosis, both of which can lead to cirrhosis.
      Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) may be detected by CT and MRI scans or ultrasound of the abdomen. Liver cancer most commonly develops in individuals with underlying cirrhosis.
      If there is an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, a sample of the fluid can be removed using a long needle. The fluid then can be examined and tested. The results of testing may suggest the presence of cirrhosis as the cause of the fluid.

      How is cirrhosis treated?

      Treatment of cirrhosis includes 1) preventing further damage to the liver, 2) treating the complications of cirrhosis, 3) preventing liver cancer or detecting it early, and 4) liver transplantation.

      Preventing further damage to the liver

      Consume a balanced diet and one multivitamin daily. Patients with PBC with impaired absorption of fat soluble vitamins may need additional vitamins D and K.
      Avoid drugs (including alcohol) that cause liver damage. All patients with cirrhosis should avoid alcohol. Most patients with alcohol induced cirrhosis experience an improvement in liver function with abstinence from alcohol. Even patients with chronic hepatitis B and C can substantially reduce liver damage and slow the progression towards cirrhosis with abstinence from alcohol.
      Avoid nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, e.g., ibuprofen). Patients with cirrhosis can experience worsening of liver and kidney function with NSAIDs.
      Eradicate hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus by using anti-viral medications. Not all patients with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis are candidates for drug treatment. Some patients may experience serious deterioration in liver function and/or intolerable side effects during treatment. Thus, decisions to treat viral hepatitis have to be individualized, after consulting with doctors experienced in treating liver diseases (hepatologists).
      Remove blood from patients with hemochromatosis to reduce the levels of iron and prevent further damage to the liver. In Wilson’s disease, medications can be used to increase the excretion of copper in the urine to reduce the levels of copper in the body and prevent further damage to the liver.
      Suppress the immune system with drugs such as prednisone and azathioprine (Imuran) to decrease inflammation of the liver in autoimmune hepatitis.
      Treat patients with PBC with a bile acid preparation, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also called ursodiol (Actigall). Results of an analysis that combined the results from several clinical trials showed that UDCA increased survival among PBC patients during 4 years of therapy. The development of portal hypertension also was reduced by the UDCA. It is important to note that despite producing clear benefits, UDCA treatment primarily retards progression and does not cure PBC. Other medications such as colchicine and methotrexate also may have benefit in subsets of patients with PBC.
      Immunize patients with cirrhosis against infection with hepatitis A and B to prevent a serious deterioration in liver function. There are currently no vaccines available for immunizing against hepatitis C.
      Treating the complications of cirrhosis

      Edema and ascites. Retention of salt and water can lead to swelling of the ankles and legs (edema) or abdomen (ascites) in patients with cirrhosis. Doctors often advise patients with cirrhosis to restrict dietary salt (sodium) and fluid to decrease edema and ascites. The amount of salt in the diet usually is restricted to 2 grams per day and fluid to 1.2 liters per day. In most patients with cirrhosis, however, salt and fluid restriction is not enough, and diuretics have to be added.

      Diuretics are medications that work in the kidneys to promote the elimination of salt and water into the urine. A combination of the diuretics spironolactone (Aldactone) and furosemide can reduce or eliminate the edema and ascites in most patients. During treatment with diuretics, it is important to monitor the function of the kidneys by measuring blood levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine to determine if too much diuretic is being used. Too much diuretic can lead to kidney dysfunction that is reflected in elevations of the BUN and creatinine levels in the blood.

      Sometimes, when the diuretics do not work (in which case the ascites is said to be refractory), a long needle or catheter is used to draw out the ascitic fluid directly from the abdomen, a procedure called abdominal paracentesis. It is common to withdraw large amounts (liters) of fluid from the abdomen when the ascites is causing painful abdominal distension and/or difficulty breathing because it limits the movements of the diaphragms.

      Another treatment for refractory ascites is a procedure called transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunting (TIPS, see below).

      Bleeding from varices. If large varices develop in the esophagus or upper stomach, patients with cirrhosis are at risk for serious bleeding due to rupture of these varices. Once varices have bled, they tend to rebleed and the probability that a patient will die from each bleeding episode is high (30%-35%). Therefore, treatment is necessary to prevent the first (initial) bleeding episode as well as rebleeding. Treatments include medications and procedures to decrease the pressure in the portal vein and procedures to destroy the varices.

      Propranolol (Inderal), a beta blocker, is effective in lowering pressure in the portal vein and is used to prevent initial bleeding and rebleeding from varices in patients with cirrhosis. Another class of oral medications that lowers portal pressure is the nitrates, for example, isosorbide dinitrate ( Isordil). Nitrates often are added to propranolol if propranolol alone does not adequately lower portal pressure or prevent bleeding.
      Octreotide (Sandostatin) also decreases portal vein pressure and has been used to treat variceal bleeding.
      During upper endoscopy (EGD), either sclerotherapy or band ligation can be performed to obliterate varices and stop active bleeding and prevent rebleeding. Sclerotherapy involves infusing small doses of sclerosing solutions into the varices. The sclerosing solutions cause inflammation and then scarring of the varices, obliterating them in the process. Band ligation involves applying rubber bands around the varices to obliterate them. (Band ligation of the varices is analogous to rubber banding of hemorrhoids.) Complications of sclerotherapy include esophageal ulcers, bleeding from the esophageal ulcers, esophageal perforation, esophageal stricture (narrowing due to scarring that can cause dysphagia), mediastinitis (inflammation in the chest that can cause chest pain), pericarditis (inflammation around the heart that can cause chest pain), and peritonitis (infection in the abdominal cavity). Studies have shown that band ligation may be slightly more effective with fewer complications than sclerotherapy.
      Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a non-surgical procedure to decrease the pressure in the portal vein. TIPS is performed by a radiologist who inserts a stent (tube) through a neck vein, down the inferior vena cava and into the hepatic vein within the liver. The stent then is placed so that one end is in the high pressure portal vein and the other end is in the low pressure hepatic vein. This tube shunts blood around the liver and by so doing lowers the pressure in the portal vein and varices and prevents bleeding from the varices. TIPS is particularly useful in patients who fail to respond to beta blockers, variceal sclerotherapy, or banding. (TIPS also is useful in treating patients with ascites that do not respond to salt and fluid restriction and diuretics.) TIPS can be used in patients with cirrhosis to prevent variceal bleeding while the patients are waiting for liver transplantation. The most common side effect of TIPS is hepatic encephalopathy. Another major problem with TIPS is the development of narrowing and occlusion of the stent, causing recurrence of portal hypertension and variceal bleeding and ascites. The estimated frequency of stent occlusion ranges from 30%-50% in 12 months. Fortunately, there are methods to open occluded stents. Other complications of TIPS include bleeding due to inadvertent puncture of the liver capsule or a bile duct, infection, heart failure, and liver failure.
      A surgical operation to create a shunt (passage) from the high-pressure portal vein to veins with lower pressure can lower blood flow and pressure in the portal vein and prevent varices from bleeding. One such surgical procedure is called distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS). It is appropriate to consider such a surgical shunt for patients with portal hypertension who have early cirrhosis. (The risks of major shunt surgery in these patients is less than in patients with advanced cirrhosis.) During DSRS, the surgeon detaches the splenic vein from the portal vein, and attaches it to the renal vein. Blood then is shunted from the spleen around the liver, lowering the pressure in the portal vein and varices and preventing bleeding from the varices.
      Hepatic encephalopathy. Patients with an abnormal sleep cycle, impaired thinking, odd behavior, or other signs of hepatic encephalopathy usually should be treated with a low protein diet and oral lactulose. Dietary protein is restricted because it is a source of the toxic compounds that cause hepatic encephalopathy. Lactulose, which is a liquid, traps the toxic compounds in the colon. Consequently, they cannot be absorbed into the blood stream and cause encephalopathy. To be sure that adequate lactulose is present in the colon at all times, the patient should adjust the dose to produce 2-3 semiformed bowel movements a day. (Lactulose is a laxative, and the adequacy of treatment can be judged by loosening or increasing frequency of stools.) If symptoms of encephalopathy persist, oral antibiotics such as neomycin or metronidazole (Flagyl), can be added to the treatment regimen. Antibiotics work by blocking the production of the toxic compounds by the bacteria in the colon.

      Hypersplenism. The filtration of blood by an enlarged spleen usually results in only mild reductions of red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leukopenia) and platelets (thrombocytopenia) that do not require treatment. Severe anemia, however, may require blood transfusions or treatment with erythropoietin or epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit), hormones that stimulate the production of red blood cells. If the numbers of white blood cells are severely reduced, another hormone called granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is available to increase the numbers of white blood cells. An example of one such factor is filgrastim (Neupogen).

      No approved medication is available yet to increase the number of platelets. As a necessary precaution, patients with low platelets should not use aspirin or other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) since these drugs can hinder the function of platelets. If a low number of platelets is associated with significant bleeding, transfusions of platelets usually should be given. Surgical removal of the spleen (called splenectomy) should be avoided, if possible, because of the risk of excessive bleeding during the operation and the risk of anesthesia in advanced liver disease.

      Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Patients suspected of having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis usually will undergo paracentesis. Fluid that is removed is examined for white blood cells and cultured for bacteria. Culturing involves inoculating a sample of the ascites into a bottle of nutrient-rich fluid that encourages the growth of bacteria, thus facilitating the identification of even small numbers of bacteria. Blood and urine samples often are obtained as well for culturing because many patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis also will have infection in their blood and urine. In fact, many doctors believe that infection may have begun in the blood and the urine and spread to the ascitic fluid to cause spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Most patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis are hospitalized and treated with intravenous antibiotics such as ampicillin, gentamycin, and one of the newer generation cephalosporin. Patients usually treated with antibiotics include:

      Patients with blood, urine, and/or ascites fluid cultures that contain bacteria.
      Patients without bacteria in their blood, urine, and ascitic fluid but who have elevated numbers of white blood cells (neutrophils) in the asciticfluid (>250 neutrophils/cc). Elevated neutrophil numbers in ascitic fluid often means that there is bacterial infection. Doctors believe that the lack of bacteria with culturing in some patients with increased neutrophils is due either to a very small number of bacteria or ineffective culturing techniques.
      Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a serious infection. It often occurs in patients with advanced cirrhosis whose immune systems are weak, but with modern antibiotics and early detection and treatment, the prognosis of recovering from an episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is good.

      In some patients oral antibiotics (such as Cipro or Septra) can be prescribed to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Not all patients with cirrhosis and ascites should be treated with antibiotics to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but some patients are at high risk for developing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and warrant preventive treatment:

      Patients with cirrhosis who are hospitalized for bleeding varices have a high risk of developing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and should be started on antibiotics early during the hospitalization to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
      Patients with recurring episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
      Patients with low protein levels in the ascitic fluid (Ascitic fluid with low levels of protein is more likely to become infected.)
      Prevention and early detection of liver cancer

      Several types of liver disease that cause cirrhosis are associated with a particularly high incidence of liver cancer, for example, hepatitis B and C, and it would be useful to screen for liver cancer since early surgical treatment or transplantation of the liver can cure the patient of cancer. The difficulty is that the methods available for screening are only partially effective, identifying at best only 50% of patients at a curable stage of their cancer. Despite the partial effectiveness of screening, most patients with cirrhosis, particularly hepatitis B and C, are screened yearly or every six months with ultrasound examination of the liver and measurements of cancer-produced proteins in the blood, e.g. alpha fetoprotein.

      Liver transplantation

      Cirrhosis is irreversible. Many patients’ liver function will gradually worsen despite treatment and complications of cirrhosis will increase and become difficult to treat. Therefore, when cirrhosis is far advanced, liver transplantation often is the only option for treatment. Recent advances in surgical transplantation and medications to prevent infection and rejection of the transplanted liver have greatly improved survival after transplantation. On average, more than 80% of patients who receive transplants are alive after five years. Not everyone with cirrhosis is a candidate for transplantation. Furthermore, there is a shortage of livers to transplant, and there usually is a long (months to years) wait before a liver for transplanting becomes available. Therefore, measures to retard the progression of liver disease and treat and prevent complications of cirrhosis are vitally important.

      What is new and in the future for cirrhosis?

      Progress in the management and prevention of cirrhosis continues. Research is ongoing to determine the mechanism of scar formation in the liver and how this process of scarring can be interrupted or even reversed. Newer and better treatments for viral liver disease are being developed to prevent the progression to cirrhosis. Prevention of viral hepatitis by vaccination, which is available for hepatitis B, is being developed for hepatitis C. Treatments for the complications of cirrhosis are being developed or revised and tested continually. Finally, research is being directed at identifying new proteins in the blood that can detect liver cancer early or predict which patients will develop liver cancer.

      Cirrhosis At A Glance
      Cirrhosis is a complication of liver disease which involves loss of liver cells and irreversible scarring of the liver.
      Alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C are common causes of cirrhosis, although there are many other causes.
      Cirrhosis can cause weakness, loss of appetite, easy bruising, yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and fatigue.
      Diagnosis of cirrhosis can be suggested by the history, physical examination and blood tests, and can be confirmed by liver biopsy.
      Complications of cirrhosis include edema and ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, bleeding from varices, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, hypersplenism, and liver cancer.
      Treatment of cirrhosis is designed to prevent further damage to the liver, treat complications of cirrhosis, and preventing or detecting liver cancer early.
      Transplantation of the liver is becoming an important option for treating patients with advanced cirrhosis.

  10. QUESTION:
    Which pain reliever is safe to use for minor aches with a chronic liver disease patient?

    • ANSWER:
      if possible use liniment such as omega pain reliever, salonpas and other externally applied so as not to cause irritation on your chronic liver desease.

  11. QUESTION:
    what is Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease?
    what are the criteria for Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease

    • ANSWER:
      Decompensated liver disease means that the medications and treatments used to treat the cirrhosis is no longer working very well and the liver is near total failure. When symptoms can no longer be controlled with drugs, then that means it is decompensated. It is the very last stage of cirrhosis. Chronic means it is an ongoing problem that does not go away.

  12. QUESTION:
    I have a chronic liver disease with unusual lab and biopsy findings.?
    Labs: Elevated AST and ALT. GGT is consistently above 500. AP, Bilirubin, PT, LDH are WNL. Hepatitis profile for B and C were wnl. (vaccinated against A in 2000). Sed Rate 40. All ANA tests normal. Cerulugen normal. CBC normal.

    CT shows multiple large cysts consistent with Poly cystic Liver disease without renal involvement. CT showed same density in spleen and liver.

    Biopsy showed occasional cellular edema with Mast Cells, Eosinophils, and some lymphocytes. No fibrosis. Mild patches of fat noted.

    No history of drug or alcohol consumption. Non-smoker.

    Maybe some medical student out there can figure this one out. Ask on of your professors. All the physicians I have seen have no idea other than say it may be combination of conditions.
    additional details:

    University based Hepatologist have already been consulted. They don’t know either

    • ANSWER:
      Figure out what? You have liver disease which has multiorgan impact. What is it that you don’t understand or want us to tell you? Bottom line, liver disease is a complex disease, so just work with you doctors on this. Except for entertainment it’s not a discussion appropriate to YA. Hopefully you have a liver specialist on your team and not just a primary care MD. Good luck.

  13. QUESTION:
    Endoscopy for Chronic Liver Disease?
    My Grandma is a CLD (chronic liver disease) patient. She has been diagnosed with it since 3 months. She is also diabetic, around 85 years old.

    Doctor is recommending Endoscopy for her.

    My questions are:

    1) When is Endoscopy necessary for CLD patients?
    2) Keeping in mind her old age and weakness, should I go for her endoscopy? (I am afraid due to her old age).

    • ANSWER:
      I had liver failure and had a transplant. My doctors wanted me to get an endoscopy done every 3-6 months to help lower the risk of me bleeding internally. Unwanted veins called varix can grow inside with liver disease. They are not like the veins we are born with since they can be weak, leak and even burst. Should they be quite large, a person can actually bleed to death in a short time.

      When they do an endoscopy, they can check for these varices. When they see one that could be a problem, they will tie what looks like a little rubber band around it which cuts off its blood supply. Within a few days, the varix will die and fall off taking away the risk of it ever bleeding. The procedure for doing this is called banding. For the most part, endoscopes are quite safe and are low risk for anything to happen, but I certainly understand you questioning how necessary this is at her age. I think a lot would depend on how advanced her liver disease is right now and how much of a risk she has for internal bleeding based on the stage of her disease. Only her doctor is going to be able to answer that.

      They put the patient out with the “twilight” sleep which is not deep anesthesia. There is really no pain or real stress involved in this procedure. They do everything after they put you out. I used to get mine done as an outpatient which took about 2-3 hours total. The actual procedure depending on the banding only takes about 15 minutes or so. I often went shopping after wards even though they suggest you take it easy for the day.

  14. QUESTION:
    Chances of chronic liver disease.?
    my pop has chronic liver disease and has been in hospital on life support in a coma. he is bleeding internally .what are the chances of him beating this? please help.

    • ANSWER:
      Jake, I’m sorry about your Dad. Is there a reason you can’t ask his doctor this question? Sometimes they will be very honest with you, if they know you are ready to hear the truth. Nurses and staff caring for someone on life support also know more than they can say, but sometimes you can engage a nurse in conversation and she will hint at it. This is difficult for the family, especially for the one responsible for the decision to pull the plug. I’ve had to make it with family members, and quite frankly, it sucks. Everyone should have a living will. Here’s one thing to think on until you learn more from the doctor. If his EEG shows brain activity, and the internal bleeding stops, he has a chance. How big a chance, I can’t say, but a chance. If EEG shows no activity, it’s time already.

  15. QUESTION:
    Continued driniking even after Chronic Liver disease.?
    Hi, My father-in-law has been drinking day and night for past one year and has been hospitalized twice since then for Chronic liver disease , this August he was diagnosed to have Chronic liver disease with heptic encephalopathy and was hospitalized for almost 20 days. Doctors strictly asked him to quit drinking , but he resumed regular drinking within a months time. He is also taking his medications along with his drinking problem. How harmful is drinking for him at the moment when his liver is still damaged. Is there any amount of alcohol that is OK for him to take? Is there any side affects of being on liver medications and yet taking alcohol? Please advice what can be done to help him quit drinking and regain his damaged liver.

    • ANSWER:

  16. QUESTION:
    what is the best diet for chronic liver disease?

    • ANSWER:

  17. QUESTION:
    What are the risks to an unborn child if I have chronic liver disease?
    I have had liver disease for a little over nine months. I am now 22 and first got ill when I was 21. The doctors don’t know what caused it (though they keep trying to imply that it was drug use or drink which I am happy to say have never done drugs and did not drink excessively)

    They are telling me that its probably chronic liver disease and I need to know what the risks are if I were to potentially get pregnant.

    If anyone has any experience or information that would be gratefully received.

    Thank you very much
    x!

    • ANSWER:
      Since your doctor knows your history and has possibly performed a physical, can run this past him/her for the absolute right answer for you. I suspect the pregnancy would be very hard on your liver, and all around harder on you than the growing fetus. Doc can also tell you to what degree the liver is functioning, if there are toxins that could harm a fetus, etc.

  18. QUESTION:
    What are some things that are harmful to your liver?
    I’m doing a project on the liver (organ) and I need to know about 2 other things that you can do to harm it. For example, The abuse of alcohol shuts down your liver, causing a chronic liver disease called cirrhosis (which is caused by alcoholism, hepatitis b, hepatitis c and fatty liver disease).

    What are 2 other things you can to do harm your liver and what can that lead to?

    • ANSWER:
      There are a number of causes of a liver problem
      that can lead to cirrhosis of the liver:

      Alcohol consumption: some people are
      more sensitive to alcohol than others are.
      When the liver cannot handle the amount
      of alcohol taken into the body, then it
      stays in the blood and goes into the
      brain and causes a reaction there.
      The liver converts all toxic substances
      to a non toxic form so the body can
      dispose of them…however, this may not
      happen if the patient consumes too much
      alcohol and the liver cannot convert it
      fast enough…the alcohol itself, and its
      by product, can produce damage to the
      liver cells.

      Medication toxifications: it has been shown that acetaminophen taken with alcohol can cause permanent liver cell damage almost immediately. There are a lot of drugs on the market, including over the counter, herbs, and even prescription drugs that are very hard on the liver. Most all medications go through the liver first, to be broken down, before going to the rest of the body.
      Liver patients are told to only takes drugs
      prescribed by their doctors…if the liver
      cells become damaged…then this medication has to be adjusted according
      to how much damage there is.

      Chemical exposure: such as Carbon
      Tetrachloride..

      Mushroom poisoning: some people try to pick their own mushrooms…not knowing that some are very dangerous. This
      also can cause immediate damage to
      the cells of the liver and a very early death.

      Autoimmune disease: this is where the body’s immune system, turns on itself and causes destruction of its own cells. This can be a disease like Biliary cirrhosis or Sclerosing Cholangitis. In Sclerosing
      cholangitis…the bile ducts that the bile
      flows through from the liver to the
      gallbladder to be stored or to the intestines,
      become twisted or malformed.

      Hereditary Conditions: like Hemochromatosis where the body tend to retain iron too much. Or a disease where it retains copper.

      Gallbladder stones development where the
      stones move out of the gallbladder and into the biliary ducts and blocks them causing the bile to back up into the liver and harming the cells.

      Virus infections such as Hepatitis A,B,C,etc.

      Fatty liver disease which is caused by alcohol or non alcoholic reasons like hereditary conditions, weight, or metabolism problems.

      (There is even having a traffic accident where the liver may be lacerated or injured.
      Being gun shot or even stabbed with a knife.
      Sometimes sports accidents can also
      damage the liver.)

      Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver cells caused by any of those things I mentioned above. Any damage to the liver cells can cause the immune system of the body to respond to it and cause this inflammation.

      A liver is usually very smooth and soft…anyone that has cooked liver knows what it looks like. When inflammation develops, then it enlarges in size and takes on a spongy appearance. This inflammation cause more pressure inside the liver cause the liver is surrounded by a capsule membrane.

      If the inflammation is treated and the cause can be removed (as you can see, some cannot be removed)..then the liver cells
      may heal, if it is not done then it will progress to death of the liver cells and scar tissue forming inside the liver. This scar tissue blocks the flow of blood through the liver and also to the liver cells and even more
      cells will die off…it is a progressive disease that the doctors can only try to slow down, Known as cirrhosis then. Cirrhosis is the death of the liver cells that lead to fibrosis and scar tissue formation.
      When cirrhosis takes place, the liver will start to shrink in size and become hard in texture.

      I hope this information has been of some
      help to you.
      Here are a couple links to explain more about this disease and causes:

      http://www.medicinenet.com/cirrhosis/article.htm

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cirrhosis/DS00373

  19. QUESTION:
    Progressive Chronic Liver Disease?
    is it true that Chronic Hepatitis B and C untreated over few years, has 80% Chance of developing Hepatocellular Carcinoma of the Liver?
    You see, my father passed away at the age of 59 from Hepatocellular carcinoma. as investigated by his previous Liver Specialist, that he was given a treatment medication to control his Hepatitis B and told it will get worse if it stopped. but my fathers regular physcian told him he don’t need to take it if his liver is healthy so my father stopped his treatment after three years of use. After two years of living without Hepatitis treatment, my dad got sick. after many blood or X-ray scans, they have diagnosed him with Chronic Hepatitis B and a stage four of Hepatic Cellular Carcinoma. Since stage four is difficult to treat. it spreaded to his lungs and killed him after being in the hospital for two weeks. after that i wanted to know if it is possible if there are people who got diagnosed with this type of cancer after living without treatment for Hepatitis B.

    • ANSWER:
      My guess is that it is not true because that is quite high to say the least. I know quite a number of people who have hep C and none of them have cancer. I know the risk is higher for anyone having a liver disease, but never heard any statistics even close to this figure.

  20. QUESTION:
    fatty liver or chronic liver? is it the same?
    I am a 29 yrs. old female. I drink only occasionally (of course there are times when I gotten drunk when I hang out) I don’t do drugs or smoke. I had a gastric bypass last year and lost a lot of weight. On february this year I was complaining of abdominal pain and they did a sonogram, a HIDDA scan (to check if it was my gallbladder) but everything was ok. After that they did an abdominal CT scan to check. In the CT scan everything was ok but it said:

    ” the liver is somewhat heterogeneous in attenuation without discrete biliary tree dilatation or masses. There is subobtimal examination due to lack of IV contrast. The underlying coarse atrenuation may be related to fatty changes ”

    and in the area of impression it said:

    1. CT of the abdomen without contrast demostrates attenuation and coarse underlying hepatic parechyma which may correspond to chronic hepatic disease.

    When I read this I was scared as hell thinking I might have something irreversible on my liver so I went to my internist so he could interprete the results. He send me a liver profile and everything was fine and he also send me a coagulation lab test and everything fine. He told me that he was sure it was fatty liver and with diet modification everything was going to be normal in no time. After visiting my doctor I was relieved but I still can’t stop thinking why did they write on my CT chronic liver disease if its just fatty liver? My internist told me fatty liver is a liver disease but its reversible. What do you think?

    • ANSWER:
      Fatty liver disease is caused by:
      weight gain, obesity, fast weight loss, malnourishment,
      diabetes, insulin resistance, high cholesterol/triglyceride
      levels, and others.

      Simple Fatty liver doesn’t usually cause a problem in
      the liver. Diet or changes to medications can reverse
      the problem. (It would be best not to drink any
      alcohol and not to take any medications that are
      not approved of or prescribed by your doctor now)
      However, if the fat continues to build
      up inside the liver, it can lead to damage to the liver
      cells. The liver is surrounded by a tight membrane
      capsule. When the liver cells become damaged,
      the immune system of the body can respond to this
      damage and cause inflammation to also develop
      inside the liver. This is then known as
      Steatohepatitis. Steato stands for fat, hepat stands
      for liver, and itis stands for inflammation.
      This is, then, much more serious as the inflammation
      can lead to death of the liver cells and scar tissue
      formation inside the liver that will block the flow of
      blood.
      Apparently, the one that looked at your
      scan could not determine the cause of the problem
      or wasn’t sure how far advance this would go later
      on without treatment being done…only your doctor
      could do that. He said it “may” correspond to
      Chronic (ongoing) hepatic disease.

      Your doctor feels that this can be reversed, since
      he knows your medical background. It would be
      best to follow any advice he gives you. Don’t
      be afraid to ask him any questions about this.
      If he deems it necessary, he may refer you to a
      gastroenterologist.

      Best wishes…Hope this information has been of
      some help.

      Here are a few links, you can click on, to read
      more about this disease:

      http://www.aafp.org/afp/20060601/1961.html

      http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/fatty-liver.html

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_liver

      http://www.gastro.com/Gastro/liverdisease/fatty_liver.aspx

      http://www.medicinenet.com/fatty_liver/article.htm

  21. QUESTION:
    What is the sequence of stages that brings about advanced liver disease caused by chronic alcohol toxicity?
    a. Fat accumulation, fibrosis, cirrhosis

    b. Fibrosis, gout, cirrhosis

    c. Fibrosis, cirrhosis, fat depletion

    d. Cirrhosis, fat accumulation, fibrosis

    • ANSWER:
      Your answer is A.
      Overdosing on alcohol can cause fat
      accumulation inside the liver. This can
      damage the cells of the liver. When
      this happens, the immune system responds
      to this and cause inflammation to develop
      in the liver. This put more pressure on the
      cells and the cells can start to die, forming
      first fibrosis and then this advances to
      cirrhosis of the liver which is death of the
      liver cells and forming of scar tissue inside
      the liver that blocks the flow of blood
      through and to the liver cells…it is a progressive
      disease with no known cure.

  22. QUESTION:
    diuretics drug in chronic liver disease?

    • ANSWER:
      If you mean how diuretics are useful in chronic liver diseases, the answer would be: to treat ascites (the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity) which could rise as a complication of portal hypertension (increase in the pressure within the branches of the portal vein that run through liver) which is common in chronic liver diseases.

  23. QUESTION:
    about chronic liver disease-my hisband’s weight is 63kg SGOT-423,SGPT-460,NAT-138,K+-4.3?

    • ANSWER:
      There are blood tests that the doctor does to
      check the liver:
      (1)The liver enzymes which will give the doctor
      an idea if the cells of the liver have become
      damaged. (SGOT,SGPT[also known as ALT,
      AST], GGT and Alkaline phosphatase.
      (2)The liver function tests which will give the
      doctor an idea if the liver cells are able to do
      the functions they once did to keep the body
      healthy (Bilirubin, INR, Albumin)
      (3) The viral testing to see if a virus has entered
      the body and gone into the liver and is causing
      problems like Hepatitis A,B,C.

      Your husbands liver enzymes are high.
      The NA is sodium and it is fine. The K is
      potassium and it is also fine.

      There are many things that can cause a problem
      in the liver:
      (1) alcohol consumption (2) medication
      toxification (3) chemical exposure
      (4) hereditary conditions where the body holds
      onto excess amounts of iron or copper
      (5) fatty liver disease caused by any of these: alcohol, weight, diabetes, metabolic problems
      (6) biliary obstruction, malformations, twisting of
      or stricture of (7) viral infections such as Hepatitis A,B,C, etc (8) A deficiency in a enzyme being made by the liver. (9) Cardiac problems (10) Auto immune disease (11) glycogen
      storage disease ….and there are others.

      The doctor has to first find out what the cause
      is before he can be treated. Please remember
      that blood testing is not 100% accurate…the
      doctor may do more to be sure of the results.
      He may do an exam by placing his hand
      on the upper right hand quadrant of the abdomen
      ..just under the rib cage…to see if the liver
      is enlarged. If the liver is enlarged…it means
      that there is inflammation inside the liver because
      the immune system of the body has responded
      to the damage to the liver cells. He may then
      have an ultrasound done to look at the liver
      and see if the blood is flowing well through the
      liver, if it has any nodules or growths and how
      enlarged it is.

      If the cause of the inflammation is removed
      and it is treated, the liver cells can heal.
      However, if it can’t…it can lead to Cirrhosis of
      the liver.

      Your husband should be referred to a
      gastroenterologist or hepatologist if this is
      a true liver problem. The sooner he is
      treated…the more chance of the problem in
      the liver can be reversed.

      Some of the liver enzymes are made in other
      organs, also…therefore you need the results
      of the other blood tests I mentioned to be
      sure it is a problem in the liver/biliary area.

      I hope this information is of some help to you.

  24. QUESTION:
    The VA claims I need a liver from drinking too much, but I don’t believe them. Why do they lie so?
    They say I have cirrohis, hep b, hep c, chronic liver disease, and are threatening to keep my new liver unless I capitulate to thier unreasonable demands. Beer is a part of me. I can’t imagine the NFL without beer. They don’t care. THEY ARE THREATENING TO KEEP MY NEW LIVER! Besides, the jail doctor said my liver is fine.

    • ANSWER:
      Let’s tear this apart. The VA would not withhold treatment even if you are stupid enough to go against all recommendations so that must be lie number 1. The jail doctor said your liver is fine – that must mean you are in jail so you cannot be drinking beer. That’s lie number 2. Threatening to keep your new liver – organs can’t be ordered or placed on hold, an organ donation comes from someone who had died who also is a close match to you and is somewhat rare so that must be lie number 3. If you have cirrohis, hepititis B and C plus chronic liver disease (and how is that different than hepititis) then you are dead or much too sick to use a computer so that must be lie number 4. As far as not having the NFL without beer – granted that being plastered makes the game look better if certain teams are playing but it is possible to watch without drinking – yup lie number 5. Do us all a favor and wipe your hard drive.

  25. QUESTION:
    Anyone KNOW about preg/chronic liver disease?Trusted Dr says your good canidate to terminate.3kids need mom .?

    • ANSWER:

      http://www.naspgn.org/sub/Chronic_liver_disease.htm

  26. QUESTION:
    any chronic painers; liver disease people out there.?
    sister has liver disease dont know what one yet, prob chirosis (spelled wrong). anyhow she has fibermyalgia and takes percocet,oxycontin for the pain. doctor wants her off the meds now ; she drank for years but quit a year ago so . anyone has liver disease and pain, what kind of meds do you take for pain? all testing being done right now, im just trying to ease her fear cause she has alot of pain. only if you are in this situation or know someone please answer. thanks

    • ANSWER:

  27. QUESTION:
    What is chronic parenchymal liver disease?
    My fater aged 65 yrs effected with Pnemonia & hospitalised. Now report shows that he is having CPLD. In the report it is also mentioned that “Liver is coarse echo texture with multiple tiny scatted hypoecholic nodular involving both the lobes of liver” what does this mean. He is also a diabetic patent. While he was hospitalised his blood sugar increased and after giving insulin & other medicines & diet now it is normal. He never have alchohol nor smoke. he is vegitarian. Doctor says that cold lead to Pnemonia. what is the treatment. what is the diet. whether cureable or what precautions to be taken?? Please help.

    • ANSWER:

  28. QUESTION:
    Liver disease with chronic alcohol abuse help?
    Heey :) Im 20 and my mam is a veryy bad alcoholic, she has been drinking litterally everyday for the pst 2 years…brandy and vodka. she is violently ill and is vomitting everyday. she is soo addicted to drink, she just sits in bed all day drinking her brndy until she vomits. She was admitted to a rehab clinic loads of times but keeps checking herself out again, she now has jaundice and cirrosis of the liver. i want to know how long do you think she has left? And cn her liver disease be cured? Honest answers please, and non judgemental! Thanks A Mill (:

    • ANSWER:

  29. QUESTION:
    Prevalence of cirrhosis/liver disease in Japan?
    Does anyone know the prevalence of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in Japan? I can’t seem to find it anywhere. If you have an internet source confirming it, that would be great. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      I found this article about cirrhosis in Japan… (the web url got cut off…it’s one website, so you have to connect the two parts!)

      http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/ cgi/content/abstract/20/4/921

      I hope it helped?!

  30. QUESTION:
    I’m 29 w/ chronic kidney disease for 4yrs, tylenol induced liver disease 3yrs. Wil I get kidney failure?
    I recently had another kidney infection and I was wondering if I take care of myself if I will get kidney failure eventually. My infection was about 3 weeks ago and my urologist think I still may have it. If you have any exp on this please let me know. I’m a single mother of 3 children and have been very weak, tired and have lost over 50 pounds in 11 months. My last urine tests are below perhaps if you know anything about them as well.. it’d be helpful. I was also peeing blood clots brown and stringy (yucky I know). But I go next week to get an ultrasound and ct scan on my kidneys. How likely is it that I die from kidney or liver disease?

    spec gravity 1.005
    ph 8
    leukocytes 1+
    nitrates neg
    protein trace
    glucose neg
    ketones neg
    urobillnogin neg
    billirubin 1+
    blood trace

    assement 599.0

    Thanks for your help any information would be greatly appreciated.
    I recently had another kidney infection and I was wondering if I take care of myself if I will get kidney failure eventually. My infection was about 3 weeks ago and my urologist think I still may have it. If you have any exp on this please let me know. I’m a single mother of 3 children and have been very weak, tired and have lost over 50 pounds in 11 months. My last urine tests are below perhaps if you know anything about them as well.. it’d be helpful. I was also peeing blood clots brown and stringy (yucky I know). But I go next week to get an ultrasound and ct scan on my kidneys. How likely is it that I die from kidney or liver disease?

    spec gravity 1.005
    ph 8
    leukocytes 1+
    nitrates neg
    protein trace
    glucose neg
    ketones neg
    urobillnogin neg
    billirubin 1+
    blood trace

    assement 599.0

    Thanks for your help any information would be greatly appreciated.

    Okay I have had kidney disease for 4 years it was diagnosed 5/?/04. I had a kidney infection but have the disease.

    • ANSWER:
      When you said you had “chronic kidney disease for 4yrs”, do you mean recurrent kidney infections? Or something else — like being told by your doctor that you have proteins in your urine, or that your kidneys are not functioning at 100%?

      Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is actually a medical entity with a very specific set of definitions: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_ckd/p4_class_g1.htm
      On the other hand, people can have recurrent urinary infections without ANY kidney disease — their infections stay in the bladder, and never involve the kidneys themselves.

      To know whether your infections have actually done damage to the kidneys, you need blood tests (such as “creatinine” and “blood urea nitrogen”) in addition to urine tests. For example, kidney failure (medically known as End-Stage Renal Disease) usually does not occur until the creatinine goes above 4 or 5 (normal being around 1). It will be very helpful if you have your blood test results.

      Finally, your urine test is consistent with a urinary tract infection, but it does not tell us whether the infection is only in the bladder, or in the kidney(s) as well.

      The ultrasound and CT scan will look at the sizes of your kidneys (kidneys damaged by severe CKD tend to be smaller), but also see if the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder (ureters) are stretched by stagnant urine flow.

      I’m sure you will have more questions after the scans are done. Feel free to ask more questions then.

      Good luck.

  31. QUESTION:
    What does it mean when I have a sharp pain in my right ribcage?
    The reason I ask is because I have a chronic liver disease. Where is the liver located?

    • ANSWER:
      Based on your description and that you say you have chronic liver disease, it is most likely your liver that may be causing you pain. If the pain is very sharp and does not go away, then I would strongly suggest you see your doctor about it sooner than later! It may be a lot of things, but it’s better not to chance it when it could be from such an important body organ!

      Here is a picture to look at where the liver is in reference (generally) to your ribcage (it’s the one colored in purple):

      http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/832/20113049.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.dkimages.com/discover/Home/Health-and-Beauty/Human-Body/Respiratory-System/Lungs/Lungs-91.html&h=768&w=572&sz=87&hl=en&start=1&um=1&usg=__ANu6mJxF2OpRMBtzsF_Dx1YUQ9g=&tbnid=w2kzstyDJ8EKiM:&tbnh=142&tbnw=106&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dliver%2Bribcage%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DG

      I hope this helps and that you feel better soon!

  32. QUESTION:
    Liver Transplantation?
    1. My mother is a patient of chronic liver disease. I want to clarify following questions for my further information / dicision:-

    (a) Sir please would you apprise us that is there any age specified for liver transplantation?

    (b) Is it possible to trasplant a liver of 64 year old lady?

    (c) What are the expenses of liver transplantation?

    2. I would be highly appriciated for the earliest response in this regard.

    Best Wishes

    Abid Aziz

    • ANSWER:
      I am in the USA…so my answers can only
      reflect it here.
      In the USA, they have transplanted liver organs
      to the age of 65.
      Transplantation is very expensive. The patient
      will not receive a transplant unless they have
      the financial means to pay for it. This means insurance or asking for help with a social worker.
      of the transplant team, to learn how to obtain the funds for it through contacting organization that will contribute to it, etc.
      On average, you may be looking at about
      0,000 or more.

      I am posting links, you can click on, so that you can learn more about the transplant process and also learn more about the financial help and what may be required:
      Organ Procurement and Transplant Network…

      http://www.optn.org

      This is a Patients guide to liver transplantation
      from one of the transplant centers in the USA..
      very good info:

      http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/hep/patientguide/index.html

      This is Transplant Living where there is
      info on all transplants and also on organ
      donations from live donors:

      http://www.transplantliving.org/

      This is the United Network of Organ Sharing
      where they decide what transplant center
      will receive an organ once it becomes available:

      http://www.unos.org/

      It is best to contact the “Transplant Center where
      you live and talk to them. Other countries
      don’t always follow the same rules and also
      are sometimes cheaper than the surgeries
      in the USA.

      I hope this has been of some help to you.

  33. QUESTION:
    my father is not well for past 7months….some liver problem:plz tell what these reports says……< his current reports are:
    GGT 311
    SAP 164
    SGOT 51
    SGPT 66
    ISB .50
    DSS .20
    TSB .70
    PLATELETE COUNT:177000

    diagnosis::autoimmune chronic liver disease with acute HEV
    Abdominal koch's
    PCR for koch's :positive

    now can any one help me writing in detail abt wt these reports say.......what is the position of liver???
    is something very serious??
    how it cud be cured??
    is it fully cureable<>???

    • ANSWER:
      Beings that you don’t have any units with your numbers I can’t for sure say what they mean but here are the normals for a male and what an abnormal value COULD mean (some of them were not listed in my lab book):

      Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT)
      -liver enzyme sensitive to biliary and liver disorders, including alcoholic liver disease. Normal value 9-50 International Units/Liter (IU/L) I can’t tell if this is high since you didn’t add the units his lab values were measured in.

      -Platelet Count: Normal 150,000-450,000 cubic millimeters (mm3) (his is normal)

      As for his diagnosis Autoimmune Chronic Liver Disease: Basically, chronic means it is long term. Liver Disease is very vague. There are many different types. Find out what type he has and google it.

      HEV is Hepatitis E Virus which is an infection spread through the feces (stool) of an infected person. It is acute, meaning it will last less than 6 months.

      I will give you a website where you can go and find information. Also just googling in “Chronic Liver Disease” or “HEV” should turn up with quite a few websites.

      I do not know what Abdominal Kochs is.

      As for the position of the liver: if you divide your stomach into four quadrants with the belly button being the very center, your liver is in the right, upper quadrant. It is a very vascular organ, filtering your blood at 1500 mL per minute. (L. White, 2000) Your liver also secretes bile which breaks down the fat you eat. Among many other things, it produces prothrombin and and fibrinogen, which are necessary for blood clotting. Poisonous toxins (e.g. alcohol) are detoxified in the liver.

      I hope I helped a little bit. There is quite a lot of information in your question. What did the doctor tell your dad? That is probably the best info you’re gonna get. I’m sorry to hear about your father, I hope he is doing well.

      you can go to http://www.webmd.com and just search for his diagnoses in the search box.

      or just go to http://www.google.com and type in either one of his diagnoses.

  34. QUESTION:
    My boyfriend has liver disease caused by Hep C & chronic alcoholism – What can I expect? (symptoms, etc)?
    He was told about 3 years ago that he had hep C, chirrosis and he is a chronic alcoholic. Dr told him to quit or he would die. He has tried and failed several times ( I know he’s not trying hard enough…. ) . I just want to know what to expect. He is tired all the time, has headaches, and is depressed – Is this part of it? Also I have heard that mood swings are common to this, is that true? I posted a similar question earlier but felt I needed to clarify…. I appriciate any info I can get! Thanks!
    I appriciate the replies but I am looking for real answers not opinions on the relationship….. we have been together for many years, it’s not something simple to walk away from…..

    • ANSWER:
      Hepatitis C is the inflammation of the liver cells
      caused by a virus. Cirrhosis is death of the
      liver cells. His disease can be brought on by
      the Hep C or his drinking problem. Trying to
      quit drinking on his own is extremely difficult.
      He needs to go into a detox program at a
      hospital in order to do this. The symptoms
      he has from trying to stop drinking may be
      too much to handle…they can give him drugs
      to lessen these symptoms and help him get
      through it much better. The symptoms that you
      stated are normal. You have to realize that
      he is now facing death straight on and he has
      to make decisions on what he can do now.
      Depression is normal now, because of having
      to live with all these hurdles to go over to
      save his life. Waking up everyday knowing
      that you may die is very hard.
      Liver patients are usually in shock when they
      first hear they have a terrible disease like this.
      The first reaction is unbelief…then it moves
      where they try to do something to help
      themselves, if it is possible…it leads from
      there to either coming to terms with the
      disease and trying to fight it or just giving up.
      They need alot of support and understanding
      at this time. They get mad and they feel
      helpless and they feel like someone cheated
      them or played a dirty trick on them or they
      feel like saying “why me”. Others people drink and they don’t have this. Cirrhosis can be caused by many different things.

      Your boyfriend doesn’t have a rosey future and
      he knows that. He also knows that if he wants
      to spend time with the people he loves he has
      to do it now. I’m going to explain a few things
      to you. Once there is death of the liver
      cells it forms scar tissue in the liver…this blocks
      the other normal healthy cells from receiving
      nourishment and oxygen and causes them to
      die also. This is a progressing disease and
      the only real option he has now, if he has
      cirrhosis, is being evaluated and placed on the
      transplant list for an organ. But, first he has
      to overcome his addiction of alcohol which
      he needs to get care in order to do. A
      person has to be free of alcohol for at least
      six months before he can be placed on the
      list for transplantation.

      There are symptoms that may start to develop
      with this disease that he may or may not
      show signs of. Some of them are listed in
      this short article.

      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003895.htm

      If he wants to stay with his loved ones longer,
      than he needs to stop drinking now. He is
      causing his liver much more damage faster
      and it will lead to a much much earlier death.

      Having others around him who truly care about
      him, will make whatever course he decides on
      alot easier on him. You cannot make decisions
      for him, but you can be there to support him
      with all he does. Best Wishes

  35. QUESTION:
    Anyone else have enexplained liver pain?
    I have chronic liver pain that i have had for 2+years. I have had tons of ultrasounds that show nothing to be concerned with, and have slightly elevated liver enzymes. they have done MRI and cat scans, and still no answers to why i would be having PAIN. the only diagnoses they can give me is that i have “fatty liver disease” which is normally something someone would get if they were morbidly obese, or an alcoholic. Neither of which i am, not even close. I had my gallbladder removed 3 years ago, but i still feel like i am having gallbladder attacks, thats what the pain feels like: sharp, crampy, like someone is squeezing my organs and stabbing them. Its horrible and the pain can last anywhere from 20 min.-2 hours. Anyone know of anything that could cause this?

    • ANSWER:
      The liver itself doesn’t have nerves so most doctors don’t believe patients that complain of “liver pain.” However, my wife got Hep C from a blood transfusion at birth. Before she was diagnosed, she would complain of “liver pain”, not a severe as your description, but similar.
      You can only get Hep C from blood to blood contact. Maybe bring it up to a doctor next time. I don’t know if this is an answer to your question, but it’s good information at least.

  36. QUESTION:
    how can one die of chronic ethanol abuse and no damages to liver or other functions that ethanol would destroy?
    Just wondering someone close to me passed and on the death cet. it said that they died from chronic ethanol abuse, toxic effects of opiates and hypertensive cardiovascular disease. I just don’t get that ruling and the autopsy report says nothing about liver damges or nothing . Is it because the numbers were how with the ethanol.. or maybe he just died of high blood pressure…

    • ANSWER:
      It’s also possible that the liver damage, while indicative, was not so extensive as to be listed as a cause of death. Basically, this person slowly poisoned themselves on alcohol and pain killers.

  37. QUESTION:
    Wisdom Teeth Extraction with those with Liver Disease — Any way to reduce risk of death and complications?
    I have already made a post, a while back, in regards to having oral surgery to remove damaged wisdom teeth, but that I was concerned about the pain medications used afterwards (considering I have liver disease ). I would like to know now, after hearing about more potential risks involved with dental surgery on those with chronic diseases and health problems, including the recent death of a young girl from improperly delivered anesthesia, what there is exactly that could be done to reduce the risks involved with oral surgery and anesthesia administration. And if there is not much that can be done to reduce the risk, is there any way to perhaps not have anesthesia during oral surgery. Constructive, but honest opinions would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.
    I would appreciate any professional advice, as well as laymen’s advice.

    • ANSWER:
      Emma,
      there are many problems associated with treating your case outside a hospital or atleast an oral surgery department within a hospital. If you are actively treated by a physician the oral surgery department or surgeon must be in consult to go over your current disease stauts, medications, lab values, and other contraindications to medications, surgery, etc…If you haven’t seen your physician in several months, the oral surgeon will need key lab values like CBCw/diff, AST, ALT, platelet, Thrombin time, prothrombin time before any invasive procedures. The best thing is to talk to your oral surgeon and have them treat you in a hospital setting with full consult of your Gastroenterologist or Hepatologist. In this situation bleeding diatheses, infection spread, or unpredictable drug metabolism can be treated promptly.

      Good luck

  38. QUESTION:
    Would I qualify for medical marijuanna?
    I have colitis and I have a chronic liver disease. Marijuanna takes away the nasuea i get from taking pills for my liver disease. Also it helps my appetite. I live in Massachusetts by the way.
    By the way, there is a bill waiting to be passed for marijuanna to be decriminalized.
    what kinda doctor would I get the prescription from?

    • ANSWER:
      yea man, I know someone who had a hurt bone bruise in his arm and he got some, but that was in Cali and I know its stricter in other places. That sounds bad though, a lot worse than the bone bruise, so I would say you should be able to get some. Good luck, I hope that bill gets passed, I think we are on the way to decriminalization, and I cant wait.

  39. QUESTION:
    looking 4 a GP on the Gold Coast Australia, multiple problems, chronic pain – Diabetic,heart & liver, URGENTLY?
    looking 4 a GP on the Gold Coast Australia, multiple problems, chronic pain – Diabetic,heart & liver, URGENTLY?
    I am a 37 year old woman suffering from everything from a severely deranged liver & Kidney disease, 3 heart attacks, 2 T.I.A’s, Angina, CHRONIC PAIN for more than 8 years – requiring Morphine @ times daily & to top it off I’m a type 2 Insulin dependant Diabetic….PLEASE PLEASE GET IN TOUCH IF YOU KNOW OF A REALLY GOOD DR @ THE NORTHERN END OF THE GOLD COAST, I truly am desperate as my treating GP is retiring very soon, THANK YOU in advance, Yvette
    yvettebond2002@yahoo.com.au

    • ANSWER:
      Hey, I don’t live in Australia, but make sure you look into celiac disease. It is highly associated with diabetes and causes all kinds of health issues. There was a study I read recently where they found that almost 50% of people with diabetes have some adverse reaction to gluten and a good percentage of them have full blown celiac disease. Make sure to rule this out. It’s extremely common and wrecks havoc on your whole body. Many physicians don’t test for it unless you have digestive symptoms, but most patients don’t have digestive symptoms. definitely rule it out.

  40. QUESTION:
    Question about normal Liver Function Test results?
    Hi, my mum was an alcoholic years back, so she had to have a Liver Function Test.
    She got her results back today, and they were fine so she is relieved.

    Since her results came back fine, does that mean that there is no signs of liver diseases such as hepatitis B or C, either in the past, acute or chronic?

    Thanks :)
    I’m just a little bit concerned.

    • ANSWER:
      No Blood testing is 100% accurate. It is best to
      have more than one test to be sure.
      However, in liver disease, blood tests don’t always
      show a problem in some patients. They may have no
      signs or symptoms or even elevated blood enzyme
      levels to indicate a problem.

      The doctor do different blood tests to really be sure
      whether a patient is truly affected by liver damage.
      1) the liver enzymes, which show if there is possible
      liver cell damage.
      2) the liver function tests to see if the liver cells are
      able to do the necessary functions to keep the body
      well
      3) the liver viral tests to see if a virus has entered the
      body and is using the liver cells to replicate itself.

      With Hepatitis B and C, which is a viral infection, it
      sometimes takes up to 3 or 4 months before it will
      show up on the blood tests.

      To be sure she is doing fine, I recommend that in
      a few months, she has more blood testing done
      just to be sure.

      When the liver cells become damaged, the immune
      system of the body will respond to this damage and
      cause inflammation inside the liver. This will cause
      the liver to enlarge in size. (this can be seen on
      an ultrasound or ct scan).

      Considering her levels were normal this time…she
      may not have any problem.

  41. QUESTION:
    Explain the effects of the following on glomerular filtration?
    1 Chronic liver disease
    2 kidney stones
    3 high blood pressure
    4 low blood pressure

    • ANSWER:
      I’m not sure about chronic liver disease, but…

      2. kidney stones lower the glomerular filtration rate because the stone is in there blocking the tubing, if it gets bad enough it can shut down the nephron/kidney

      3. high blood pressure increases the GFR becaues there is more pressure on the blood… if this happens things like blood cells and protiens that shouldn’t be filtered can get into the filtrate

      4. low blood pressure decreases the GFR because there isn’t enough pressure on the blood and it just passes by without being filtered. This causes problems because the ‘waste’ stays in the blood

  42. QUESTION:
    Would overdosing on OTC pain killers, but not have to go to the ER from it cause liver damage / liver disease?
    I use to take alot of aspirin (more than the recommended amount) for a chronic pain which turned out to be gallbladder infection. Could this cause liver disease / damage? How would I be able to find out if I have liver damage / disease?

    • ANSWER:
      Aspirin is safe. Even in moderate overdosages.

      Tylenol (acetaminophen) is not safe, and it very easy to overdose and destroy your liver.

      A physician can talk with you about your concerns.

      A common sign of liver disease is jaundice, the whites of your eyes turn yellow.

  43. QUESTION:
    can someone be fired while taking medical treatment?
    emergency family medical leave absence is denied and employee gets fired. The employee is also under medical treatment that requires medical supervision and further tests with possible if not chronic disease (liver and lung)

    does the employee have any rights? can the person apply for workers compensation? will ssi give temporary disability?

    thank you

    • ANSWER:
      Depends on the State, for instance in TN you can get fired any day for any reason, the company doesn’t need to give a reason at all.

      Applying for SSI is easier said than done, because they will deny you the first time nearly a 100%. So then you have to run through all the red tape, which causes time and can cost you everything you worked for. Sorry but our “christian” nation is not very nice to it citizens once they need help.

  44. QUESTION:
    how long does one live after discovering chronic kidney failure?
    64 year old male. already has pancretitis, liver disease, gallballder trouble, and renal failure. has been treated medically to try and reverse kidney failure, and now does not wish to have dialysis, and has decided to stop treatments and wait to pass away. all conditions are caused by chronic alcholism. thanks for any input, personal experiences.

    • ANSWER:
      From a medical provider standpoint, you typically live as long as you feel like living, regardless of the disease.

  45. QUESTION:
    Going out on the ale ?
    Read this first ! Mortality rates for deaths related to alcohol consumption have been rising in England and Wales for many years with the number of alcohol-related deaths rising from just under 2,600 in 1980 to just over 5,500 in 2000. Of the total number of alcohol-related deaths in 2000, 85 per cent were due to chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, with 15 per cent due to other alcohol-related causes. Marked increases in death rates have been observed since the early 1980s. Between 1980 and 2000 the death rate from alcohol-related diseases among males more than doubled from 6 to 13 deaths per 100,000 population.
    IT”S YOUR ROUND !!

    • ANSWER:
      eggs grandmothers and sucking comes to mind.. i dont do alcohol… i have a beer occasionally, but my last was in november, at my birthday…

      it is the work of the devil…. and its nothoing new, swift wrote vociferously about the abuses of gin street and beer lane, drunk for a penny, dead drunk for tuppence…

      and anyway, i dont like what alcohol does to me, im a mean nasty drunk… so i stopped drinking around 1986…

  46. QUESTION:
    hi! do you know any Hepatologist in Southern California?
    A close someone had chronic liver disease, and he doesn’t have a health insurance yet. it’s hard for me to buy one for him b/c most health insurance wouldn’t let him since he’s currently sick. I want him to be cured as soon as possible while it’s young. I’ll be paying out of the pocket. But i don’t know where to start consult. By the way, he still has no symptoms yet but his labs are already abnormal.

    • ANSWER:
      no good asking on yahoo uk and ireland is it! try US.

  47. QUESTION:
    Just found out I have a chronic disease?
    I just found out yesterday I have hepatitis (not a, b, or c, just inflammation of the liver) and I haven’t been fully diagnosed, but whatever happens it will be serious. It is most likely nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    I don’t know what to do. I know the depression will pass eventually, but right now I am writing this from my iPhone because I don’t even want to get out of bed. I feel sorry for myself because I’m only 19 and have tried to take care of myself…

    How can I make myself feel better? I want to run and hide but the problem is stuck inside of my body.

    • ANSWER:

  48. QUESTION:
    Do Red Hots (candy) contain acetaminophen?
    I have a chronic liver disease and my doctor instructed me to limit my intake of acetaminophen. My ex-wife told that Red Hots contain a signification amount. Anyway, I checked the website and it failed to list the Red Hots active ingredients. Are they trying to cover it up? Anybody know for sure? I love those things!

    • ANSWER:
      You could talk to a pharmacist, but i doubt it. There is not taste or preservative benefit and it would just make the product more expensive to produce. I always thought red hots cleared up my sinuses as a boy and confused them with Sudafeds.

  49. QUESTION:
    Bonjela is currently in the news for its content and it’s risk to children…?
    If I ate it when I was younger (because I liked the taste) – do you think that it would have any lasting damage?

    (ps. I have chronic liver disease)

    • ANSWER:
      the one made for babies is apparently alright.

      The other Bonjela preparations might cause Reye’s disease according to the media, but it appears you need to have a viral disease as well as using Bonjela.
      Reye’s syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver. It is associated with aspirin consumption by children with viral diseases such as chickenpox.

      Bonjela and Bonjela Cool will now be clearly labelled for adults and children over 16. The packaging for Bonjela Teething Gel has also been changed.

      The firm said: ‘There have been no confirmed cases of Reye’s syndrome associated with Bonjela or Bonjela Cool, which remain safe and effective for adults and children 16 years and over.

      ‘The MHRA’s new advice does not affect Bonjela Teething Gel.

  50. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know which doctors in Lansing Michigan that will issue a Marijuana card?
    Does anyone know which doctors in Lansing Michigan that will issue a Marijuana card?
    I’m tired of paying for this sh it weed and it won’t help my pain like the good reefer. Where would I look to find a doctor to issue me a prescription for marijuana. I have chronic neck pain and liver disease, also depression and 50 other ailment that only weed helps. Please help if you can.

    • ANSWER:
      here is one in East Lansing that you may want to look into.

      http://www.elocalprofiles.com/m/east-lansing-mi-medical-marijuana-dispensary/


Chronic Liver Disease Symptoms

Cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease that ends up leaving the scar and damaging the liver tissues centric to body functions. Once damaged by Cirrhosis the cells and tissues in the liver are difficult to repair and when regenerated sustains a permanent scars and strands that creates problem in blood circulation process through liver.

Liver is an important functionary of body and is responsible for certain essential body functions such as blood portal circulation, Bilirubin Secretion and biochemical functions (drugs & toxins metabolization, blood clotting, Cholesterol, Blood pressure etc). And a slight dysfunctioning of liver mayaffect these functions and can lead to severe complications.

Cirrhosis can be identified with symptoms like fever, Vomiting, Restlessness, Sleeping disorders, Loss of appetite, unusual weight gain/loss, tender muscles and muscle pain etc.Some of the other major Cirrhosis symptoms that are indeed complications are Diseases like Diarrhea, Blood clotting problem, Hemorrhoids, Abdominal swelling and pain due to enlarge liver, Reaction to medications, drugs etc due to non-functioning biochemical action of liver, Jaundice rises due to Bilirubin secretion malfunctioning in liver and is identified by yellowing of skin and eyes, Low sex drive and impotence
Causes behind Cirrhosis are-

Hepatitis- One of the major causes of liver disorders and cirrhosis is chronic Hepatitis. It is indeed an inflammation on liver and it can be caused due to toxins and infections. Though there are many form of Hepatitis but major drastic forms are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.

Blood Circulation- Any congestion in the process of heart pumping blood to liver and back flow of blood through liver may result in swelling and inflammation of liver. Gradually the liver gets damage.

Bilirubin secretion- Bilirubin secretion is an important function of liver. Here liver carries bile’s to gall bladder and intestines through ducts. In case of any blockage and disorder in these ducts liver gets affected and inflamed. And this is known as Bilirubin Cirrhosis

Toxin and drugs effects- The toxins destroying the liver are one of the major causes in America. People in America are victim to Cirrhosis due to excess Alcohol intake. The excess drugs, toxins and alcohol intake may lessen the immune system of liver and destroy the liver cells resulting into Cirrhosis.

Livup capsules- Livup capsule is a complete supplement to all the liver problems and is very effective in counterchecking Cirrhosis. It makes your liver strong and gives it strength towards any toxic foreign substance. Livup Capsules constitutes the following herbs- Bhringraj (Eclipta prostata), Arjuna, Kasni, Sharpunkha (Tephrosia purpurea), Pitpada (Fumaria officinalis), Kakmachi (Solanum nigrum) and Punarnava (Boerhevia diffusa). Liveup capsules helps tremendously in Liver inflammation, oxidation and hepatitis arising out of infections etc.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    My boyfriend has liver disease caused by Hep C & chronic alcoholism – What can I expect? (symptoms, etc)?
    He was told about 3 years ago that he had hep C, chirrosis and he is a chronic alcoholic. Dr told him to quit or he would die. He has tried and failed several times ( I know he’s not trying hard enough…. ) . I just want to know what to expect. He is tired all the time, has headaches, and is depressed – Is this part of it? Also I have heard that mood swings are common to this, is that true? I posted a similar question earlier but felt I needed to clarify…. I appriciate any info I can get! Thanks!
    I appriciate the replies but I am looking for real answers not opinions on the relationship….. we have been together for many years, it’s not something simple to walk away from…..

    • ANSWER:
      Hepatitis C is the inflammation of the liver cells
      caused by a virus. Cirrhosis is death of the
      liver cells. His disease can be brought on by
      the Hep C or his drinking problem. Trying to
      quit drinking on his own is extremely difficult.
      He needs to go into a detox program at a
      hospital in order to do this. The symptoms
      he has from trying to stop drinking may be
      too much to handle…they can give him drugs
      to lessen these symptoms and help him get
      through it much better. The symptoms that you
      stated are normal. You have to realize that
      he is now facing death straight on and he has
      to make decisions on what he can do now.
      Depression is normal now, because of having
      to live with all these hurdles to go over to
      save his life. Waking up everyday knowing
      that you may die is very hard.
      Liver patients are usually in shock when they
      first hear they have a terrible disease like this.
      The first reaction is unbelief…then it moves
      where they try to do something to help
      themselves, if it is possible…it leads from
      there to either coming to terms with the
      disease and trying to fight it or just giving up.
      They need alot of support and understanding
      at this time. They get mad and they feel
      helpless and they feel like someone cheated
      them or played a dirty trick on them or they
      feel like saying “why me”. Others people drink and they don’t have this. Cirrhosis can be caused by many different things.

      Your boyfriend doesn’t have a rosey future and
      he knows that. He also knows that if he wants
      to spend time with the people he loves he has
      to do it now. I’m going to explain a few things
      to you. Once there is death of the liver
      cells it forms scar tissue in the liver…this blocks
      the other normal healthy cells from receiving
      nourishment and oxygen and causes them to
      die also. This is a progressing disease and
      the only real option he has now, if he has
      cirrhosis, is being evaluated and placed on the
      transplant list for an organ. But, first he has
      to overcome his addiction of alcohol which
      he needs to get care in order to do. A
      person has to be free of alcohol for at least
      six months before he can be placed on the
      list for transplantation.

      There are symptoms that may start to develop
      with this disease that he may or may not
      show signs of. Some of them are listed in
      this short article.

      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003895.htm

      If he wants to stay with his loved ones longer,
      than he needs to stop drinking now. He is
      causing his liver much more damage faster
      and it will lead to a much much earlier death.

      Having others around him who truly care about
      him, will make whatever course he decides on
      alot easier on him. You cannot make decisions
      for him, but you can be there to support him
      with all he does. Best Wishes

  2. QUESTION:
    My dog is being treated for acute liver disease. 4 days ago was the first sign we have had of any symptoms.?
    The vet kept her over night and gave her Normosol and Metronidazole by IV. We were allowed to take her home yesterday b/c she was feeling better, alert and was drinking and had eaten. He gave us Clavamox 125mg to be taken 2 x per day. Today, she has eaten very little but is drinking her water ok. She is also sleeping a lot. My question is: Why the change in AB’s? We are trying to determine if we are in the final stages or if we can get her out of the acute phase and at least back into chronic.

    • ANSWER:
      What did they say the liver disease was? There are alot of them. If the first sign was days ago and it’s acute, then it could be Hepatic microvascular dysplasia. The Normosol and Metronidazole were to flush the liver and hydrate your girl. The antibiotics are to prevent infection. It’s hard to say dog to dog what the prognosis is, you really should talk to the vet. Is she on a special diet? If not she should be. It’s good she is drinking. Try her on some soft canned foods, something very appealing, but make sure if she’s on a special diet 80 to 90 percent of the diet is from the vet with only treats and something more like gravy over the food to make it more appealing.

  3. QUESTION:
    Do I possibly have leukemia or some other blood disease? ADVICE FROM EXPERIENCED/ or DOCS?
    my symptoms are, and noted beggining about a year ago, disapearing and reapearing regulary but not serious, but recently symptoms have returned elevated and much more serious then past experiences, symptoms include…

    bleeding gums, paleness, red dots on skin that are itchy, patchy red palms,, white fingernails under nail, yellowing at tip of fingures, fatigue, joint pain. wrestlessness, trouble waking up. (sleep long hours) sometimes bed at 8pm and up at 4-6pm the next day. and swallen lymph nodes in my lower neck and under my jaw…. (SINCE THIS NIGHT I HAVE DEVELOPED BUMPS UNDER MY LEFT ARMPIT AND CHEST PAIN) I also am beggining to feel ill, feels like the flu, but rather strange as my headache will go and come back in a different area…

    Here is my doctors summary from saturday night. when i attended the emergancy dept…

    (Jaime Waters presented to Box Hill hospital Emergancy Department on 07 Aug 2010 at 15:40

    ED Diagnosis: Bleeding disorder for investagation
    History of presenting Complaint: 20 y.o male presented with 2 month histroy of bleeding gum and joint pain with no significant background histroy.

    Patient first noticed gum bleeding at least 3 or more months ago after brushing, since then bleeding has become more consistant, bleeding lasting now upto 10 minuts after brushing. also noticed incease of joint pain mainly on MCP joint and knee joints over this period of time.

    Bleeding has worsened over the past 5 days and become consistant in the past 2 days. patient now also complains of lethargy and weakness in this time frame.

    smoker since 14

    heavy drinker; usually 2-4 bottles a week.
    Last alcohol yesterday 1/2 bottle bourben.

    No family history of bleeding disorder, auto immune disease or leukemia.

    Resting tremor noted, no heptic flap, no obvious brusing/petechae
    No sign of chronic liver disease
    No conjuctiva pallor, no scleral jaundice

    chest clear
    abdo soft tender, no oragomegaly

    Oral examination – no active gum bleeding, no obvious gingervitis, tonsil not enlarged.

    tender submental lymph node bilaterally R>L
    Palpable R cervical lymph nodes
    Thyroid not enlarged

    stiffness of mcp joint both hands no tenderness on palpation and movement

    Managment: FBE/U+E/Coags/LFT/CRP
    may need medical refferal for bleeding disorder

    Results/outcome: Neutrophilia and increase WCC
    Normal LFT and Coagulation profile hb166

    Refferals and followup: Need LMO follow up for investagation of autoimmune disease and thrombolic screening,

    patient wil need new LMO for follow up and observation of progression.)

    in this letter not all my symptoms are noted. but i hav put as much as i can think of before i added this letter, also the doctor told me im developing a little bit of anemia but was nothing to be concerned about at this time and that i needed to be observed over the next few weeks for a diagnosis of whats happening. and refferd me to a GP.

    can anyone offer me advice?

    since seeing the doctor my under left armpit has become sore and stiff, my left hip bone upper left beg bone has began to ache with worsening bleeding of gums. and consistant taste of blood in mouth. im very confused and worried about whats goin on… advice?

    • ANSWER:
      When you go to that referral, ask them to test you for Lyme’s disease. I have a friend with similar symptoms and it turned out to be Lyme’s disease. Have you been camping or in the woods lately? Even if you haven’t, deer tics can be in tall grass and you don’t even know they are on you. It doesn’t sound like cancer to me
      I hope you find out what this is. Be well

  4. QUESTION:
    diseases where the symptoms are inflammation in various part of the body?
    liver, soaz muscles, ligament around pelvic bone. I have developed all these symptoms in the last 8 year along with chronic fatigue and other issues. i was diagnosed with AIH (auto immune disease)and have been on steroids to reduce inflammation in the liver. But as the inflammations seem to be “spreading” Im wondering if I was misdiagnosed. I do plan on speaking to my doc.

    • ANSWER:
      Autoimmune disease means your body is attacking itself. It can attack any system and possibly every system depending on which autoimmune disease you have.

      Your nervous system, various organs, your blood, your joints, your muscles – all could be attacked, which means inflammation in any or all of those.

      Your diagnosis seems very accurate, your doctor will just have to keep an eye on your symptoms and the blood tests to pinpoint which autoimmune disease it is you have.

      But autoimmune diseases cause fatigue, inflammation, fever, swelling, weight issues, etc. You should study up on the basics about them so you can be better informed of what to expect. Also ask your doctor. Make sure you are seeing a good rheumatologist.

      I too have an autoimmune disease and it seems like everything is breaking down by the time you get diagnosed. But once you are seeking treatment, it may take a few years to get it under control, but once it is, you’ll feel more normal.

      Below are some sites that will help you learn more about what you are dealing with and how to work through it.

  5. QUESTION:
    hi! do you know any Hepatologist in Southern California?
    A close someone had chronic liver disease, and he doesn’t have a health insurance yet. it’s hard for me to buy one for him b/c most health insurance wouldn’t let him since he’s currently sick. I want him to be cured as soon as possible while it’s young. I’ll be paying out of the pocket. But i don’t know where to start consult. By the way, he still has no symptoms yet but his labs are already abnormal.

    • ANSWER:
      no good asking on yahoo uk and ireland is it! try US.

  6. QUESTION:
    drinking questions help please?
    A chronic liver disease caused by excessive alcohol consumption is known as:

    Cardiac sympathy
    Cirrhosis
    Pancreatitis
    Parkinson’s

    What passes the ingested alcohol from the mother to the baby?
    amniotic fluid
    uterus
    ovaries
    placenta

    Mandatory license plate revocation is ineffective against drunk driving.
    true
    false

    Which is not a sign of FAS?
    small head
    flat face
    flat feet
    wide spaced eyes

    Examples of important functional skills that are not visible to others, but are affected by alcohol, are thinking skills like evaluating risk and processing information. This means that steering, braking, lane changing, and response time could be affected in a driver that has been drinking.
    true
    false

    Alcohol is a:
    stimulant
    depressant
    hallucinogenic

    All of the following are symptoms of alcoholism except for:
    craving
    physical dependence
    tolerance (you have to drink more and more to get “buzzed.”)
    self-control

    Mandatory license revocation is effective against drunk driving.
    true
    false

    Which of the following statements is false?

    FAS is characterized by brain damage, facial deformities, and growth deficits.

    The effects of FAS are all reversible.
    Heart, liver, and kidney defects are common, as are vision and hearing problems.
    Individuals with FAS have difficulties with learning, attention, memory, and problem solving.

    When helping a pregnant woman with a drinking addiction you should not:

    expect instant success
    be a cheerleader for her
    encourage her to talk with her health care provider
    talk on the phone with others for support

    • ANSWER:
      Do your own homework. Wikipedia is a pretty good source for those.

  7. QUESTION:
    Please help, What is this man’s diagnosis?
    a 49 yr old man want to be tested for hepatitis c. he heard about a friend was sick with cirrhois due to hep c. he became concerned because he partied with this friend during a peroid of experimentation with injection drugs while in college. patient is otherwise heathly and denies any symptoms except for occasional fatigue after a long day at work. physical examination of patient is unremarkable. there are no stigmata of chronic liver disease. the patient returns several weeks later to discuss his test results. his HCV antibody test is positive. a liver panel obtained that day shows an ALT of 48 IU/L (normal range,0-20) and an AST of 39 IU/L (0-31). his albumin and total bilirubin are within normal limits. he is extremely anxious about his liver, as he has been in contact with his old college friend and learned that his friend is now on the waiting list for a liver tranplant.

    a. how do you interpret his tests (HCV Ab test, ALT,ALS). which of them is more indicative of liver damages?

    b. having estabished that the patient has hep c with elevated liver enzymes, the next step is to determine the severity of his liver disease. what is the only direct means to elevate the extent of liver injury?

    c. what are the chances for this guy to develop cirrhois?

    d. the patient is concerned that he may be neg. for HCV antibody. he is releived but asks for advice to prevent infecting them. what are you going to tell him?

    e. patient liver biopsy shows mild to moderate inflammatory activity and portal and periporal fibrosis(stage 2). he is relived to find out that he does not have cirrhois, but remains very concerned about his hep c. he asks about treatment for his HCV. what do you recommend?

    • ANSWER:
      His alts and asts are not that far out of range..just taking OTC medicine can give you elevated enzymes

      Hep C is called the SILENT KILLER because there are NO warning signs..I was with hep c for 25 years before I new I had it..how did I know? simple physical and it came up.

      He HAS Hep C..he had a biopsy…he’s in stage 2..I suggest TREATMENT

      www.beincharge.com
      have him call the help line and let the nurses help him from her

      Cirrhois is the beginning of a serious problem..ie liver transplant..suggest he talk to someone and get on treatment. If he cannot afford it the phamaculicales can give him the meds for free IF he qualifies..this is not a disease to ignore
      been there..cleared the virus at Stage 3

  8. QUESTION:
    How does disability (social security) work? Is the ‘list’ only factor?
    Say you’ve been diagnosed with a genetic disorder or liver disease, is the diagnosis the only requirement to getting disability? Are other factors involved? I have had relatives who were simply diagnosed with a disease on the ‘list’ and received disability.

    I have been diagnosed with a genetic chronic liver disease but can still physically work at least part time. I am being urged by family members to apply for disability. My main symptoms are iron overload, fatigue and a bunch of other non-work-related symptoms. I experience a bit of pain from joints and the fatigue does have an influence upon the quality of my work and my ability to maintain my current work load effectively. But, until diagnosed, I didn’t consider myself ‘disabled’. Now, I don’t know what to think.

    Just curious what to think since the SSA website is hush hush and websites re: my disorder say nothing of filing for disability.

    What do you think? Should I apply? Would I likely get it?

    • ANSWER:
      Here is a link to the “list” you speak of, it’s called the bluebook: http://www.ssa.gov/disability/professionals/bluebook/listing-impairments.htm

      If a person meets the criteria for a condition then yes, they receive disability. These are the cases that take less than 90 days.

      If you don’t meet a listing, you have to prove how your condition prevents you from gainful employment and taking care of yourself. This usually requires a consultative exam, arranged and paid for by SSA and a visit with Voc Rehab to make sure there is no other work you can do. Age and education play a role here. If they find you can do other work, even if you would make less money than before, they will not find you disabled.

      Here’s a link to their evidentiary requirements: http://www.ssa.gov/disability/professionals/bluebook/evidentiary.htm

      And how they decide if you are disabled: http://www.ssa.gov/dibplan/dqualify5.htm

      Good luck!

  9. QUESTION:
    I NEED HELP WITH ALCOHOL FACTZ PLZZ!!! I PICK BESST ANSWER?
    A chronic liver disease caused by excessive alcohol consumption is known as:

    Cardiac sympathy

    Cirrhosis

    Pancreatitis

    Parkinson’s

    ——————————————————————————–

    Gender, emotion, mental status, and amount of time throughout consumption are a few factors that can change the effects each time alcohol is consumed by an individual.

    true

    false

    ——————————————————————————–

    All 50 states enacted a BAC limit of .08 as the legal limit for drunk drivers over the age of 21.

    true

    false

    ——————————————————————————–

    The following does NOT have the same alcohol content as a 12 oz. beer:

    Depends on the type of beer

    5 oz. glass of wine

    1.5 oz. of 80 proof distilled spirits (shot)

    none of the above

    ——————————————————————————–

    The best way to avoid a dangerous situation involving drunk driving is to:

    Avoid alcohol and drugs altogether because you don’t need them anyway.

    Do what your friends tell you to do.

    Drink just a little or limit your drug intake.

    ——————————————————————————–

    All of the following are symptoms of alcoholism except for:

    craving

    physical dependence

    tolerance (you have to drink more and more to get “buzzed.”)

    self-control

    ——————————————————————————–

    Alcohol in the stomach…

    is partially absorbed from the stomach.

    interferes with digestion of essential vitamins and minerals.

    can lead to gastritis and ulcers from long term use.

    All answers are correct.

    ——————————————————————————–

    Drinking alcohol can effect the heart, liver, stomach, and brain.

    true

    false

    ——————————————————————————–

    If you are the driver of a vehicle, there is no safe level of alcohol consumption.

    True
    False

    ——————————————————————————–

    Moderate to Excessive Binge Drinking can cause:

    health benefits for the heart, including reducing chance of heart attack

    Cardiac Arrhythmia (abnormal rhythms) and sudden cardiac death

    reduction in blood pressure and/or chance of stroke

    ——————————————————————————–

    Mandatory license plate revocation is ineffective against drunk driving.

    true

    false

    ——————————————————————————–

    ___________ are more likely to become alcoholics.

    children

    adults

    woman

    children of alcoholic parents

    ——————————————————————————–

    Which of the following is a problem a baby may have if the mother drinks alcohol while she is pregnant?

    motor skills problems

    hearing and vision problems

    premature birth

    may include problems with motor skills, hearing and vision

    ——————————————————————————–

    There are less alcohol-related fatalities for 18, 19, and 20 year olds than for the population over 21.

    true

    false

    ——————————————————————————–

    According to research what would be the single most effective deterrent for drinking and driving?

    Automatic license revocation

    Inability to post bail if arrested

    Jail sentence

    ——————————————————————————–

    This law imposes potential liability on the host of a party if alcohol is served to an obviously intoxicated person or a minor.

    adult liability

    social host

    MADD law

    minor party law

    ——————————————————————————–

    Blood Alcohol Content (BAC), is a standard used to:

    Determine what type of alcohol had been consumed

    Determine how many total drinks have been consumed

    Determine between sobriety and intoxication

    Determine how long since your last alcoholic drink

    ——————————————————————————–

    Examples of important functional skills that are not visible to others, but are affected by alcohol, are thinking skills like evaluating risk and processing information. This means that steering, braking, lane changing, and response time could be affected in a driver that has been dr

    • ANSWER:
      Cirrhosis
      True
      True
      Depends on type of beer
      Avoid alcohol & drugs
      Self Control
      All are correct
      True
      False
      Cardiac Arrhythmia
      Reduction of blood pressure
      False
      Children of alcoholic parents
      May include problems with motor skills, hearing, vision
      False
      Jail sentence
      Adult liability
      Determine between sobriety & intoxication
      True

  10. QUESTION:
    can alagilles syndrome be mistook portal pulmonary hypertension?
    do they have the same symptoms

    my son devlyn died a couple of years ago his post mortem report states that he died from severe Portal- pulmonary hypertension

    I have just been able to look through the medical notes and everything I have seen tells me that he had alagilles syndrome
    even on the mri results they state the combination of presumed chronic liver disease with portal hypertension and vertebral anoomalies suggest underlying alagilles syndrome

    Please I attach the final report I have from my solicitors they say i can not continue my complaint my son died while having a colopsy
    please could you forward me the the facts I should be looking at in the notes so that I may finally but closure to this ….

    I have all the results and medical notes they all relate to what I have seen on the net today but I need some one to advise me

    definately passed down from his dad he been on medication 20 iyears AMLODIPINE,MICARDIS,SPIRONOLACTONE,PERINDOPRIL,BISOPROLOL. Every day extra vessels on heart but never been asked about genes . Im ok just need to understand everything. Thank u for all replys. Dev’s website on cfp56@piczo.com
    definately passed down from his dad he been on medication 20 iyears AMLODIPINE,MICARDIS,SPIRONOLACTONE,PERINDOPRIL,BISOPROLOL. Every day extra vessels on heart but never been asked about genes . Im ok just need to understand everything. Thank u for all replys. Dev’s website on cfp56@piczo.com would like to know websites to compare medical notes. No legal side to this i just like answers. Thank u
    MRI results:abdomen moderatevolume of ascites throughout abdominal cavity, hepatic architecture is abnormal with caudate lobe hypertrophy relative atrophy of the right liver, degree of splenomegaly, the extra heptic portol vien, splenic and superior mesentric of hemi vertebrae affecting both the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies.
    the combination of presumed chronic liver disease with portol hypertension and vertebral anormalies suggest underlying allegele syndrome…. 2/10/2004
    Spine lumar x-ray: there is abnormalites noted in both lower thoracic and lower lumbar spine, there is a hemi verebra noted at T11 with loss of normal vertebral body and pedicle of the left side of of T11 Furthermore there is a butterfly configuration of L5. some abnormality of modelling of T10 is also noted. These features would be in keeping with alagilles….2/10/2004

    • ANSWER:
      Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder also referred to as Alagille- Watson syndrome, syndromic bile duct paucity and arteriohepatic dysplasia

      The course is characterized by recurrent episodes of cholestasis. The long- term prognosis is related to the severity and duration of early cholestasis, severity of complex cardiovascular abnormalities and the severity of liver disease and its associated portal hypertension.

      Portal Hypertension

      Synonyms and related keywords: cirrhosis, variceal hemorrhage, ascites, portal vein.

      Portal hypertension may be defined as a portal pressure gradient of 12 mm Hg or greater and is often associated with varices and ascites. Many conditions are associated with portal hypertension, of which cirrhosis is the most common cause.

      Alagille syndrome is a dominantly inherited systemic disorder consisting of abnormalities of the liver, heart, eye, spine, facies, kidney, vasculature and other organs. It is caused by mutations in Jagged1, a ligand in the Notch signaling pathway

      Portal hypertension develops in up to 1/3 of patients with severe hepatic AGS.

  11. QUESTION:
    Celiac and Pregnancy, Crazy?
    Ok where do I start. For about 2 weeks I was experiencing some brown blood which I assumed to be my period? I finally came online and saw sometimes is could mean pregnancy but it means it’s a tubal pregnancy or miscarriage. Thing is I had my period, just brown and occasionally only spots of red for almost three weeks! I let that go. I’ve been having sharp pains in my left and right sides and my stomach is hard as a rock and the area below the “gut” and above the vagina is hard(I’ve heard this is linked to pregnancy?) I’ve also had extreme bloating feelings and gas along with diarrhea. And as well as weird cravings and bursts of hunger, but when I eat about 15 min later prob not even I’m having sharp pains. These are all symptoms of pregnancy I’m sure we’ll all agree. I’ve also researched some blogs with people who had the extreme bloating and sharp pains and 98% of them were pregnant.

    But, get this. My aunt was diagnosed with Celiac disease(gluten free diet, will eat away your small intestine)and it’s hereditary but she doesn’t even know who she could have got it from. Well let me just copy and paste symptoms I’ve found linked with it, I’ll mark it with * If I have it.

    What are the symptoms of celiac disease?

    Symptoms of celiac disease vary from person to person. Symptoms may occur in the digestive system or in other parts of the body. Digestive symptoms are more common in infants and young children and may include

    abdominal bloating and pain *
    chronic diarrhea *
    vomiting *only just today but sick feelings I’ve ignored too
    constipation *NO*
    pale, foul-smelling, or fatty stool *NO*
    weight loss *NO, weight gain thats why i’m leaning toward pregnancy

    Adults are less likely to have digestive symptoms and may instead have one or more of the following:

    unexplained iron-deficiency anemia *NO*
    fatigue*NO*
    bone or joint pain *
    arthritis*NO*
    bone loss or osteoporosis
    depression or anxiety *OH YES*
    tingling numbness in the hands and feet *NO*
    seizures*NO*
    missed menstrual periods *Not sure yet, last one was brown
    infertility or recurrent miscarriage *Hope not
    canker sores inside the mouth *NO!*
    an itchy skin rash called dermatitis herpetiformis * NO*
    People with celiac disease may have no symptoms but can still develop complications of the disease over time. Long-term complications include malnutrition—which can lead to anemia, osteoporosis, and miscarriage, among other problems—liver diseases, and cancers of the intestine.

    Also, Celiac disease is both a disease of malabsorption—meaning nutrients are not absorbed properly—and an abnormal immune reaction to gluten. Celiac disease is also known as celiac sprue, non-tropical sprue, and gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Celiac disease is genetic, meaning it runs in families*MY AUNT*
    Sometimes the disease is triggered—or becomes active for the first time—after surgery, pregnancy*wow it can become apparent during pregnancy*, childbirth, viral infection, or severe emotional stress*I’ve been crying excessively and have been real sensitive*

    Forgot to also say something important. My period finally completely stopped yesterday but now, I’m having excessive urinating and just this morning i got morning sickness.
    OK so my point of showing you all this was I’m thinking, would I be pregnant AND starting to react to Celiac?? PLease someone research this. I would go to the doctor but I just got insurance a few days ago and it’s not active til Jan 14. I just wanna research this so I can go into the doctor’s telling them exactly what is wrong. Question is though, should I go to the Gynecologist or my regular Physician???

    • ANSWER:
      Go to your gp. They will do a blood test for pregnancy, and you will get your answer about that very soon.
      Then, tell him or her that your aunt was diagnosed with celiac and you would like a screening test should your pregnancy test come back negative.
      You can have active celiac with little to no symptoms. My symptoms were very, very mild anemia (low normal) and migraines with the occasional stomach ache. Pregnancy is probably what triggered my celiac.

      Your Aunt got celiac from her mother and father, it is as simple as that. Her parents were carriers and gave her the genes, she had something trigger it, just like I did, just like everyone who has celiac has happen to them. Since it runs in your family, please be aware of the signs and symptoms of childhood celiac.
      Good luck!

  12. QUESTION:
    pulmonary disease question – please help me out?
    here is my test result: Back x-ray (osteoperosis), chest x-ray (Cardiac silhouette is at the upper limistis of normal size, mild hyperexpansion of the lungs, insterstitial markings – chronic lung disease, increased pulmonary venous pressure, or both), CT (mosaic attenuation pattern) second CT (Suspect airway disease as cause for mosaic perfusion), Abdomen ultrasound (echogenic liver consistent with fatty infiltration, otherwise normal abdominal ultrasound), EKG (normal), Stress test (normal).
    My symptoms: lack of air, chest pain, upper back pain feel like stabing, back pain radiating towards lower back (left side), left side chest pain radiating towards ribs, constant pain under ribe cage and mid chest, noise in the internal organ, cramp under my the rib, shrink feeling on my left side, headache, tiredness, over sleeping, depression, lower back pain

    Your opinion will be very much appreciated. (Doctors still not giving me answer and proper medication)
    I do not use drugs, don’t drink and do not smoke. my family are smokers.

    • ANSWER:
      That’s actually not a lot of information to go on as far as pulmonary disease. The references to chronic lung are all based on just the chest x-ray. It does sound like you have at least mild emphysema based on the CXR, and perhaps a bit of chronic bronchitis. It would be help to know age and weight as well, but it’s not absolutely necessary.

      If you’d like to see what’s causing your shortness of breath, you should probably consider doing a complete PFT (Pulmonary Function Test). There you’ll be able to assess the level of Emphysema (based on your lung volumes), as well as any possible diffusion problems.

      If your family smokes, it may be due to a good deal of second hand smoke. If you are a “former” smoker, you can have effects of the smoking years down the road… and they may be rearing their heads now.

      Good luck.

  13. QUESTION:
    Why does my tummy hurt?
    I have had several scans of my stomach, including an MRI, an MRA, a CT scan, as well as an X-Ray, I’ve had a high point scan of my gallbladder & several blood tests that have ruled out Kidney disease & Liver problems. My stomach hurts on my right side, below my ribcage, right in my Gallbladder/Liver area.

    I don’t understand why all the tests come back normal, when there is obviously something going on there! Could it be appendicitis?

    These tests have revealed Polycystic ovaries, acid reflux, degenerative disk disorder (in my back/spine), but nothing that explains this pain.

    A little more info about me: I have Meniere’s Disease (a chronic disease of the inner ear that causes vertigo, as well as many other symptoms. See here for more details:: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/balance/meniere.asp)

    I also have Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (for more info on TLE see here: http://www.epilepsy.com/epilepsy/epilepsy_temporallobe)

    As well as chronic Migraines, Osteoarthritis, & I’m blind in my left eye & deaf in my left ear.

    Believe it or not, I live a normal life, & until recently, I was a full time nursing/ Medical Laboratory Tech student & I maintained a 3.8 GPA. I also worked full time.

    With the recent pain in my side, I do OK, but keeping up with my kids & my husband is about all I can do. I can’t go to the gym as much as I use to & my housework has fallen behind on more than one occasion.

    If I can live a completely normal life with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Osteoarthritis, Meniere’s Disease & chronic migraine, I feel confident that I could resume that if I had a solution to this horrible pain in my side!

    Any clues would be great! I really prided myself on being able to maintain through all the problems that have come up & it seems silly to me that a pain in my stomach/side could debilitate me as much as it has!

    Thanks!
    Thanks for the response, but I actually drink loads of water & I eat soup, & oatmeal at least 12 times a week! I actually live on Ensure & Slim Fast drinks when I’m in school.
    I think it may be appendicitis! Please help!!!

    • ANSWER:

  14. QUESTION:
    Is crohn’s disease always detectable?
    For 6 years I’ve been sick and off and on they mention Crohn’s disease. I have the symptoms of it. I have chronic diarrhea, lost 35lbs, nausea, and terrible abdominal pain around my bellybutton that swells up sometimes all the way up to my liver. When you press on it I want to vomit.

    I have had a long standing issue with absorbing b12 even with shots and supplements.

    I’ve done CT’s, MRI’s, 2 colonscopies, 2 endoscopies, 2 upper GI’s, 1 barium enema.. they can’t find anything that shows crohn’s on the inside. Someone mentioned that my pain is located in my ilium which is wher eb12 is absorbed. if i had crohn’s it would make sense. Some people say you can’t get to all of the small intestine with endo or colonscopy. Is that true? The gastros are pretty cocky and think they know everything, and because I’m a girl I must be nervous but Im not a nervous person.

    Am I missing something? I have arthritis and inflammation, I weigh 100lbs and am 24 years old now. this is insane… so is there a possibility there could be crohn’s? My doctor says yes but the gastros say their busy and if it isnt obvious then its ‘probably’ not there.

    • ANSWER:
      Crohns is a hard diagnosis to get sometimes.

      My sed rate was high and that prompted my GI to request more tests, Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, Barium Swallow-Through and CT scan. As soon as he saw the crohns he ordered 40 mg of Prednisone and the pain went away.

      If you have tried all of the above tests and the doctors do not see the inflammation, ulcers and abnormality then count yourself lucky it is not crohns.

      The ileum is far from both ends and if there is inflammation it may not be possible for the GI to scope it. If so he/she will inform you that it was impossible to see due to inflammation. This has happened to me as I had twelve inches of ileum removed and only six inches were planned. It was worse than suspected from the scopes and x-rays.

      I was dx in 1999 and it requires a lot of meds usually for life.

  15. QUESTION:
    Could I have IBD/Crohn’s Disease?
    I was diagnosed with IBS when I was 16 after a horrible bout of chronic diarrhea and pain. 10 years later my problems have gotten from worse to severe. Last summer I was hospitalized with gastritis, and had it off and on for the past year. I recently read that gastritis inflammation can be a indication of IBD. Since then my intestinal pain gets so bad that I can’t walk and feel faint. I have had periods of violent vomiting attacks, incontinence and unexplained abdominal pain. A month ago I noticed I was having UTI symptoms and right rib pain, pain in lower right abdomen, nausea, vomiting, chills, loss of appetite, weight loss, night sweats, and fever along with the worst intestinal pain ever. I was treated for a kidney infection, but the symptoms continued without infection. It started to feel like more was going on in my intestinal tract. I found lots of information about IBD causing UTIs and rib pan. I also have irritation and inflammation around my anus that bleeds when i’m having a bad attack. I’m starting to think that my IBS is total BS, and I may be having complications from inflammatory bowel disease. I think it might run in my family, which might explain why my family has problems with kidney stones, gall stones and liver problems along with chronic diarrhea. I got a CT scan today, and it looked like my large intestine was pushed over a little and slightly enlarged on the right, but then I don’t really know what it should look like. Does this sound like possible IBD?

    • ANSWER:

  16. QUESTION:
    Has anybody had these reoccuring symptoms (Dehabilitating symptoms)?
    Every 42 days on the dot, I have been suffering from flu-like symtoms.

    I get intense fevers/chills that fluctuate within minutes. At one moment my fever is 104 and 15 minutes later it is 98 degrees F.

    I have gotten a sore throat every time, sometimes being so bad that I cannot swallow my own spit, but I will still be throwing up.

    I get a nagging headache that lasts the entire cycle (3-7 days)

    I get intense muscle aches that come just before the flar-ups and disappear after all other symptoms have gone.

    I have no sensitivity to light. When it first started, I had a swollen lymph node under my chin – this happened right before an attack and quickly went away.

    I also have memory issues and my thinking can be a little hazy at times.

    I get sores in my mouth when the attacks come and they are gone after the flare-up is gone.

    I have had this since August 2009. I was NOT sexually active until February 2010 and was a virgin before then. These attacks have ALWAYS been 42 days apart save for one attack that was 63 days after the previous. The attacks then continued on a 42 day schedule up until now. I am due for another attack May 20th.

    Another important note is horrible night sweats that make me move from bed to bed at night to stay dry.

    I was “diagnosed” as having Lyme disease and Babesiosis (Pathologically similar to Chronic Malaria). I have been taking antibiotics and Atovoqoune for roughly 8 months. The attacks have gotten less severe…

    There is no more naseua, sore throat is mild, the duration of the attacks has lessened from 7 days to 3-4 max. My lymph nodes never swell. My spleen and Liver have been slightly swollen but an ultrasound proved they were in fine working order. I had an Echo to check out a heart murmor but the doctor chocked that up to Lyme disease as the heart is “very healthy”.

    My new infectious disease doctor DOES NOT believe I have babesia or Lyme disease. He is checking me for several viruses. my cript says RPR w/reflex, TSH w/ relfex, ANA w/ reflex, and HIV :(

    Has anyone had experience with this at all? I am losing trust in my doctors. I’d much rather this be babesia and lymes than AIDS. I don’t know how it could be because I was a virgin for at least 6 months after these symptoms becgan and were at their worst. My doctor also says the positive for Lyme’s IGm can give a false positive when IGg is a more important factor in diagnosis – his reason for saying it isn’t Lymes.

    Any opinions are appreciated.
    I was going to a Lyme literate doctor. She was the one that diagnosed me originally but she was a pain in the but and not at all a good person.

    • ANSWER:
      To me it sounds like you need to find a new doctor. The Infectious Disease guy doesn’t sound very knowledgeable about Lyme and Babesia at all. Your best bet would be to find an LLMD (lyme literate medical doctor) who is experienced with Lyme and it’s co-infections. www.lymediseaseassociation.org and www.ilads.org are good places to find an LLMD.

      As for the IgM versus IgG – both are equally important to diagnosing Lyme. IgM antibodies represent an active, current infection while IgG antibodies only form after one has been infected for some time. You need both to get an accurate picture.

      The fact your symptoms began to lessen during treatment is key. Most LLMDs will see that as a sign the treatment was helping and should be continued. Remember, Lyme and it’s co-infections are primarily a clinical diagnosis and blood tests are only supporting pieces of the puzzle.

      I wish you the best and hope you get to the bottom of things quickly!

      Edit: I’m sorry to hear the LLMD you saw was no good. I have seen several and they all have been great… like anything else though, I guess there are bound to be some that aren’t good.

  17. QUESTION:
    Hepatitis C & the Army?
    (1) Viral hepatitis, or unspecified hepatitis, within the preceding 6 months or persistence of symptoms after 6 months, or objective evidence of impairment of liver function, chronic hepatitis, and hepatitis B carriers. (Individuals who are known to have tested positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection require confirmatory testing. If positive, individuals should be clinically evaluated for objective evidence of liver function impairment. If evaluation reveals no signs or symptoms of disease, the applicant meets the standards.)

    **How true is this? I have Hepatitis C and show no symptoms. My doctor said the HCV count was very low. I’ve had a sonogram of my liver which came up normal. My enzymes have been at normal limits as well. I REALLY want to join the army. How worried should I be about HCV disqualifying me from joining the army?
    I have Hepatitis C. But from what the website said you can still join under certain circumstances. That’s what I don’t understand.
    HCV=Hepatitis C Virus lol

    • ANSWER:
      Do not lie. By the way, there is no hepatitis C vaccine, which you probably know already but some of the other respondents do not. Go for the waiver- if you are healthy now, I would think there would be a decent chance of getting in. The medical standards are very strict on paper but lots of people get waivers for various conditions. I got 2 when I reentered the Army in my 40′s. The worse that can happen is they can say no, or depending on how recent the illness was, make you wait a certain period of time to make sure it stays in remission. If you are untruthful (not that I believe that was your intention), it could be very bad for you if they find out later. Besides, integrity is one of the Army values!

  18. QUESTION:
    Confused U.S. Army question ?
    “(1) Viral hepatitis (070), or unspecified hepatitis (570), within the preceding 6 months or persistence of symptoms after 6 months, or objective evidence of impairment of liver function, chronic hepatitis, and hepatitis B carriers (070). (Individuals who are known to have tested positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection require confirmatory testing. If positive, individuals should be clinically evaluated for objective evidence of liver function impairment. If evaluation reveals no signs or symptoms of disease, the applicant meets the standards.)”

    What type of hepatits can you have to join ? hep B acute ? … what if your a chronic carries of B or C ?

    • ANSWER:
      Wow,that’s a tough one.

  19. QUESTION:
    How can I contest a military disqualification?
    I’ve recently taken my ASVAB and made well on it. I’ve set my sights on the Marine Corps since I was little. I’ve just got turned down for health problems. I’m physically fit, but I have Hepatitis C. The standard rule for that in the service is this; (1) Viral hepatitis, or unspecified hepatitis, within the preceding 6 months or persistence of symptoms after 6 months, or objective evidence of impairment of liver function, chronic hepatitis, and hepatitis B carriers. (Individuals who are known to have tested positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection require confirmatory testing. If positive, individuals should be clinically evaluated for objective evidence of liver function impairment. If evaluation reveals no signs or symptoms of disease, the applicant meets the standards.) I’ve had my biopsy and all the required things done, and it showed i have no impairment of liver function what so ever. I’m fit and have no problems other than this. How can they disqualify me if I passed all of this and made an 82 on my ASVAB?? Is there any way to contest this?? It has been my dream to serve in the USMC. Please e-mail me back with a response.

    • ANSWER:
      they are NOT required to grant a waiver under any circumstances. your ASVAB score has no bearing. they are simply unwilling to take the risk of recurrence or you infecting others and having to take care of it when it does.

      the Marines grant few waivers anyway.

  20. QUESTION:
    PLEASE HELP….?!?!?!?
    ok my mom doesn’t want to go to the doctor but i am really worried she has bleeding when she goes to the restroom to poop, she has bruises and this little red dots on her legs and she says her legs really hurt she is a waitress. for some reason it occur to me that she may have leukemia and i checked and article for the symptoms and this is what it said:

    In many cases, the first signs and symptoms of leukemia are nonspecific (vague). Early signs also may occur with other types of cancer or with other medical conditions. Although leukemia signs and symptoms vary depending on the type of disease, there are some general features. Broad symptoms of leukemia include the following:

    Fatigue
    Malaise (vague feeling of bodily discomfort)
    Abnormal bleeding
    Excessive bruising
    Weakness
    Reduced exercise tolerance
    Weight loss
    Bone or joint pain
    Infection and fever
    Abdominal pain or “fullness”
    Enlarged spleen, lymph nodes, and liver

    Chronic leukemia often goes undetected for many years and may be identified in a routine blood test. In fact, nearly one in five chronic leukemia patients do not report symptoms at the time of diagnosis. Most symptoms of acute leukemia are caused by low levels of normal blood cells, which is due to overcrowding of the blood-forming bone marrow by leukemia cells.

    she doesn’t eat that much either because she says she feels like she is going to vomit, PLEASE HELP. (how can i convince her to go to the doctor)
    THANKS
    other symptom
    Tiny red spots in your skin (petechiae)
    but how can i tell her it may be leukimia she doesn’t know what it may be and i really don’t want to make her sad right now.

    • ANSWER:

  21. QUESTION:
    What is left for me to say…..?
    I typed up a report on diabetes, it is supposed to be 6 pages dubble spaced, but now i don’t know what else to put, all i need is a half a page more. Thank you!

    Diabetes Type 1
    Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. People with diabetes have problems using food for energy. After a meal, carbohydrates in food are broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried by the blood to cells throughout the body. Cells require insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas, to help use blood glucose for energy. People develop diabetes because the pancreas does not make enough insulin or because the cells in the muscles, liver, and fat do not respond to insulin properly, or both. As a result, the amount of glucose in the blood increases while the cells are starved of energy.
    Prior to 1997, the type of diabetes typically diagnosed in young people was called juvenile diabetes or type 1. Diabetes emerging in adults was called adult-onset diabetes or type 2. Then in 1997, the official names of the types were changed to type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is the second most common chronic disease in children (after asthma). About 13,000 new cases are diagnosed in the U.S. each year. Patients with type 1 diabetes make up about 5 percent of all cases of diabetes. It most commonly appears in girls and boys when they are about 14 years old. Usually, type 1 diabetes is first diagnosed in children, teenagers, or young adults but it can occur at any age. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas that make insulin. As a result, the pancreas does not make insulin, a hormone which helps use blood sugar (glucose) for energy. The cells become starved of energy and there is an excess of glucose in the blood. People with Type 1 diabetes must have daily injections of insulin to live. Proper diet, exercise and home blood sugar monitoring are essential to manage the disease. Food and exercise must also be balanced because of the risk of hypoglycemia, low blood sugar, and hyperglycemia, high blood sugar. Both are life threatening concerns. When hypoglycemia develops, cells are not getting enough glucose. Confusion, loss of consciousness, comma and death results when the brain is deprived of glucose for too long. Hyperglycemia and prolonged absence of insulin may lead to ketoacidosis, the accumulation of ketones in the blood when the body uses fat for energy instead of glucose. Ketones make the blood acidic and slow down all body functions. Like hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia can also lead to comma and death. The only cure available today for type 1 diabetes is a pancreas transplant, which is rarely done. Because both pancreas transplants and kidney transplants require lifelong use of powerful drugs to suppress immune reactions that can reject the organs, pancreatic transplants are usually done to those with type 1 diabetes who also need a kidney transplant. The side effects of immune- suppressive drugs can be severe and even worse than the disease. One or two people out of every 10 who get the surgery die within a year. Also the new pancreas is rejected by half of the people who get this operation. If the transplant fails, diabetes returns. Recently, experimental treatments with stem cells have shown some promise. For most people, type 1 diabetes is a life-long disease that can be effectively managed with insulin.

    Signs and Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes
    •Urinates frequently. The kidneys respond to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream by flushing out the extra glucose in urine. A child with diabetes needs to urinate more frequently and in larger volumes.
    •Is abnormally thirsty. Because the child is loosing so much fluid from peeing so much, he or she becomes very thirsty to help avoid becoming dehydrated. A child who has developed diabetes drinks a lot in an attempt to keep the level of body water normal.
    •Loses weight. (or fails to gain weight as he or she grows) in spite of a good appetite. Kids and teens who develop type 1 diabetes may have an increased appetite, but often lose weight. This is because the body breaks down muscle and stored fat in an attempt the provide fuel to the hungry cells.
    •Often feels tired. Because the body can’t use glucose for energy properly.

    But in some cases, other symptoms may be the signal that something is wrong. Sometimes the first sign of diabetes is bedwetting in a child who has been dry at night. The possibility of diabetes should also be suspected if a vaginal yeast infection (also called a Candida infection) occurs in a girl who hasn’t started puberty yet. If these early symptoms of diabetes aren’t recognized and treatment isn’t started, chemicals called ketones can build up in the child’s blood and cause stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, fruity- smelling breath, breathing problems; even loss of consciousness. Sometimes these symptoms are mistaken f

    • ANSWER:
      Watch out on using advice from yahoo answers if truthfulness is graded. While 80% of type 2′s are overweight, only 18% of obese people are diabetic.

  22. QUESTION:
    How dangerous is my alcohol use?
    I’m a college student and i already recognize myself as a chronic alcoholic. I drink every day and i drink gratuitous amounts everyday. i’m a male only 145 pounds 5″9′ and i’m starting to get the idea in my head that i might already be in the first stages of liver disease. When i drink daily im not the type that just has a a few beers, a 1.75 liter of karkov will usually last me 3-4 days. I black out everyday but i never get hangovers, i usually wake up drunk. ive been drinking like this for past 2 months and ive had about 3 sober days. For me, drinking has become a completely different thing then before. I need to drink. i’ve realized what ive done to myself so i’m soon seeking treatment. well, after today of course, its halloween! but anyway,
    ive started to notice some symptoms that are described as symptoms of early stages of cirhossis or alchohol withdrawl. I’ve had dark urine frequently more lately, its impossible for me to fall asleep without being drunk, i litterally drip sweat while im not active. The one symptom i am very concerned about tho are my tremors, I have very shaky hands, people point it out all the time. when i’m drunk it usually goes away a little but there are times it is pretty bad, for example, i have a night class and when i have to sit in the classroom not drunk as i’m used to, i’ll be writing notes and i cant even read them later because i twitch so bad.
    all in all tho, what i’m wondering is if its possible to develop cirhossis in only 2 months while drinking very heavily, or if you need to be a chronic alcoholic for years before thats possible. i am also concered about the consequenses of stopping abruptly, is it possible i could have a seizure if i quit?

    • ANSWER:
      Look, if you want to stop drinking then keep reading, if not go back to the bottle. You are going to need to go to a detox center in order to start getting better. Yes, you’re going to have the DT’s, and the shakes, and feel like sh**, and puke, but the other alternative is to die. Take your pick. I can’t tell you that you’re a chronic alcoholic, but you sound like one to me. I can tell you that you need to seek medical attention immediately, and then check yourself into a 90 day detox/rehab center if you hope to get better. I know you have school, work all that stuff, but if you cant quit drinking you won’t be there anyhow. There is your solution, if you want it. I didn’t say it would be easy or pretty. Good luck!!!!!!!

  23. QUESTION:
    Misdiagnosis nightmare. What can I do? No hope left?
    My insurance expired months ago. Right when it did I got sick. Thinking it was the common flu I waited a little more over than a week – sleeping all the time because of the extreme pain I was in. It eventually got so bad I went to the urgent care. In urgent care the physician found a “throat infection”. It was not looked into any further. He said, ” it looks like you are dehydrated and have a throat infection”. I was prescribed antibiotics, the antibiotics did not work. (I’ve done some research myself since I cannot get any help from these doctors and suspect (could be wrong) I am one of those adults who may have chronic mono) a disease that is apparently virtually incurable, can be controlled by steroids, and has a habit of coming up negative on tests even if you do have it .

    Eventually – I got so sick I was sent to the ER. The doctor could not find anything wrong but mentioned how the steroid he gave me seemed to calm me down. I think he attributed this to a general anxiety problem because this DOUCHEBAG of a doctor cursed my medical records with a diagnosis of “altered mental state”. I suspect it’s because he saw my medical history of getting treated for major depression back in 04. Does he believe that just because he couldn’t find anything – there’s really nothing wrong? This jerk has condemned me to a life of hell. Yes, I made one mistake of immediately not picking up my insurance within a week. But I know alot of people who have done that. Every doctor I visit in the future will not take me seriously. Nobody will insure someone with a diagnosis of “altered mental state”. And the worst part of it is, I’ve literally been able to feel physical symptoms indicating an inflamed liver and spleen. My GP mocked me after leaving the emergency room when the doctor told me he was going to give me a spinal tap. He says to “stay still or else you will be paralyzed” I vehemently refused because it was pretty obvious to me that I was going to be paralyzed since I was experiencing uncontrollable muscle spasms that had nothing to do with my mental state.

    This is hopeless. So now its basically choosing between being potentially homeless and drowning in medical bills or to lay at home and die?

    • ANSWER:

  24. QUESTION:
    What do I need to eat prior to kidney function testing?
    My endocrinologist is concerned about my Co2 level, and recommended I see a nephrologist for testing of renal function. I’ve been online scaring myself senseless learning about Chronic Kidney Disease, indications of which fit many of my previously-idiopathic health symptoms perfectly.

    The problem/explanation?

    I’m anorexic, and have been off and on for ten years. If, for instance, one test is used to determine protein levels, what does it mean for the test if I haven’t eaten since November?

    Here are my numbers- labs not mentioned were within ref. range.

    CBC w/ Diff:
    RBC- 5.30 (3.87-5.11)
    Hemoglobin- 15.2 (12.0-15.0)

    BMP:
    Co2- 12 (19-32)
    BUN- 4 (6-23)

    Liver Profile:
    Bilirubin, Total- 1.5 (0.3-1.2)
    Indirect Bilirubin- 1.2 (0.0-0.9)

    NOTES:
    Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio 3.2 < ----- 1/2 avg risk for women
    Glucose- 75 (70-99) <----Normal
    BP- 81/56 <---- Low

    My bilirubin levels have always been high, as have my mother's- mine have dropped significantly since I've lost weight.

    • ANSWER:
      You really, really need to ask the lab what dietary restrictions are necessary, if any. I don’t remember having any restrictions when I was just getting my kidney functions tested.

      While you’re on the phone with the lab, ask them about the urine collection “hats” for women, if you’re female and have problems peeing into a cup. The “hat” is a plastic thingamajiggy that is place over the toilet bowl, and you pee into it instead of the toilet. For those of us who don’t have built in urine aiming devices, they’re much easier to use.

  25. QUESTION:
    Can anyone tell me if this is seizure activity or collapse?
    My dog is a bit of a mystery right now for my vet. He’s got several issues going on. His external symptoms are off and on lethargy, and collapse or seizure activity… this has been going on for about a year with weeks and months in between episodes. We recently brought him for 2 days of vomiting and diarrhea. We then found out he has all kinds of things going on inside… his kidneys were failing, he had anemia, and his liver enzymes were elevated (but not overly). My vet believed it was Chronic Kidney Disease. He was immediately put on IV fluids for 4 days, and his numbers came down drastically almost instantly. He was also administered antibiotics while there. She sent us home with Sub-Q fluids, and Denamarin (for his liver). He was doing so well! But then he had another seizure or collapse. We have had so many tests done now… he does not have Cushing’s, his SNAP test was negative, Lepto test was negative. What was strange was that his cortisol was low… although he did have a response to the ACTH test so he couldn’t be diagnosed with Addison’s. His electrolytes were normal, but his Na/K ratio was borderline. So my vet started him on Prednisone.
    He never had appetite issues. He always ate normally. He also never drank more than normal the way a CRF dog would. He’s been doing so well… but then last night again he had an episode. This time I actually caught a video to show my vet so she can see whether it is seizure activity or a collapse, but the office is closed all weekend. So I’m hoping someone online could recognize this, and help me out…

    This happened late at night around 11:30 pm. He was woken up out of a sound sleep, jumped up and started barking. He then fell (almost off the chair). He just fell limp. During this episode which lasted for about a minute, his breathing was normal, and his eyes did not seem to be darting
    around, but just looking around at each of us while we were filming. He couldn’t move his body it seemed. We tried calling him, and he reacted by lifting his head, but seemed weak, and laid his head back down. Then he all the sudden seemed to snap out of it. About 5 minutes later he
    seemed alittle drowsy, and not entirely himself. He was shaking, and seemed alittle scared. Then a few minutes later he fell back to sleep. Now today, he seems EXTREMELY tired, like he can barely keep his eyes open. When he is awake, he seems sort of dazed, glassy eyed, and shakes. He also seems more aggressive.
    Please if anyone recognizes this please let me know… I want to get my little guy better.

    • ANSWER:
      Has your vet considered Syncope? Has he had an ECG done?

  26. QUESTION:
    My wife has been sick for 7 months, had her gallbladder removed, what’s wrong?
    My wife has been sick for 7 months and has had no diagnosis, other than a bad gallbladder. She didn’t fit the classic symptoms, but she had it removed in October and things haven’t changed. The surgeon believes that her continued problems are not related to the gallbladder.

    Her main symptom is chronic and constant nausea, but she also has irregular bowl movements, an orange coating on her tongue, and has occasionally woke up at night with chills, shakes and goosebumps.

    She’s had numerous blood tests ruling out HIV/AIDs, Chrones, celiac disease, Addison’s disease, colitis, H Pyl., Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Giardia, Cryptospor, C diff., Lupus, a stomach emptying test, no known allergies, and no previous health issues except for symptoms related to what we thought/think is hypoglycemia. Her liver and kidney function tests have come back normal. She even had the Mirena birth control IUD removed early on in hopes this was messing her up. The only things that have come back abnormal are an unintentional loss of almost 40 pounds, and was told she had chronic endometritis.

    Any suggestions or advice is greatly appreciated.
    Thanks for the answer – no she’s not on any medications right now.

    • ANSWER:
      She may have to go back 4 more work on what she had done.She needs An ERPTO to detect residue stones or damage to the duct bile, caused by the stones b-4 they were removed.Sometime the Ampulla of vatar is too tight 4 the bile to flow through & causes symptoms until it’s opened up.I hope all will go well with her.Please tell her to get checked.

  27. QUESTION:
    Looking for the best way or place to find out what has made me extremely ill for years now?
    Ok…I am close to a 30 year old male. I have been extremely ill for 3.5 years with many non-specific symptoms. Lyme Disease fits more than anything out there and for a couple months I was responding to a Lyme treatment so well I felt like I was almost cured within 3 days of using iv antibiotics but when my liver enzymes elevted on my weekly test, the Doc. told me to stop for one week to give my liver a break. (This was 1 year ago by the way.)
    So when I stopped treatment temporarly I just crashed back to being super ill.
    I was put back on the antibiotic after 7 days and for the next 2 months it never started helping again!!! My picc line or iv tube was then pulled by my doc for 2 reasons being, 1. It was no longer working & 2. I had addmitted to using some drugs in highschool & the doc decided that because of this he would not replace the tube down the road to try it again because he couldn’t be gauranteed that I wouldn’t use the port to inject illicit drugs. My drug use was 10 years ago & I’m not proud of it but now I’m fighting for my life almost literally it’s that bad & after 2.5 years and about 60 doctors later the only thing that ever work was pulled just like that!
    The main reason is liability of my Doc. Which I understand especially because he is what they call a LLMD, (Lyme Literate Med. Doc.) & is was allready risking his licensce and clinic for treating me because chronic Lyme is basically taught to mainstream Docs. As non existent and the clincher here for me is that I have been for the most part, bedridden this whole time yet my blood work/labs come back normal for everything it seems.

    So if anyone even took the time to read this I want to thank you but if you care to comment then here are my main points/questions:

    1. I understand that many ppl suffer in life & sadly never get a diagnosis but I not only am suffering in a way that makes almost every living moment of my life almost completely unbearable, I have shown tremendous improvement with specific treatment no matter what my illness but doctors won’t risk treating me without a positive test for something SO…

    Question 1b. Knowing or not knowing all those details, if you were suffering as badly as I claim not knowing what is truly wrong & besides going to Mayo Clinic, were would the best place in the world be to try & figure out what is wrong or who to ask(not just my doctor)?
    I will go anywhere & do anything (almost anything) to try and get just a bit of improvement in my health!
    2. What rights do I have or where do I find out?
    3. Shouldn’t there be a way around the whole drug use history like a legal waiver or something?

    I just am looking for any serious advice and I just realized I think I’m only supposed to ask one question at a time and I know this was super long but how else do I get out my story to somebody in this world who might just have the one answer I need and really I meant to just ask one main question: is there somewhere, someone or something at all out there to try and help someone like me???
    I appoligize for the length of this but would sincerely be blessed by anyone who may have some kind of answer!

    Thank you and God Bless!
    2.

    • ANSWER:
      Try to write out one main symptom and put it on alternative medicine, there are sites
      on-line from people who have done things and they worked. If you do have some money,
      I’d recommend two areas, 1. a naturopath and 2. a Chinese doctor with acupunture technique.
      Sometimes Chinese doctors are covered under medical and can do this also. Chinese
      culture has been around for a lot longer than Western Medicine and over there, they’re
      not into money, but health. Try one of these things. But try to track everything the
      way you’re doing.

  28. QUESTION:
    Who can be my Dr. House? I have a mystery illness…?
    I will make this as short as possible. I am a 26 yr old female, in good shape and eat well. Ive had my gallbladder and appendix out. In march I came down with shingles (horrible pain). Two months later I had it again (sick all the while in between with every passing illness). In june I had a horrible sinus infection thing (maybe flu), I made lobster for my husband while I was recovering and had an anaphylactic reaction to it. Went to the doc to get tested, and had anaphylaxis from that. I had recurrent reaction 4 hours later when the meds wore off, then again in walmart days later from no known allergen. They put me on steroids, which took 6 weeks to taper off of and I was so sick I couldnt hardly do anything the whole time. I have had shingles twice again since. Every three weeks I get sick as a dog. I have this recurring illness no one can explain. Here are my symptoms

    -Swollen glands (esp on the right side, and my face swells on the right side when I sleep)
    -Ringing in my right ear, which comes and goes
    -Extreme fatigue, I am falling asleep sitting up when I slept great lastnight!
    -Stress intolerance
    -Tight lungs, I feel like I am having a constant mild asthma attack
    -Wierd symptom, but the asthma attack thing and coughing happens worse just before every bowel movement.
    -Joint pain, most especially wrists and knees. Much worse when I am tired.
    -Muscle aches, mainly lower back and legs
    -Random low grade fevers (99.0-99.6 and Im normally in the 97.’s)
    -Panic attacks (which I have never had before all of this)
    -Skin flushing
    -Pain where my liver is, and it is very tender to palpation
    -Chest pain, bilateral. Only prominent when all of my glands swell (esp inguinal glands which make it difficult to walk when they hurt so bad)

    I currently have all of these, but I now also have developed this skin rash I have had for two weeks. It looks like measles or roseola, but is not either. My primary care doc doesnt know what it is.

    Here are my labs
    CBC, CMP are fine, all within limits
    ANA neg x 3 checks
    Urine HIAA normal, but chromagranin A 86, then recheck 61.
    Rheumatoid factor of 11, normal is below 10. But most people don’t have it at all.
    All other autoimmune labs are normal
    Serum tryptase (for mast cell disorders) is normal
    Halter monitor shows PAC’s and PVC’s, but I was cleared for cardiac
    Lung function tests shows 9% improvement with meds, indicating bronchospasms
    Labs are still out for lyme disease and chronic mono

    My mom has Sjogren’s, which they said is a big possibility for me. But the rheumatologist just blew me off and told me to come back in a couple of years so my labs will be more indicative. Frustrating.

    In between these spells, I feel about 90%. Not much really bothers me and I have tons of energy, as I have my whole life. But every couple of weeks I am convinced I am dying of something. I am miserable, and it is really effecting my life. Then it goes away and I am okay. Someone tell me they have been through this and survived!!!
    By the way, the specialist I have been to include
    my primary care doc
    2 allergy specialist
    an endocrinologist
    a rheumatologist
    a cardiologist
    I am asking because they are stumped

    • ANSWER:
      A lot of people have been through this (or similar) and survived.

      Sounds an awful lot like Lyme disease. But the test they gave you (the ELISA) may well come back negative–because that test is highly unreliable, and often comes back negative, even when the person most definitely has Lyme disease.

      Recommend you read up at the following websites and see if anything here rings a bell for you:

      Good sources of info about Lyme disease:

      http://www.lymedisease.org

      http://www.ilads.org

      http://www.canlyme.com

      http://www.lymeinfo.net

      http://www.lymediseaseassociation.org

      http://www.lymenet.org

      http://www.igenex.com

      http://www.lymedoctor.com

      http://www.touchedbylyme.org

      http://www.facebook.com/lymedisease.org

  29. QUESTION:
    STD questions!! help please i hate reading and learning about this stuff XD lol?
    Genital Herpes
    1.How is genital herpes transmitted?

    2. Some people are infected with the herpes virus, but have no symptoms of the disease.
    True/False

    3. There is no cure for genital herpes, but it can be treated by:

    4.Symptoms of genital herpes include:

    5.Complications from genital herpes include:

    Gonorrhea

    6.Gonorrhea can be passed from the mother to her baby resulting in blindness and life-threatening blood infection in the baby? True or False

    7.In men, there are no symptoms or side effects if Gonorrhea is contracted. True or False

    8.Which female reproductive organs may be affected if Gonorrhea is transmitted to a woman?

    9.Symptoms of Gonorrhea will always appear within men during the first 7-10 days after exposure to the Neisseria gonorrheae bacterium? True or False

    10.Symptoms of gonorrheal infection include:

    11.Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease that has no cure. Once a person has been infected, he/she will always have Gonorrhea and can pass it to another person. True or False.

    12.In women, Gonorrhea is a common cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). What are symptoms of PID?

    Hepatitis C (HCV)
    13. Hepatitis may be transmitted when a person has had a blood transfusion and/or ever injected street drugs. True or False

    14. It is possible to have chronic Hepatitis C and not feel sick. True or False

    15. The part of the body most impacted by Hepatitis C is:

    16. There is currently a treatment for babies born with Hepatitis C. True or False

    17. What are ways to prevent contraction of Hepatitis C:

    18. Having unprotected sex with a Hepatitis C infected partner, may put you at risk for contracting HCV. True or False

    19. What are 4 symptoms related to Hepatitis C?
    a.
    b.
    c.
    d.

    20. How would going to a tattoo artist put a person at risk for contracting Hepatitis C?

    21. There is a treatment and a cure for Hepatitis C. True or False
    22. Over time HCV may lead to cirrhosis of the liver. True or False

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
    23. HPV is the most commonly sexually transmitted infection. True or False

    24. Symptoms of HPV include:

    25. High-risk HPV can lead to:

    26. There is no treatment for HPV, although it usually goes away on its own.
    True or False

    27. Someone can have HPV for years without knowing they are infected.
    True or False

    Syphilis
    28. Syphilis is transmitted when a person has oral, anal, or vaginal sex and comes in contact with a chancre (syphilis sore)? True or False

    29. The incubation period for Syphilis is:

    30. If the person is in Primary Syphilis he/she will USUALLY have what symptom(s)?

    31. During Latent Syphilis an infected person will show many symptoms including flu-like symptoms. True or False

    32. The long term health consequences during Latent Syphilis include damage to the brain, nerves, eyes, and heart. True or False

    33. The cure for Syphilis is:

    34. During pregnancy the syphilis bacterium can infect the unborn baby depending upon how long she has been infected. How does this affect the unborn baby?

    35. Syphilis has symptoms which look like many other diseases. Because of this Syphilis is often called:

    • ANSWER:
      Gee, why don’t you try doing your own homework.

  30. QUESTION:
    Herbal medicine for cirrhosis?
    My sister had Inherited diseases of iron disorder (hereditary hemochromatosis) from my father. This diseases damage her liver cell and her liver had a small scar (cirrhosis). She has never been drink or got chronic hepatitis B and C. But She still has gone through everday with the signs and symptoms of cirrhosis — weight loss, fatigue, sleepless, abdoment pain. Everybody has any suggestion or any different medicine such as Herbal herbs and nutritional supplements , please tell us.

    • ANSWER:
      Your sister is no doubt being followed by a hematologist for her hemochromatosis and probably gets routine transfusions. The ONLY things she should be taking are what her doctor has prescribed. I’m sure that you love her and want to help her and you may feel helpless to do so. But please do not solicit suggestions. The majority of the people who answer these questions have no medical background, no understandiing of anatomy and physiology, no knowledge of the disease process. Any advice given could be potentially harmful. The best help you can give your sister is to make sure she follows her doctor’s advice, give her emotional support and assist her in her daily activities.

  31. QUESTION:
    health questions help?
    What is key to improve cancer’s survival rates?

    improve people’s nutrition and lifestyle choices
    more research into better chemotherapy drugs
    programs that stress early detection and intervention
    better surgical techniques to remove all cancer cells

    34. What is the disease that involves changes in the nerves and chemicals of the brain leading to memory loss, personality changes, and complete dependency?

    Parkinson’s
    Alzheimer’s
    Paget’s
    Grave’s

    35. Which of the following is not a disorder related to hypertension?

    congestive heart failure
    stroke
    diabetes mellitus
    heart attack

    36. How is hepatitis B typically transmitted?

    fecal-oral route
    bacteria and its spores
    contaminated blood or sexual contact
    breast-feeding

    37. Which STD can cause blindness in a newborn baby if it infects the baby’s eyes during the birth process while producing a greenish yellowish drainage from the reproductive organs of the infected adults?

    syphilis
    gonorrhea
    genital herpes
    chlamydia

    38. Which STD begins as chancres or open lesions on the reproductive organs and can invade the nerous system causing difficulty speaking, headaches, blurred or diminishing vision, seisures, problems with memory and thinking, and depression?

    syphilis
    gonorrhea
    genital herpes
    chlamydia

    39. Which organ is affected by hepatitis?

    brain
    stomach
    uterus
    liver

    40. Which of the following is not a form of anthrax infection?

    digestive (gastrointestinal)
    circulatory (blood)
    skin (cutaneous)
    respiratory (inhalation)

    41. The lack of which of the following hormones from the pancreas prevents the body from regulating its own blood sugar?

    insulin
    adrenaline
    testosterone
    melanin

    42. Which of the following bacterial STDs is the most common in the United States causing the formation of a painless lesion which may result in scarring of the pelvic organs and sterility?

    gonorrhea
    genital warts
    syphilis
    chlamydia

    43. What is the cause of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

    bacteria
    virus
    prion
    fungi

    44. Which of the following best describes symptoms of BSE (Mad Cow Disease)?

    fatty plaque in the arteries leading to chest pain
    loss of the ability to sense, move, and think
    skin rash, digestive disturbances, and difficulty breathing
    severe headache or no symptoms at all

    45. Which of the following best describes symptoms of diabetes mellitus?

    crushing chest pain, nausea, weakness, and fatigue
    excessive urination, thirst, and hunger
    flu-like symptoms, headache, and stiff neck
    loss of coordination on one side, slurred speech, and difficulty concentrating

    46. Which of the following could cause a non-communicable disease?

    viruses
    bacteria
    smoking
    fungi

    47. Which of the following is an example of a communicable disease?

    Alzheimer’s disease
    common cold
    heart disease
    diabetes mellitus

    48. Which of the following is NOT a reason it is difficult to cope with a chronic illness?

    financial obligations to cover treatment and care that health insurance may not cover
    loss of physical independence which requires more assistance with the activities of daily living
    knowledge that the person will get better with the appropriate medications
    dealing with depression and grief for the diagnosis

    49. When does the HIV positive stage move into full-blown AIDS?

    when the red blood cell count rises above 7 million cells per cubic millimeter
    when the cells have metastasized from their original location to the brain
    when the heart fails to pump blood properly causing swelling and difficulty breathing
    when the T-cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter

    50. Which of the following is NOT a leading cause of death in the United States today?

    pneumonia
    heart attack
    stroke
    diabetes mellitus

    • ANSWER:
      ask the data from the DOH

  32. QUESTION:
    NEED HELP PLEASE 4 HEALTH 1.Which of the following are carcinogens commonly found in tobacco smoke?
    1.Which of the following are carcinogens commonly found in tobacco smoke?

    A.Cyanide, formaldehyde, lead, and vinyl chloride
    B.Arsenic, nickel, benzopyrene, and polonium
    C.Cloves, bidis, and kreteks
    D.tobacco smoke does not contain carcinogens
    2.A pipe smoker who does not inhale

    A.is safe from many of the dangerous chemicals found in tobacco and smoke.
    B.is using a flavored product called a bidi.
    C.does not take in tar and nicotine, whereas a cigarette smoker does.
    D.absorbs nicotine and other chemicals through the inside of the mouth.
    3.Some people believe that smoking only one or two cigarettes will not harm them. However, all of the following are early effects a person can experience from smoking EXCEPT

    A.liver damage.
    B.nausea and dizziness.
    C.clothes and hair that smell smoky.
    D.shortness of breath.
    4.Which of the following is not a symptom of chronic bronchitis?

    A.Swollen lining of the airways
    B.Mucus and coughing
    C.Difficulty breathing
    D.High blood pressure
    5.Which of the following does not correctly complete the sentence? ”When tissue in the lung is exposed to cancer-causing chemicals from tobacco…”

    A.the lung deforms and turns black.
    B.the tissue can never recover from the risk of disease.
    C.cells can grow out of control and form tumors.
    D.the risk for developing lung cancer increases.
    6.Which of the following is not a long-term effect of smoking on a person’s physical appearance?

    A.Yellow teeth
    B.Wrinkles
    C.Yellow fingers
    D.Increased muscle tone
    7.Which of the following statements about tobacco and associated health problems is true?

    A.Only smokers can get cancer from tobacco.
    B.Smoking can lead to low birth-weight babies.
    C.Smokers usually recover from flu and other viruses faster than nonsmokers do.
    D.Smoking affects only the heart and lungs.

    • ANSWER:
      1 – A
      2 – D
      3 – A
      4 – D
      5 – B
      6 – D
      7 – B

      i think

  33. QUESTION:
    health questions, not very many. I had 60 but i answered 45. Please help?
    Note: I have 45 out of 60 answered, these ones i need help with…

    Which of the following is NOT a reason it is difficult to cope with a chronic illness?

    financial obligations to cover treatment and care that health insurance may not cover
    loss of physical independence which requires more assistance with the activities of daily living
    knowledge that the person will get better with the appropriate medications
    dealing with depression and grief for the diagnosis

    When does the HIV positive stage move into full-blown AIDS?

    when the red blood cell count rises above 7 million cells per cubic millimeter
    when the cells have metastasized from their original location to the brain
    when the heart fails to pump blood properly causing swelling and difficulty breathing
    when the T-cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter

    Which of the following is NOT a leading cause of death in the United States today?

    pneumonia
    heart attack
    stroke
    diabetes mellitus

    Which of the following is not a form of anthrax infection?

    digestive
    circulatory
    skin
    respiratory

    The lack of which of the following hormones from the pancreas prevents the body from regulating its own blood sugar?

    insulin
    adrenaline
    testosterone
    melanin

    Which of the following bacterial STDs is the most common in the United States causing the formation of a painless lesion which may result in scarring of the pelvic organs and sterility?

    gonorrhea
    genital warts
    syphilis
    chlamydia

    What is the cause of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy?

    bacteria
    virus
    prion
    fungi

    Which of the following best describes symptoms of BSE (Mad Cow Disease)?

    fatty plaque in the arteries leading to chest pain
    loss of the ability to sense, move, and think
    skin rash, digestive disturbances, and difficulty breathing
    severe headache or no symptoms at all

    Which of the following best describes symptoms of diabetes mellitus?

    crushing chest pain, nausea, weakness, and fatigue
    excessive urination, thirst, and hunger
    flu-like symptoms, headache, and stiff neck
    loss of coordination on one side, slurred speech, and difficulty concentrating

    Which of the following could cause a non-communicable disease?

    viruses
    bacteria
    smoking
    fungi

    Which of the following is an example of a communicable disease?

    Alzheimer’s disease
    common cold
    heart disease
    diabetes mellitus

    Which of the following is not a disorder related to hypertension?

    congestive heart failure
    stroke
    diabetes mellitus
    heart attack

    How is hepatitis B typically transmitted?

    fecal-oral route
    bacteria and its spores
    contaminated blood or sexual contact
    breast-feeding

    Which STD can cause blindness in a newborn baby if it infects the baby’s eyes during the birth process while producing a greenish yellowish drainage from the reproductive organs of the infected adults?

    syphilis
    gonorrhea
    genital herpes
    chlamydia

    Which STD begins as chancres or open lesions on the reproductive organs and can invade the nerous system causing difficulty speaking, headaches, blurred or diminishing vision, seisures, problems with memory and thinking, and depression?

    syphilis
    gonorrhea
    genital herpes
    chlamydia

    Which organ is affected by hepatitis?

    brain
    stomach
    uterus
    liver

    • ANSWER:
      Thank-you for the brain exercise. These questions are always fun.
      1-3
      2-2
      3-1
      4-3
      5-1
      6-2
      7-2
      8-2
      9-3
      10-2
      11-1
      12-1
      13-3
      14-4

  34. QUESTION:
    I’ve been sick for 5 years, why havent my doctors checked for Cancer or even brought it up?
    I first got sick when I was 16 out of nowhere.
    It started off with Nausea, loss of appetite and dizziness.
    About a year and a half later the symptoms got less severe.
    Then I started having severe fatigue, shortness of breath, pain behind the eyes, wounds that dont heal well, purple toes, gas, occasional stomach pain, anxiety, and chronic runny nose.

    I’ve been to alot of doctors and they can’t seem to find anything.
    I’ve been diagnosed with IBS..which doesnt explain anything.
    They’ve tested for:
    Diabetes
    Thyroid issues
    Celiac disease
    Lupus
    Adrenal issues
    Vitamin levels
    Liver blood test (I’m not sure if that included Hepatitis.)

    I have cancer in my family and I worry sometimes that my problem could be something serious… it’s been going on long enough and no one can tell me whats wrong..

    I do have a cyst on my ovary and a polyp on my gallbladder…what makes my doctors so sure that they arent cancerous?

    I just wish I could get better

    • ANSWER:
      IBS can lead to worse diseases, like cancer, but let’s hope you aren’t there. we have had great results treating people with IBS with natural supplements: Morinda Supreme and Melia Supreme, as well as an anti-fungal diet for 2-3 weeks. Learn more about IBS at http://fibromyalgia-irritable-bowel-candida-support.com/about-irritable-bowel-syndrome.aspx

      You would be surprised how well the protocol works. We have had people recovering from cancer do the protocol and have their white blood cell count increase.

      the best of luck.

  35. QUESTION:
    I’ve been sick for 5 years, why havent my doctors mentioned or checked for Cancer?
    I first got sick when I was 16 out of nowhere.
    It started off with Nausea, loss of appetite and dizziness.
    About a year and a half later the symptoms got less severe.
    Then I started having severe fatigue, shortness of breath, pain behind the eyes, wounds that dont heal well, purple toes, gas, occasional stomach pain, anxiety, and chronic runny nose.

    I’ve been to alot of doctors and they can’t seem to find anything.
    I’ve been diagnosed with IBS..which doesnt explain anything.
    They’ve tested for:
    Diabetes
    Thyroid issues
    Celiac disease
    Lupus
    Adrenal issues
    Vitamin levels
    Liver blood test (I’m not sure if that included Hepatitis.)

    I have cancer in my family and I worry sometimes that my problem could be something serious… it’s been going on long enough and no one can tell me whats wrong..

    I do have a cyst on my ovary and a polyp on my gallbladder…what makes my doctors so sure that they arent cancerous?

    I just wish I could get better

    • ANSWER:
      Since you have a cyst on an ovary, I’d be suspicious of PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome). It commonly gets overlooked because the symptoms can be quite similar to diabetes, digestive disorders, autoimmune disorders, etc. The symptoms can vary greatly from person to person which makes even more difficult to diagnose. Also, PCOS can be connected to gallbladder issues which leave me to wonder if the polyp on your gallbladder is due to stones which could also cause many of your symptoms.

      Given the age of onset of your symptoms, a diagnosis would lean toward PCOS since onset is typically within a few years of starting your period.

      Good luck and take care – I hope you’re able to get a diagnosis soon so you can focus on treatment and feeling better.

  36. QUESTION:
    Please help me with my science questions?
    these are questions i need to answer that i have no idea what the answers are. please help and tell me how sure you are on the questions you know.

    1. if the common bile duct is blocked, the skin will become:
    a. cyanotic
    b. jaundiced
    c.ischemic
    d.icteric

    2. the liver manufactures all of the following plasma proteins except:
    a. albumin
    b.fibrinogen
    c.prothrombin
    d.hemoglobin

    3. the liver prepares urea, the chief waste product of:
    a. protien meabolism
    b.glucose metabolism
    c. fatty acids
    d. glycerol

    4. the gallbladder stores bile, which is released when:
    a.foods high in fat enter the stomach
    b.foods with protein content enter the stomach
    c. foods high in fat enter the duodunum
    d.foods low in fat content enter the stomach

    5. the large intestine is:
    a. longer in length and larger in diameter that the small intestine
    b. the same size as the small intestine
    c. shorter in length and larger in diameter that the small intestine
    d.shorter in length but with the same diameter as the small intestine

    6. below the ileocecal valce is a blind puch called the :
    a. appendix
    b. cecum
    c. sigmoid
    d. rectum

    7. the final structure of the colon is the:
    a. sigmoid colon
    b. descending colon
    c. rectum
    d. anal canal

    FILL IN THE BLANKS-

    word bank- cirrhosis, constipation, crohn’s disease, diarrea, diverticula, heartburn, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, heatal hernia, histamine, H. pylori, gallstones, gastroesophageal reflux, pyloric stenosis, stomach cancer, stressm ulcer

    1. many symptoms of degestive problems are caused by________
    2. when the sphincter muscle is weak and the stomach contents flow up into the esophagus, the condition is _________
    3.___________ _____________ occurs in many people over age 50, the stomach protrudes above the diaphragm.
    4. A backflow of the acidic gastric juices causes indigestion or________
    5. a narrowing of the sphincter at the lower end of the stomach causing projectile vomiting is _____ ______
    6. a lesion that occurs in the linging of the stomach or small intestine is an__________
    7. research shows that most ulcers are caused by the bacteria __________
    8. drugs that reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach are called ___________ blockers.
    9. Chronic dehydration, ulceration of the bowel, and personal embarrassment are symptoms of ______________ ___________
    10. __________ is a viral infection of the liver, spread through contaminated food and water, enteric precautions must be followed
    11. the majority of people over age 60 have little sacs called ______________, that develop in the wall of the colon
    12. loose, watery bowel movements that can lead to dehydration are called ___________________
    13. a condition of hardened stool that can be caused by anxiety, fear, fright, is known as ________________

    • ANSWER:
      Part 1

      1. b , 2. d, 3. b

      Part 2

      2. gastro reflux
      3. hiatal hernia
      4. heartburn
      5. pyloric stenosis
      6. ulcer
      7. H. pylori
      8. histmaine
      9. Crohn’s
      10. Hep A
      11. diverticula
      12. diarrhea
      13. constipation

  37. QUESTION:
    Is it possible for a mono spot test to come up negative and still have the virus?
    Ok, so not so much full blown mono, as the virus that causes it. For 2 years, I have had unceasing exhaustion, swollen lymph nodes in my neck, an almost constant sore throat and generally feel like crap most of the time. I saw 2 traditional doctors who essentially told me it was all in my head and blew me off. So I started seeing a naturopathic doctor. The first thing he did was send me for a mono spot test, but it came back negative for the antibodies. Since then, he has sent me for blood tests for everything under the sun. Every infection he’s tested for has come back negative, yet I have an elevated white blood cell count. my liver enzyme tests came back with low counts (but not hugely out of the normal range) on one, and my adrenal function test came back that something was screwy with my adrenal hormones (which may just be adrenal exhaustion from being sick, this was a recent test, and he’s looking into causes). Somehow, I have gut feeling I have an infection of some sort that is long standing in my body. After hours and hours of research on the Internet, my symptoms seem to match up so closely to chronic Epstien Barr (chronic mono), it’s scary. I had every other childhood disease in the book, and it makes no sense why I never got EB (shown in the lack of antibodies in my blood work), considering an estimated 95% of adults have had it at some point. I am just so tired of being sick. My doctor has said he kind of leans towards the idea I have a long standing infection too, since he has ruled out so many other causes of these symptoms. My doctor said there are millions of bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral infections that could be making me sick, and it will take time to narrow it down. Not real encouraging. I want to ask for another mono spot test. I may be grasping at straws, but it seems very likely. So I’m wondering, is it possible to get a negative test even if you really have it?

    • ANSWER:
      yes its called a false positive and it happens more often than you would think .. just go get tested again

  38. QUESTION:
    Please help him with these science questions?
    i need help with these questions im stuck on

    1. if the common bile duct is blocked, the skin will become:
    a. cyanotic
    b. jaundiced
    c.ischemic
    d.icteric

    2. the liver manufactures all of the following plasma proteins except:
    a. albumin
    b.fibrinogen
    c.prothrombin
    d.hemoglobin

    3. the liver prepares urea, the chief waste product of:
    a. protien meabolism
    b.glucose metabolism
    c. fatty acids
    d. glycerol

    4. the gallbladder stores bile, which is released when:
    a.foods high in fat enter the stomach
    b.foods with protein content enter the stomach
    c. foods high in fat enter the duodunum
    d.foods low in fat content enter the stomach

    5. the large intestine is:
    a. longer in length and larger in diameter that the small intestine
    b. the same size as the small intestine
    c. shorter in length and larger in diameter that the small intestine
    d.shorter in length but with the same diameter as the small intestine

    6. below the ileocecal valce is a blind puch called the :
    a. appendix
    b. cecum
    c. sigmoid
    d. rectum

    7. the final structure of the colon is the:
    a. sigmoid colon
    b. descending colon
    c. rectum
    d. anal canal

    FILL IN THE BLANKS-

    word bank- cirrhosis, constipation, crohn’s disease, diarrea, diverticula, heartburn, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, heatal hernia, histamine, H. pylori, gallstones, gastroesophageal reflux, pyloric stenosis, stomach cancer, stressm ulcer

    1. many symptoms of degestive problems are caused by________
    2. when the sphincter muscle is weak and the stomach contents flow up into the esophagus, the condition is _________
    3.___________ _____________ occurs in many people over age 50, the stomach protrudes above the diaphragm.
    4. A backflow of the acidic gastric juices causes indigestion or________
    5. a narrowing of the sphincter at the lower end of the stomach causing projectile vomiting is _____ ______
    6. a lesion that occurs in the linging of the stomach or small intestine is an__________
    7. research shows that most ulcers are caused by the bacteria __________
    8. drugs that reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach are called ___________ blockers.
    9. Chronic dehydration, ulceration of the bowel, and personal embarrassment are symptoms of ______________ ___________
    10. __________ is a viral infection of the liver, spread through contaminated food and water, enteric precautions must be followed
    11. the majority of people over age 60 have little sacs called ______________, that develop in the wall of the colon
    12. loose, watery bowel movements that can lead to dehydration are called ___________________
    13. a condition of hardened stool that can be caused by anxiety, fear, fright, is known as ________________

    • ANSWER:
      MULTIPLE CHOICE:

      1. B
      2. D
      3. A
      4. C
      5. C
      6. A
      7. A

      FILL IN THE BLANKS:

      1. GALLSTONES
      2. GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX
      3. HIATAL HERNIA
      4. HEARTBURN
      5. PYLORIC STENOSIS
      6. ULCER
      7. H. PYLORI
      8. HISTAMINE
      9. CROHN’S DISEASE
      10. HEPATITIS A
      11. DIVERTICULA
      12. DIARRHEA
      13. CONSTIPATION

  39. QUESTION:
    Can anyone answer these questions about science?
    please help me with these science questions. if you only know one answer then that is enough to satisfy me.

    1. if the common bile duct is blocked, the skin will become:
    a. cyanotic
    b. jaundiced
    c.ischemic
    d.icteric

    2. the liver manufactures all of the following plasma proteins except:
    a. albumin
    b.fibrinogen
    c.prothrombin
    d.hemoglobin

    3. the liver prepares urea, the chief waste product of:
    a. protien meabolism
    b.glucose metabolism
    c. fatty acids
    d. glycerol

    4. the gallbladder stores bile, which is released when:
    a.foods high in fat enter the stomach
    b.foods with protein content enter the stomach
    c. foods high in fat enter the duodunum
    d.foods low in fat content enter the stomach

    5. the large intestine is:
    a. longer in length and larger in diameter that the small intestine
    b. the same size as the small intestine
    c. shorter in length and larger in diameter that the small intestine
    d.shorter in length but with the same diameter as the small intestine

    6. below the ileocecal valce is a blind puch called the :
    a. appendix
    b. cecum
    c. sigmoid
    d. rectum

    7. the final structure of the colon is the:
    a. sigmoid colon
    b. descending colon
    c. rectum
    d. anal canal

    FILL IN THE BLANKS-

    word bank- cirrhosis, constipation, crohn’s disease, diarrea, diverticula, heartburn, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, heatal hernia, histamine, H. pylori, gallstones, gastroesophageal reflux, pyloric stenosis, stomach cancer, stressm ulcer

    1. many symptoms of degestive problems are caused by________
    2. when the sphincter muscle is weak and the stomach contents flow up into the esophagus, the condition is _________
    3.___________ _____________ occurs in many people over age 50, the stomach protrudes above the diaphragm.
    4. A backflow of the acidic gastric juices causes indigestion or________
    5. a narrowing of the sphincter at the lower end of the stomach causing projectile vomiting is _____ ______
    6. a lesion that occurs in the linging of the stomach or small intestine is an__________
    7. research shows that most ulcers are caused by the bacteria __________
    8. drugs that reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach are called ___________ blockers.
    9. Chronic dehydration, ulceration of the bowel, and personal embarrassment are symptoms of ______________ ___________
    10. __________ is a viral infection of the liver, spread through contaminated food and water, enteric precautions must be followed
    11. the majority of people over age 60 have little sacs called ______________, that develop in the wall of the colon
    12. loose, watery bowel movements that can lead to dehydration are called ___________________
    13. a condition of hardened stool that can be caused by anxiety, fear, fright, is known as ________________

    • ANSWER:
      1. B
      2. B
      3. A
      4. A
      5. A
      6. A
      7. C

      1. gallstones
      2. gastroesophageal reflux
      3. hiatal hernia
      4. heartburn
      5. pyloric stenosis
      6. ulcer
      7. H. pylori
      8. histamine
      9. Chrohns Disease
      10. hep A
      11. diverticula
      12. diarrhea
      13. constipation

      I’m not so sure about #2 in the first part, but think I have the rest of them right. Hope so. Next time, you must do your own homework. I’ll help you out this time.

  40. QUESTION:
    Blood Test and Hepatitis concern?
    Hepatitis and blood question please?
    Hello, I found that I have Hep. B chronic. also exams result as: X-Ray (Pulmonory venous pressure and/or lung disease), CT (mosaic attenuation pattern) other CT (mosaic perfusion), Ultrasound (enlarged liver), blood hep. B and H. Pylori, Stress test (normal), EKG (normal)
    Now: another blood test – alt 85 and ast 48 (what is that means in this situation?
    My symptoms: upper abdominal chest pain (severe) with swollen on my lef side under the rib cage. Chest and back pain radiating toward lower back with some symptoms of cramp. Deep mid chest towards left pain and lack of breath (breating seems to be normal but with difficult) and tiredness.

    DO YOU THING I HAVE ANY SERIOUS CONCERN LIKE: Cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, cancer. Please give me your opnion and knowledge. appreciate if you do not send me website. I just need your knowledge and opinion – thank you very much

    • ANSWER:
      The ALT and AST tests are liver enzymes. Your ALT is very high, and your AST is slightly elevated compared to norms. This means that liver cells were damaged at the time of the test. This does not mean anything one way or another about your liver’s ability to function – it only means that something is stressing or killing some of the liver cells. The cause for the cell damage could be several things, depending on what your were doing up to the night before the test. If you were drinking more than a small amount of alcohol, or taking Tylenol or prescription medication that affects the liver, you would expect these two enzymes to be elevated.

      The pains you are reporting are unlikely to have anything to do with the elevated liver enzymes – these levels commonly occur anytime a person takes Tylenol or has more than one or two drinks of alcohol. The pains could be caused by an enlarged liver or spleen, they could be from indigestion or other intestinal distress, or signs of coronary disease.

      If I were you, I would take one half of an aspirin, and call 911 or have someone drive me to the ER right away to make sure these are not signs of a heart attack.

  41. QUESTION:
    hepatitis and blood question please?
    Hello, I found that I have Hep. B chronic. also exams result as: X-Ray (Pulmonory venous pressure and/or lung disease), CT (mosaic attenuation pattern) other CT (mosaic perfusion), Ultrasound (enlarged liver), blood hep. B and H. Pylori, Stress test (normal), EKG (normal)
    Now: another blood test – alt 85 and ast 48 (what is that means in this situation?
    My symptoms: upper abdominal chest pain (severe) with swollen on my lef side under the rib cage. Chest and back pain radiating toward lower back with some symptoms of cramp. Deep mid chest towards left pain and lack of breath (breating seems to be normal but with difficult) and tiredness.

    DO YOU THING I HAVE ANY SERIOUS CONCERN LIKE: Cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, cancer. Please give me your opnion and knowledge. appreciate if you do not send me website. I just need your knowledge and opinion – thank you very much

    • ANSWER:
      From your description it sound like you have cirrhosis, (we’d worry about cancer if you had said “I’m losing weight”)

      Your enlarged liver on the RIGHT SIDE may be causing what is called portal hypertension which causes venous blood backflow (like a traffic jam) to the spleen, (your spleen is on the left) it is a very vascularized organ and is probably being inflatted like a water balloon, causing you pain on the LEFT SIDE. The cirrohosis which is (the breakdown/destruction of liver cells) caused by the Hep B. virus is the culprit behind the liver enlargement.

      The reason you have chest symptoms is also due to this cirrohosis, in all that destruction of liver cell, there are protolytic liver enzymes that are released. No longer confined to the liver they may react with the inner lining of your body cavity called the pleura. This will cause the pleura to be stiffen or even inflammed, and since the liver is within proximity to the pleural lining of your lungs (ex. diaphram), you develop a difficulty to breath and pain upon breathing, because of this inflammation. It also explains in small part to your abdominal pain, but more due to the enlargement of your liver.

      Paul R. did a great job of explaining to you what the labs were for, it is important to note the numbers (normal ALT & AST are 8-20u/L), the higher the numbers are the worse condition your liver may be in.

      As for your back pain, I am concern that you may have some sort of kidney involvement. But if you are on a Hep B medication called Adefovir (Preveon) then it is a side effect of that medication. While the liver is a hardy organ and will regenerate, you need to see a good doctor and stick with the prescribed regiment.

      Also please do not drink alcohol, or take tylenol (they are process by your liver, which is on sick leave right now, and should not be stressed). Consult your doctor if you are going to take any over the counter medication including those herbal medicines. Also be careful of what you eat, especially seafood & shellfish.

  42. QUESTION:
    Gastroenterology question, PLEASE HELP!?
    For the past 8 months, I’ve experienced chronic abdominal pain in all 4 quadrants. It’s been a shooting pain that does not seem to be associated with food. Lately (for the past week), the pain has been worse and I’ve had light colored, soft stools that float and don’t hold together. This started a week ago but the pain started 8 months ago. Everytime I lay on my right side or lay on my stomach, I get a sharp pain right below my rib in the middle of my abdomen (maybe an inch to the right of the midline).
    Here are my symptoms:
    * sharp abdominal pain located just below my ribs and in the middle (maybe an inch to the right of my midline)
    * abdominal pain started 8 months ago but has gradually gotten worse
    * pale, soft stools. Food runs right through me.
    * quick, intermittent, shooting pain in my lower abdomen, along my beltline.

    Tests done so far:
    Celiac Disease (negative)
    CT Scan (3 small hemangiomas on liver about 1.4cm ea.)
    Abdominal Ultrasound (hemangiomas and tiny gallstone <1mm)
    Colonoscopy (negative)
    Upper endoscopy (negative, and biopsies negative)
    LOTS of bloodwork, nothing showing up

    Could this be my pancreas? There is definitely something wrong and my doctors don't seem to be concerned but yet, the abdominal pain wakes me up out of sleep and is off and on all day long. This has been gradually getting worse for 8 months so I'm very concerned. Could a problem with the pancreas cause lower abdominal pain as well as upper pain? Please help.
    Thank you. They did do an abdominal ultrasound to check for gallstones and found one small stone <1mm which is unlikely to cause pain. BUT, they couldn't see my pancreas during the ultrasound because of gas in my stomach. I also had an abdominal CT 6 months ago and nothing showed up (other than benign hemangiomas on my liver). I'm so frustrated. Thank you for your replies.

    • ANSWER:
      I have many problems similar to this going on right now. I have abdominal pain and even under my rib. I have to have my gallbladder removed and there are many movable gallstones of different sizes that the doctors have not told me where they move to. I have nodules on my lungs and adrenal gland that has to be monitored through CT scans. There is also an adenoma. ( a noncancerous tumor.) I also have a hernia and will need a screen placed in me to reinforce my abdomen and keep organs from bulging out. You may want to consider another CT scan with dye injection and an ultrasound. Good luck and I hope they can find the problem. I have problems with gas, bloating and with my bowels. Watch the foods you eat. The doctors should tell you what to eat. I cannot have surgeries right now because I still have a DVT (deep vein thrombosis or major blood clot that I was hospitalized for and treating. I now have to take Warfarin for the blood clot. The surgeon won’t touch me until it is gone and I can be off the Warfarin. My surgeon has told me that my gallbladder has gotten worse and needs to come out. The CT scan should show your pancreas too. A doctor can feel a hernia nad this is a possibility. So ask for more tests and ask the doctor to feel for hernias. I wish you well and hope they can find the problem.

  43. QUESTION:
    Could we reduce chlorine in water by utilizing lemons?

    http://www.quantumbalancing.com/news/lemon%20water.htm

    Water spiked with fresh organic limes and lemons:

    1.) It is an antiseptic, or is an agent that prevents sepsis [the presence of pathogenic bacteria] or putrefaction [decomposition of tissue]

    2.) It is also anti-scorbutic, a term meaning a remedy which will prevent disease and assist in cleansing the system of impurities

    3.) symptoms of indigestion such as heartburn, bloating and belching are relieved

    4.) By drinking lemon juice regularly, the bowels are aided in eliminating waste more efficiently thus controlling constipation and diarrhea

    5.) a wonderful stimulant to the liver and is a dissolvent of uric acid and other poisons, liquefies the bile

    6.) Sufferers of chronic rheumatism and gout will benefit by taking lemon juice, also those who have a tendency to bleed, uterine hemorrhages, etc.; rickets and tuberculosis

    7.) In pregnancy, it will help to build bone in the child

    8.) potassium content, it will nourish the brain and nerve cells

    9.) magnesium, in conjunction with calcium, has an important part to play in the formation of albumen in the blood
    a.) lemon contains potassium 48.3, calcium 29.9, phosphorus 11.1, magnesium 4.4. Lemons are useful in treating asthma, biliousness, colds, coughs, sore throat, diphtheria, la grippe [flu or influenza], heartburn, liver complaint[s], scurvy, fevers and rheumatism

    10.) calcium builds up the bony structure and makes healthy teeth.

    There’s more information regarding adding organic lemon or lime to water… Check the above mentioned link and page down to “Amazing Health Benefits”.

    Could this be a way to reduce chlorine in our public water supply, and provide health benefits at the same time?

    http://www.stopglobalwarming.org/sgw_tellafriend.asp

    • ANSWER:
      I’m not sure, but this is a great idea.

  44. QUESTION:
    Why am I so exhausted?
    I get plenty of sleep (about 8 hours a night). I drink a lot of water (about 3 bottles a day), and I eat a very healthy nutritionally balanced doctor prescribed diet (all organic, mostly made from scratch, no junk food or heavily processed food or caffeinated drinks). I take a woman’s multivitamin, probiotic supplement, digestive enzymes, silica, apple cider vinegar shot and cod liver oil every day (as per the doctor). And I walk 2 miles every day. I don’t drink alcohol and I don’t take any medications at all (otc or prescriptions) so that’s not what could be making me drowsy. By all means I should feel great, but instead I’m so tired I can barely get out of bed in the morning and feel like I’m half asleep all day. I will also have “episodes” during the day where everything starts sounding weird and the room begins “shifting” and my vision goes in and out until I cannot stay awake no matter how hard I try, and just fall over asleep. When I wake up after a few minutes, I feel totally fine. I’m baffled as to what is causing this, so is my doctor.

    I do have Crohn’s disease, but neither my doctor nor I think it is the cause of my tiredness. I have had no symptoms of a flare up, and have felt really very good for the past 2 years since I adopted a specialized diet/exercise/sleep routine recommended by my doctor when medications weren’t helping me (which I have not broken or slipped up on). This exhaustion thing only hit me a few months ago, but it’s been getting progressively worse. They ran blood tests and urine tests, and I don’t have anything that appears abnormal or too high/too low and I don’t have any infections. I had a colonoscopy, MRI, and a abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound, and there is nothing that appears wrong or abnormal inside either. I’m really worried. My gastroenterologist is out of ideas for tests, and he doesn’t really know who to refer me to since they can’t find anything medically wrong and my only symptom is exhaustion and those weird episodes. He ruled out chronic fatigue syndrome because the episodes I’m having don’t fit the bill, they’re just a mystery. I am worried that whatever it is may set off my crohn’s if I don’t take care of it, and then I’d really have problems.

    Have any of you had anything similar to this happen to you or have any ideas on what might be going on?

    • ANSWER:
      Sounds like you should be investigated for narcolepsy or other sleep disorders, like sleep apnea, which could be affecting your sleep cycle so much that you’re unable to stay awake. While narcolepsy is rare, its not so rare that it’s not a possibility and should definately be investigated given your symptoms.

      http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/narcolepsy/detail_narcolepsy.htm

      Your doctor should refer you to a sleep lab ASAP, as all other options that seem obvious sound like they’ve been investigated (B12 defeciency, iron defeciency, hypothyroidism, etc.)

      (and unrelated – I also have an amazon (BFA not DYH) named Kiwi :) )

  45. QUESTION:
    Cystic Fibrosis….do you know what it is?
    Hello,
    Please, anyone who opened this forum, read what I have to say. I’m not fake! This just means a lot to me. Yes, I’m looking for sponsors but I’m also looking to spread the awareness of Cystic Fibrosis. Not many people know of this life threatening disease.

    My Story….
    I’m a 16 yr old high school student. Every year I fund raise for GREAT STRIDES which raising money to find a cure for CF(Cystic Fibrosis).

    My little sister, Jennifer M. Hoyland, passes away on November 9, 2006 at the age of 11. She was a very positive person that loved to help people. She always held her head up high even when things weren’t looking very good. You would never guess that she was diagnosed with CF when she was 6 months old.

    In February of ’06, Jennifer got a double lung transplant. She got to live like a normal child and play with her friends without getting sick or stopping for treatments but that didn’t last long. On a trip to Hawaii to swim w/ the dolphins for her birthday that the Make-A-Wish foundation planned for her. It was suppose to be a happy time but she got really sick. She was flown to Stanford Hospital but they didn’t know what was wrong. Later, the doctors had figured out the lungs that she had came with the CMV virus. A virus that 80% of the population had but doesn’t effect us.

    On October 18 of ’06, Jennifer went on life support. We stayed by her side days but I had to go back to school. My mother tried to see her everyday but it was hard with no money. I remember being in class & the phone rang. My teacher told me my mother was picking me up. Instantly I started freaking out & worrying about my sister. My mother had picked up my older sister & brother before getting me but wouldn’t tell me what was going on. When we arrive to the hospital we found out the doctors where performing a surgery on my sister. I still had no clue what was going on. A while later her doctor comes out. She tells us that Jennifer isn’t getting better & she won’t be able to survive this.

    We entered my sister’s room. I just remember going to her side to try to hold her hand but all I saw was blood. I looked at Jennifer, I knew she could fight this. She was always so strong. She always got sick but fought it off! She was a strong little girl. As much as I loved to believe she was going to survive, I knew it was time. I grabbed her hand & wrote “I love you” with my fingers. I watched as the color in her face disappeared. Family started to leave the room. My mother tried pulling me away but I just held on. I didn’t want to leave! On November 9, 2006 Jennifer M. Hoyland’s life was taken by Cystic Fibrosis.

    What is CF?
    Cystic fibrosis is a disease that causes the body to produce thick, sticky mucus. As the mucus builds up in the lungs, it blocks the airways and promotes the growth of bacteria. As a result, patients experience chronic lung infections that cause increasing damage to the lungs.

    The mucus also may block ducts in the pancreas, which prevents digestive enzymes from reaching the small intestine. Without these enzymes, the body cannot fully absorb fats and proteins. This can lead to malnourishment and other symptoms. Cystic fibrosis also may create mineral imbalances, affect the liver and result in infertility.

    A defect in the gene known as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) causes cystic fibrosis. Everyone inherits one copy of the CFTR gene from each parent. When both parents pass on an abnormal CFTR gene, the child will have cystic fibrosis.

    How you can help
    I’m doing a walk for CF called GREAT STRIDES. You can donate at

    http://www.cff.org/Great_Strides/RebeccaHoyland

    Not only are you helping to find a cure but your donation will be 100% tax deductible!

    Thank you for taking time to read this,
    Rebecca Hoyland

    • ANSWER:
      my 13 yr old son has it so yes i know what it is. I am very sorry to hear of your loss, keep up with the charity work one day there may be a cure x
      edit; Dr House stop pretending you are a doctor

  46. QUESTION:
    Essay Due Tommorow !!! I NEED HELP !!?
    heres the essay.. its really long but the teacher said i have another chance to make it better or else i fail !! its a persuasive essay but i need a conclusion and can u give me ideas if i missed any? PLEASEEEEE
    Before drinking a glass of alcohol have you ever told yourself that nothing can possibly go wrong with just one drink? Your answer is probably a yes. Alcohol is the number one drug of choice for teenagers. Most kids don’t realize how drinking of alcohol can affect them. 1 drink can lead to many others, and maybe even addiction. Alcohol has many affects to your life and body. For example, it can cause you to drink and drive, get diseases, and maybe even get in trouble with the law. The consequences may lead you to a disastrous future.
    One of the consequences for drinking is drinking and driving, which can lead to a life threatening accident. Many teenagers and adults don’t keep track of how much alcohol they consume, or how long it will take to were off. Many people make regretful choices when they are drunk. Studies show that about one in five drivers under the age 21 reported driving under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol loosens your inhabitations; you will most likely start to see double, it causes a slur in your speech, and you lose your sense of distance. As a result, many people get in accidents because they cannot concentrate on the road and it gets hard for them to follow or even see the street lights. In addition, when you are driving drunk you are not only causing harm to yourself but others on the road as well.
    Another consequence for drinking is the chance of getting a disease. Drinking alcohol is not only dangerous for the few hours that you are drunk but alcohol can do long term damage to your body. By drinking too much alcohol on a regular basis many people can get diseases that are easy to get but really hard to cure. For example, alcohol can have far-reaching effects on different parts of the brain and muscles, with symptoms of memory loss, in coordination, seizures, weakness, and sensory deficits. Also, if an individual consumes too much alcohol, and the liver cannot break it down, that person will probably gets alcohol poisoning which many people die from. Becoming aware of the diseases that alcohol causes makes you think before you drink.
    Alcoholism is a problem that many people have to deal with.
    Alcoholism has effected people for a long time, but more recently been addressed as a physical problem as well as a mental.
    Alcoholism is chronic illness characterized by the regular consumption of alcohol to a degree that interferes with physical or mental health, or with normal social or occupational behavior. A widespread health problem, it produces both physical and psychological addiction. Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant that reduces anxiety, inhibition, and feelings of guilt; lowers alertness so it will cause you to react differently towards a situation for example.. Walking around naked in the middle of a street while drink you wouldn’t think about the consequences. Alcohol can severely damage your heart, brain, esophagus, joints and muscles, liver, kidney and the list can go on and on.
    Most families have problems with one of their family members drinking and such, drinking can seriously damage your relationship with your loved ones, as drinking alcohol effects the way you think and lets you do things you don’t really mean to do.
    Another problem about drinking alcohol is addiction which can lead to debts, as you waste money on alcohol on a daily basis you will realize that the money you are using to get alcohol is hindering your life goals, also when addiction level is reached you will surely want more and do whatever it takes to get more alcohol, so either steal the money or taking loans from people which will almost certainly lead to debts. Your life will crumble little by little as you drink.
    Alcohol is a drug, and it is the drug most abused by teens. Many kids have their first drink at an early age, as young as 10 or 11 or even younger. It’s easy for kids to get the wrong message about alcohol. They might see their parents drink, or watch TV commercials that make drinking look like a lot of fun. You might see people drinking and watching sports together or having a big party. So most likely when you see a parent whatsoever drinking around his/her child, you should easily know that the child will when they grow up will drink too because they see the parent drinking, so they interpret that its okay to drink. The major factor is that you’re not only destroying your life, your harming yours along with many people you love and care about.
    Some mothers drink while they are pregnant, there are many illnesses that might occur to the infant in that case. If you drink heavily when your pregnant your child will run the risk of developing many behavioral problems. Teens whose mothers drank while they were pregnant are more likely to abuse alcohol

    • ANSWER:
      In your conclusion be sure to restate your thesis and reinstate your subtopics in a way which does not sound repetitive. You have a lot of good points in your conclusion make your argument sound out.

  47. QUESTION:
    Do fat people understand that Bariatric Surgery is not easy way out?
    The following is a list of possible side-effects and complications to consider before having weight-loss surgery. We will discuss these in more detail at your office consultation.

    1. Anastomotic leak (leak from a connection made to the bowel, usually requires re-operation and long hospital stay)

    2. Anastomotic stricture (narrowing or obstruction at an intestinal connection resulting in vomiting)

    3. Bowel obstruction/strangulation/internal hernia/ischemic bowel possibly needing removal (associated with pain and vomiting, usually requires re-operation)

    4. Injury to an abdominal or pelvic organ/structure (especially the liver, spleen, pancreas, bile duct, stomach, esophagus, colon, bowel, diaphragm, urinary bladder, nerve or blood vessel)

    5. Conversion to an open operation (due to bleeding, poor exposure, large liver, tension on intestines, etc.)

    6. Incisional hernia (more likely if procedure is done open)

    7. Infection or abscess (due to a leak, spillage of intestinal contents, underlying infection, etc)

    8. Bleeding and the potential need for blood transfusion. Blood transfusion carries the risk of infection with bacteria, parasites (malaria), and viruses (hepatitis, HIV/AIDS).

    9. Need for additional surgery or procedures to treat any complication that may occur

    10. Prolonged hospital stay or readmission may be needed to treat complications

    11. Deep Vein Thrombosis (blood clot in a vein)

    12. Pulmonary Embolus (blood clot going to lung, fatal 30% of the time)

    13. Atelectasis (lung collapse causing fevers, possibly pneumonia)

    14. Pneumonia, lung infection and fluid around the lungs (pleural effusion)

    15. Heart attack (myocardial infarction)

    16. Stroke

    17. Pancreatitis

    18. Rhabdomyalysis (breakdown of the muscle in the body)

    19. Pressure ulcer or decubitus (skin breakdown, may require skin grafting)

    20. Allergic reaction to anesthesia, medications or materials

    21. Nerve or ligament injury from positioning or lying on the operating table

    22. Kidney failure and/or the need for dialysis

    23. Need for ICU care

    24. Need for a ventilator (machine to help you breathe)

    25. Multi-system organ failure (liver, kidneys, lungs, etc.)

    26. Poor cosmetic results (ugly scar, keloid, unattractive incisions, contour defects)

    27. Chronic pain, discomfort, numbness, burning or tingling in the incisions or anywhere else (abdomen, back, extremities)

    28. Transient or chronic nausea/vomiting due to strictures, gastroparesis, food intolerance, etc.

    29. Dysphagia (difficulty or painful swallowing)

    30. Diarrhea, constipation, foul smelling gas and stools

    31. Heartburn (acid reflux) symptoms

    32. Ulcers or gastritis

    33. Intestinal perforation due to ulcer, foreign body, obstructed food, etc.

    34. Development of food intolerances/loss of taste

    35. Dumping syndrome (abdominal pain, heart palpitations, sweating, nausea, diarrhea)

    36. Hair loss or thinning

    37. Development of malnutrition or vitamin deficiency

    38. Anemia

    39. Metabolic bone disease (loosing calcium from the bone because of inadequate intake and supplementation) with possible osteoporosis, secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone fractures

    40. Failure to lose an adequate amount of weight

    41. Loss of too much weight

    42. Development of loose or redundant skin

    43. Sterility or inability to become pregnant

    44. Increased ability to become pregnant

    45. Birth defects or fetal injury if you become pregnant. This is less likely once weight has stabilized and laboratory tests are normal. Usually, about 2 years after surgery.

    46. Postoperative depression or other psychological reaction to surgery

    47. Need to revise or reverse the procedure at some point in the future because of nutritional deficiencies, excessive weight loss, pain or other reasons

    48. Extended disability, financial hardship as a result of complications related to weight loss surgery

    49. Parts of your stomach and/or intestines will be inaccessible by endoscopy.

    50. Death (1% nationwide) within 30 days

    • ANSWER:
      It’s just amazing how thousands and thousands of people have actually survived this surgery and are now healthy and happy. How long would your list be if you listed all the things that morbid obesity causes in a person. It would be much longer and certainly more serious than those you listed. You get this surgery to save your life. It has done that for my husband who is doing just great with it. He hasn’t had a single problem yet other than getting adjusted to eating the right amount to not feel so full. He has lost 80 pounds and feels great. He is so much more active and actually takes long walks all the time. His energy level has skyrocketed. He started planting a garden yesterday and doesn’t need anyone to help him get down on the ground to do it which he hasn’t done in many years. He doesn’t get out of breath like before. His blood pressure has dropped enough to lower his medication for it. Obesity caused him to have both his knees replaced and it still bothered him. Now he no longer has any pain in his knees, and he walks with ease. Next week, we are going to start riding our bikes. I always have had to do it without him, but no more. He is going along with others family and friends. This surgery has done much more for him than anyone can imagine. I don’t know why you want to keep running it down, but it is a real lifesaver to many people. Yes, there are risks. But the real question is whether or not the risks of staying obese are greater than the surgery. Most doctors will agree that obesity is the bigger risk for anyone morbidly obese. My husband loves his new life without all that weight. He knew all the risks before he had it done. It was well worth taking those risks for his good health now.

  48. QUESTION:
    What might someone do or where might they go if they have had a very severe undiagnosed illness for years?
    Ok, I understand that sometimes people get sick without explanation and they just have to deal with it but…What if you had became so ill out of the blue one day with something that totally acts like an infection in your entire body in many ways to the point where you cannot hardly leave your home or do much of anything physical at all most of the time…can’t work, can’t get SSI, have no money and nobody to help pay your way, (do have food stamps)… yet you show no sign of any illness with blood work, ct scans, MRI’s. **Here’s the big catch I guess for lack of better words…all though no Doctor has been able to give you a real diagnosis for 5 unbelievably debilhitating painfull years there was a point when you went and saw a doctor who specializes in treating Lyme Disease because allthough no mainstream MD will risk diagnosing you nor treating you for/with Lyme due to the lack of a positive test THOUGH, it seems to be the closest match of any illness that you have reaserched for years and when you saw this Lyme Doc or LLMD he/she decides that you most likely have a severe case of chronic lyme and they take the risk of treating you with IV antibiotics and after 2.5 years of suffering, & in 3 days of treatment of the right antibiotic, you literally felt like you were allmost cured and were able to imediately return to living a very active life again and remember, at the same time you in no way present any sign of a bacterial infection in numerous lab tests of your blood though an ANTIBIOTIC is curing you so it seems. BUT, then this happens…your liver enzymes spike a bit so the doc stops treatment cold turkey for seven days after about one month of the treatment and then resumes treatment but you return to being horribly ill durring the 7 days and then the drug seems to have completely stopped working once continued, then worse yet because you decided to be honest while speaking with a nurse when asked if you have any history or are currently using any drugs and you admit to expermenting with a few recreational drugs 10 years prior, the nurse lies and gets you to sign a form so they can send your Lyme doc the info and he says that if he would have known he never would have gave you the PICC line to inject the Abx through because he decides that you may still be using illicit drugs, when really your not and pulls the tube and says he can never give it back due to liability issues because you may be using the tube to inject drugs to get high along with your prescribed abx. —-So a couple years pass, you have almost no help, can barley take care of yourself, have no way to make money, are suffering unbelievably but must try to push on though you seem to be in nothing but a downward spiral, nobody will treat you that you know of and even if a different Lyme Doc was willing to treat you, it cost about 00 a month, no mainstream MD will treat you or even diagnose you, you must take pain killers to function the small amount that you are able, and you feel incredibly hopeless and have no idea where to turn before you end up dead in the streets because thats what seems to appear to be an all too real possibility if you are not able to reach someone who can help soon! I know this is long but it is my reality and I can’t take it much longer so I guess the real Question is does anybody have any advice or ideas of what to do in this type of situation? Where to go when you have seen over 60 doctors who don’t know what to do and are not willing to recognize the fact that though you show no sign of any infection in your blood, not only do you present allmost all of the non specific symptoms shown in somebody who is indeed infected with Lyme andIV antibiotics may help again because they allready have. -There are thousands of free medical research studies going on and you may have something that could possibly whipe out the human race (if it began to spread with no known treatment) I am not exaggerating one bit here…it is honestly that serious but where is the study on a person like me? Who will except me? The CDC seems to show no interest and all because you were surrounded with drugs in highschool and decided to experiment, a mistake you cannot take back, the only Doctor who truly has treated you with any success now will not! Any ideas anyone? I have had 5 long years of trying to think of them but I am stuck in a rut like you wouldn’t believe, and just so it’s clear I do realize that there are millions of people suffering out there it’s just something has to change if I am to survive much longer and when you have stage 3 cancer patients telling you that you have it much worse than them but almost nothing is being done it’s…well it is what it is.
    Thank you to anyone who even takes the time to read my story!
    I love you and God Bless.
    Hey LivN4peace I feel like a moron but I am having trouble responding to you and my head hurts so bad now I can hardly type but I will get you the symptoms somehow lol.

    • ANSWER:
      Go to the department of social and health services. There are so many programs and you can find help there. Talk to a social worker.

      Talk to docs…no, you don’t have to go through traditional MD’s. Try a naturopath. Lyme is very real and there is no cure….if that is what you have. Do not assume no doc will help you. Look at neurologists, rheumatologist, infectious disease specialists. When you talk to a doc, especially one that works from a hospital, ask about payment plans, medicaid, their social workers that can help you and charity care.

      You can also talk to churches (you don’t have to be a member) to get help and community services. There are many non-profits who help people with anything from rent to medical to certain bills, etc.

      You basically described me when I first got sick in 1986. It took a while but they finally diagnosed me…with a number of things, all different. Once each one was addressed, things got a little better, some problems went away but I still had the big illnesses to deal with…and I still deal with them. I lost everything from money to my job, friends to my father and his family, a fiance to any sense of security. My mother did take me in, I got with some good docs, and realized I had to take on my health-care myself and find ways to pay for it….I contacted the department of social and health services and was able to get into some of their programs for poor/sick. I was unable to get disability and too weak to follow up on appeals but I did get SSI (for poor/sick). It’s not much but it’s something. I also have medicaid (which few docs take) and food stamps.

      And don’t say the CDC or others have no interest in Lyme. They do. There are many who do. You have to look and search it out.

      http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/

      Lyme Disease Foundation http://www.lyme.org/front.htm

      Lyme disease association http://www.lymediseaseassociation.org/

      Lyme treatment http://www.beatlymedisease.com/lyme-treatment.htm

      Lyme Disease research database http://www.lyme-disease-research-database.com/lyme_disease_treatment.html

      American Lyme Disease Foundation http://aldf.com/programs.shtml

  49. QUESTION:
    Can I give Hep B to my husband?
    Back in 2004 I became ill with severe flu like symptoms. It turned out I had Hepititus B. I was married at the time, not a drug user- we had no idea where I contracted it (which I read is fairly common). I was bed ridden for about 3 weeks and then got better. The doctor was tracking my liver function and the way I understood it, about half of the people who get Hep B recover and the cells are the same as if they had an immunization, the other half can remain chronic and get sick every so often. According to my doctor, I was among the lucky portion that fight it off and recover.

    That was 6 years ago, and I have never been sick again. However, I still find that I am not allowed to donate blood, marrow, or organs. I cannot be a surrogate, etc.

    Did I misunderstand this disease and how my body proccessed it? I am now remarried and have been with this man for the past 3 years. Since I had my tubes tied years ago, we do not use condoms. Now I am wondering if I am not allowed to donate- am I still contagious? Could I give this to my husband or have already given it to him and we dont know?

    • ANSWER:
      If your doctor has confirmed that you are not a carrier (through a blood test that shows you have cleared the virus from your system and developed protective antibodies to the hepatitis B surface antigen) you have immunity and will not pass it on to others. Even though you’re not contagious, blood banks don’t accept blood that has been exposed to Hep B.

  50. QUESTION:
    health questions?
    fat soluble vitamins – dont build up in the body, are absorbed by fat, a lot are needed by the body, or pass easily through the blood stream

    tiny air sacs in lungs destroyed and breathing becomes harder by a disease known as – lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema

    carbon monoxide is present in blood and boday tissues and cells are deprived of – hemoglobin, carcinogens, iron, oxygen

    nicotin causes addiction and – acts as a stimulant, is a carcinogen, competes with oxygen , or destroys cilia

    a symptom of alcohol poison is – irregular heart beat, or increased respiration

    liver tissues replaced with useless scar tissue is – fatty liver, alcoholic hepititis, cirrhosis, or fetal alcoholic syndrome

    tar contained in tobacco smoke is harmful to the lungs because -
    it clogs blodd vessels, paralyzies cilia, its a stimulant, or its addictive

    a disease caused by a virus is – tuberculosis , malaria, or influenza ringworm…

    plz help….. :)

    • ANSWER:
      - are absorbed by fat
      -emphysema
      -oxygen
      -acts as a stimulant
      -increased respiration
      –cirrhosis
      -paralyzies cilia
      -influenza


Chronic Liver Disease Icd 9

Liver Cirrhrosis following signs and symptoms may occur in the presence of cirrhosis or as a result of the complications of cirrhosis. Many are nonspecific and may occur in other diseases and do not necessarily point to cirrhosis. Likewise, the absence of any does not rule out the possibility of cirrhosis.

1. Spider angiomata or spider nevi. Vascular lesions consisting of central arteriole surrounded by many smaller vessels due to an increase in estradiol.

2. Palmar erythema. Exaggerations of normal speckled mottling of the palm, due to altered sex hormone metabolism.

3. Muehrcke’s nails - paired horizontal bands separated by normal color due to hypoalbuminemia

4. Terry’s nails – proximal two thirds of the nail plate appears white with distal one-third red, also due to hypoalbuminemia

5. Clubbing – Angle between the nail plate and proximal nail fold > 180 degrees

6. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Chronic proliferative periostitis of the long bones that can cause considerable pain.

7. Dupuytren’s contracture. Thickening and shortening of palmar fascia that leads to flexion deformities of the fingers. Thought to be due to fibroblastic proliferation and disorderly collagen deposition. It is relatively common (33% of patients).

8. Gynecomastia. Benign proliferation of glandular tissue of male breasts presenting with a rubbery or firm mass extending concentrically from the nipples. This is due to increased estradiol and can occur up to 66% of patients.

9 Liiver size. Can be enlarged, normal, or shrunken.

10. Splenomegaly. Due to congestion of the red pulp as a result of portal hypertension.

11. Hypogonadism. Manifested as impotence, infertility, loss of sexual drive, and testicular atrophy due to primary gonadal injury or suppression of hypothalamic or pituitary function.

12. Splenomegaly. Due to congestion of the red pulp as a result of portal hypertension.

13. Ascites. Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity giving rise to flank dullness (needs about 1500 mL to detect flank dullness).

14.Caput medusa. In portal hypertension, the umbilical vein may open. Blood from the portal venous system may be shunted through the periumbilical veins into the umbilical vein and ultimately to the abdominal wall veins, manifesting as caput medusa.

15.Cruveilhier-Baumgarten murmur. Venous hum heard in epigastric region due to collateral connections between portal system and the remnant of the umbilical vein in portal hypertension.

Fetor hepaticus Sweet pungent smell in breath due to increased dimethyl sulfide due to severe portal-systemic shunting.

16. Jaundice. Yellow discoloring of the skin, eye, and mucus membranes due to increased bilirubin (at least 2-3 mg/dL or 30 mmol/L). Urine may also appear dark.

17.Asterixis. Bilateral asynchronous flapping of outstretched, dorsiflexed hands seen in patients with hepatic encephalopathy.

18.Other. Weakness, fatigue, anorexia, weight loss.

Complications-

As the disease progresses, complications may develop. In some people, these may be the first signs of the disease.

1. Bruising and bleeding due to decreased production of coagulation Jaundice due to decreased processing of bilirubin.

2. Itching(pruritus) due to bile products deposited in the skin.

Hepatic encephalopathy- the liver does not clear ammonia and related nitrogenous substances from the blood, which are carried to the brain, affecting cerebral functioning: neglect of personal appearance, unresponsiveness, forgetfulness, trouble concentrating, or changes in sleep habits.

Sensitivity to medication due to decreased metabolism of the active compounds.

3. Hepatocellular carcinoma is primary liver cancer, a frequent complication of cirrhosis. It has a high mortality rate.

4. Portal hypertension- blood normally carried from the intestines and spleen through the portal vein flows more slowly and the pressure increases; this leads to the following complications:

5. Ascites – fluid leaks through the vasculature into the abdominal cavity.

Problems in other organs.

1. Cirrhosis can cause immune system dysfunction, leading to . Signs and symptoms of infection may be aspecific are more difficult to recognize (e.g. worsening encephalopathy but no fever).

2. Fluid in the abdomen (ascites) may become infected with bacteria normally present in the intestines (spontaneous bacterial peritonitis).

3. Hepatorenal syndrome – insufficient blood supply to the kidneys, causing acute renal failure.This complication has a very high mortality (over 50%).

4. Hepatopulmonary syndrome- blood bypassing the normal lung circulation (shunting), leading to cyanosis and dyspnea (shortness of breath), characteristically worse on sitting up.

5. Portopulmonary hypertension – increased blood pressure over the lungs as a consequence of portal hypertension

Remedies-

1. Dolichos pruriens [Dolichos]

Chief indication for chronic cholestatic hepatitis, activity of third degree, with progressive development and hepatocellular insufficiency of second degree, with transformation into cirrhosis of liver. Syndrome of portal hypertension of first degree. Syndrome of cholestasis with intensive constant itch of skin.

The basic symptoms are:

  • The intensive, unbearable, “terrible” itch of skin which is especially worse in evening at 9 p.m. and nights hours.
  • The great general weakness.
  • The intensive pains in both hypochondriac regions, tearing, dull, burning: “As if from the nettle”. The dull pain under the angle of right scapula: “As if there the abscess under the skin”. This pain is more intensive under the scapula rather than in right hypochondrium. This pain is extending, “shooting” trough the right hypochondrium to the back and right scapula.
  • The constant yellow colour of the eyes.
  • The massive deposits of cholesterine around the eye lids – the so called “ksanthoma”, of yellow colour.
  • The bitterness in the mouth, during all the day.
  • Stool constipated. Stool of white colour, resembling white clay.
  • The intensive thirst for drinks

2. Carduus Marianus [Carduus mar]

The chief action of this drug is centered in the liver, and portal system, causing soreness, pain, jaundice. Has specific relation to the vascular system. Especially indicated in individuals with abuse of alcoholic beverages, especially beer. Pain in region of liver especially Left lobe very sensitive. Fullness and soreness, with moist skin. Constipation; stools hard, difficult, knotty; alternates with diarrhA”a. HyperAmia of liver, with jaundice. One of the chief remedies for Cirrhosis of liver.

3. Magnesium Muriaticum [Mag mur]

Mag mur is chiefly a liver remedy with pronounced characteristic constipation. It has chronic liver affections like cirrhosis with tenderness and pain, extending to spine and epigastrium ad the pain is worse after food. Pressing pain in liver; worse lying on right side. Liver is enlarged with bloating of abdomen; yellow tongue.

4. Ptelea Trifoliata [Ptelea]

Is a remarkable remedy in stomach and liver affections. The aching and heaviness in the region of the liver is greatly aggravated by lying on the left side. Liver sore, swollen, sensitive to pressure. Indicated in end stages of cirrhosis.

5. Nux Vomica [Nux vom]

In liver affections occurring in those who have indulged to excess in alcoholic liquors, highly seasoned food, quinine, or in those who have abused themselves with purgatives, Nux is the first remedy to be thought of. The liver is swollen hard and sensitive to the touch and pressure of clothing is uncomfortable. The first remedy in cirrhosis of the liver. Colic may be present. In the enlarged liver of drunkards, Sulphur, Lachesis, Fluoric acid, Arsenic and Ammonium muriaticum must also be borne in mind, together with Nux.

6. Lycopodium. [Lyc]
Lycopodium acts powerfully on the liver. The region of the liver is sensitive to the touch, and there is a feeling of tension in it, a feeling as if a cord were tied about the waist. Cirrhosis of liver. The pains are dull and aching instead of sharp and lancinating, as under Chelidonium. Fullness in the stomach after eating a small quantity. There are no real icteric symptoms, but there is a peculiar sallow complexion.

7. Chelidonium Majus [Chel]
The liver symptoms of Chelidonium are very prominent. There is soreness and stitching pains in the region of the liver, but the keynote for this drug in hepatic diseases is a pain under the angle of the right shoulder blade, which may extend to the chest, stomach, or hypochondrium; there is swelling of the liver, chilliness, fever, jaundice, yellow coated tongue, bitter taste and a craving for acids and sour things, such as pickles and vinegar. The stools are profuse, bright yellow and diarrhoea; they may be clayey in color. Taken altogether, Chelidonium is perhaps our greatest liver remedy; it causes the liver to secrete thinner and more profuse bile than any remedy; it is a useful remedy to promote the expulsion of gall stones, and to prevent their formation. It affects the left lobe of the liver much less than does Carduus marianus.

Remedies For Cirrhosis of Liver are-

Apoc., Ars., Ars. iod., Aur. m., Aur. mur., Calc. ars.,Cascara sag., Cinch., Fel tauri, Fluor. ac., Graph., Hydr., Iod., Kali bich., Kali iod., Merc. d., Merc., Nasturt. ag., Nat. chlor., Nit. ac., Nit. mur. ac., Phos., Plumb., Pod., Quass., Senec.

More click : www.homeopathyonline.in


Chronic Liver Disease

Liver, just below the diaphragm, right side, approximately 2 kilograms in weight dark red color is a soft organ. Necessary to live a lot of chemical events occur here. Liver Duty: – The day is approximately 4 cups 1 liter secretes bile. – Fat, protein and regulates glucose metabolism. – The body’s temperature settings. – Body in need of water and makes vitamin. – Oil, protein, sugar and blood is necessary for the construction materials store, Adjusts the amount of blood. – On the role of hormones is effective.

Liver can not make any of the above-mentioned tasks will become if, various diseases occur. One of the most important ones, liver failure, liver inflammation, liver cirrhosis, gallbladder stones and gallbladder inflammation is.

Chronic alcohol poisoning, chronic liver tract diseases, malaria, syphilis, jaundice in the case of diseases such as severe liver tissue is damaged.

Instead of the tissue collapsed connective tissue typical of cirrhosis occurs. Usually between the ages of 40-60 is seen in men.

Liver swelling: Any liver disease during liver cell swelling and blockage of the bile duct as a result an emerging. In the language of medicine is called hepatitis jaundice. All the tissues of the patient or an even yellow white of eyes is painted. Urine becomes dark. Itching of the skin is visible.

Liver failure:
Liver the result does not do enough in common tasks is a disease. Symptoms of intestinal gas, abdominal swelling, pain in the right flank, nose, reddening, pale color, face and get spots such as freckles, strawberry tongue, bitter mouth, nausea, constipation, palpitation, swelling of the hands and feet, decreased vision and hearing can be seen. Urine color, dark mornings, the day is clear. Urine is much quit. Patient’s chocolate, spicy foods, pickles, fried food, and should not eat fatty things.

Liver Common Symptoms of disease: The patient feels pains in the right flank are in excess of intestinal gas. Swollen abdomen, anus nasty smells coming out of gas. Skin color and sometimes it turns yellow eye whites. Spots on the face and hands are like freckles. Complains of indigestion. In the language of rust and bitterness in the mouth feels in the morning. Breath also smells. Feels pain in the neck in the morning. Palpitations, loss of appetite is. The color of yellow and dark urine in the morning, in the later hours, the clear and open. I often go to the urine. Calf muscles are sore. The hands and feet are swelling. Does not want to sleep at night. Vision and hearing or feeling weak.
a Digestive disorders, mild nausea, loss of appetite, gas first express symptoms.
a They then jaundice, abdominal dropsy, severe symptoms such as weight loss occurs.
a Leather the color of dirty yellow.
a Most of the time hemorrhoids bleeding are seen.

CAUTION :
Abdominal bloating after seeing the treatment of cases not taken seriously go to the road, but unless the patient can live 3-4 years.

A diet rich in protein should be applied, as well liver should be given nutritious vitamins. Alcohol and fries type food should be forbidden.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Applying for disability for a chronic liver disease?
    Is it possible for me to recieve disability for a chronic liver disease, biliary atresia? It makes my spleen not function as well as it should so I consistently get sick and weak feeling. On top of this, I am physically restrained because I cannot ger overly tired or damage my spleen due to falling, leaning, or pushing against it. Would this make me a candidate?

    • ANSWER:
      Here is a link that may be of help to you.
      According to this: if you have been diagnosed
      with end stage liver disease and have
      biliary atresia….you would be covered under
      disability for 1 year and then be evaluated
      again.

      http://www.ssa.gov/disability/professionals/bluebook/105.00-Digestive-Childhood.htm

      However, when a patient has multiple medical
      conditions, they will take “all “of them into
      account…so it is best to be sure that all are
      listed. If the doctor has placed you under
      any restriction for what you can or cannot do…
      ask if he would write them down. Keep the
      original, but give them a copy of it when you
      send in your application. Having a doctor
      state that you cannot work and placing that
      in writing is a great plus to helping you get
      disability benefits.

      Hope this helps you. To go to the link provided,
      just click on it.

  2. QUESTION:
    how chronic liver disease, esophageal varices and hematemesis are interconnected?
    pathophysiology of how chronic liver disease is connected to hematemesis?

    • ANSWER:

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  3. QUESTION:
    What would be raised on liver function test in chronic liver disease?
    I have unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia serum total is 94umol/L. Everything else is normal?

    • ANSWER:
      The liver cells make enzymes. If the liver cells become damaged,
      then these enzymes would leak out and go higher in the blood.
      These would be the ALT, AST, GGT, and Alkaline phosphatase.

      The liver functions tests are the Albumin, PT, PTT, INR, and the
      Bilirubin.

      Albumin is a protein that the liver cells makes, which holds fluid
      inside our vessels and also transport bilirubin, that is in the blood,
      to the liver. It tends to go lower in the blood as the liver disease
      progresses, since the liver cells are not able to make it efficiently.

      INR, PT, PTT are to check the time that the blood does clot.
      Because the liver cells are damaged, they cannot make the
      clotting factors to help the blood to clock…therefore it would
      take the blood longer to clot in these patients.

      Bilirubin is a substance made from our dead red blood cells.
      This can be done in the spleen or the liver. Bilirubin is
      a pigment (greenish/yellowish) substance that colors other
      things. Unconjugated bilirubin means that it is in the blood
      and the albumin will pick it up to transport to the liver.
      When it reaches the liver, the liver takes it and converts
      it to a soluble form (conjugated) to become part of the
      bile. Bilirubin has to reach a certain level in the blood before
      Jaundice appears (the yellowing of the whites of the eyes and
      skin and the darkening of the urine).

      Because you stated that all other labs were normal….if this is hyperbilirubinemia…
      could be Gilberts syndrome. However, no one blood testing is 100 % accurate.
      The doctor may do more blood tests to see if this returns to the normal range
      before proceeding with further testing. Each lab has it own reference range
      of what they consider to be the normal range of a healthy person.
      I have read that for a first day test, that anything below 99 is considered
      to be normal. You would have to check your lab sheet to see if this is
      considered to be abnormal for you.

      I hope this information has been of some help. Best wishes

  4. QUESTION:
    The most probable causes for chronic liver disease?

    is the most likely alcohol?

    thank you for al the wonderful answers btw!

    • ANSWER:
      Loading your body with more toxins than the liver can get rid of be it alchohol, unhealthy food, drugs or whatever.

  5. QUESTION:
    What exactly is chronic liver disease?
    Is chronic liver disease a name for just one disease–chronic liver cirrhosis? or is it a general name for an array of diseases concerning the liver (Hepatitis C, cirrhosis, chronic liver failure…).

    • ANSWER:
      A chronic disease is one that is long term or recurrent. Hepatitis C can take over 20 years before liver failure starts to appear. Cirrhosis is when there is permanent scarring of the liver that does not go away. The only cure is a liver transplant. It takes many, many years to develop to cirrhosis. Chronic is a term that can be used in all types of diseases and conditions.

  6. QUESTION:
    Could taking 4000 mg of tylenol for 1 week cause chronic liver disease?
    And if so, how long would it take for the liver to get so damaged to need a transplant?

    (It’s for a school paper, thanks)

    • ANSWER:
      possibly yes, tylenol is extremely toxic when broken down by the liver

  7. QUESTION:
    What is the safest antibiotic in Chronic liver disease?for gram positive and gram negative organisms?

    • ANSWER:
      It is in interesting question and is tough to answer without knowing specifically what disease I am looking to treat. But I am going to assume you come into my ER, looking septic, and I am just gonna give you broad spectrum antibiotics until I can culture you and de-escalate from there. I learn along the way you have chronic liver disease. I feel that the use of cefepime and vancomycin would still be warranted because both are renally excreted. Cefepime is cleared primarily by urinary excretion (85%). Vancomycin is cleared primarily by urinary excretion (75%). This may be different in your area, but around here we get a fair amount of community acquired MRSA infections.
      A very generic answer that can change due to many other factors, especially.
      Also, you could add metronidazole for anaerobe coverage. Metronidazole — Excretion: Renal (60-80%)

  8. QUESTION:
    liver echotexture may indicate fatty infiltration or chronic liver disease?
    what does it mean when the diagnose is heterogeneous liver echotexture may indicate fatty infiltratio or chronic liver diseas. No discrete liver lesion seen

    • ANSWER:
      I am going to be honest it is very hard to tell you what this means without the context of what they were looking for. This sounds like an ultrasound reading? The reading does not sound bad to me, you have no lesions (cancer) but could have some changes going on. I am not sure what they were looking for so I cannot help you with this result and what it means to you. Your best bet is to talk to the doctor who ordered this test, ask him/her what he/she was looking for and if anything was found that would require further testing. If you do not know the doctor, take the result to your primary care doctor and talk to them.

  9. QUESTION:
    what is Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease?
    what are the criteria for Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease

    • ANSWER:
      Decompensated liver disease means that the medications and treatments used to treat the cirrhosis is no longer working very well and the liver is near total failure. When symptoms can no longer be controlled with drugs, then that means it is decompensated. It is the very last stage of cirrhosis. Chronic means it is an ongoing problem that does not go away.

  10. QUESTION:
    Is it true that people with chronic liver disease hurt all the time,and if so why?

    • ANSWER:
      What is cirrhosis?

      Cirrhosis is a complication of many liver diseases that is characterized by abnormal structure and function of the liver. The diseases that lead to cirrhosis do so because they injure and kill liver cells, and the inflammation and repair that is associated with the dying liver cells causes scar tissue to form. The liver cells that do not die multiply in an attempt to replace the cells that have died. This results in clusters of newly-formed liver cells (regenerative nodules) within the scar tissue. There are many causes of cirrhosis; they include chemicals (such as alcohol, fat, and certain medications), viruses, toxic metals (such as iron and copper that accumulate in the liver as a result of genetic diseases), and autoimmune liver disease in which the body’s immune system attacks the liver.

      Why does cirrhosis cause problems?

      The liver is an important organ in the body. It performs many critical functions, two of which are producing substances required by the body, for example, clotting proteins that are necessary in order for blood to clot, and removing toxic substances that can be harmful to the body, for example, drugs. The liver also has an important role in regulating the supply to the body of glucose (sugar) and lipids (fat) that the body uses as fuel. In order to perform these critical functions, the liver cells must be working normally, and they must have an intimate relationship with the blood since the substances that are added or removed by the liver are transported to and from the liver by the blood.

      The relationship of the liver to the blood is unique. Unlike most organs in the body, only a small amount of blood is supplied to the liver by arteries. Most of the liver’s supply of blood comes from the intestinal veins as the blood returns to the heart. The main vein that returns blood from the intestines is called the portal vein. As the portal vein passes through the liver, it breaks up into increasingly smaller and smaller veins. The tiniest veins (called sinusoids because of their unique structure) are in close contact with the liver cells. In fact, the liver cells line up along the length of the sinusoids. This close relationship between the liver cells and blood from the portal vein allows the liver cells to remove and add substances to the blood. Once the blood has passed through the sinusoids, it is collected in increasingly larger and larger veins that ultimately form a single vein, the hepatic vein that returns the blood to the heart.

      In cirrhosis, the relationship between blood and liver cells is destroyed. Even though the liver cells that survive or are newly-formed may be able to produce and remove substances from the blood, they do not have the normal, intimate relationship with the blood, and this interferes with the liver cells’ ability to add or remove substances from the blood. In addition, the scarring within the cirrhotic liver obstructs the flow of blood through the liver and to the liver cells. As a result of the obstruction to the flow of blood through the liver, blood “backs-up” in the portal vein, and the pressure in the portal vein increases, a condition called portal hypertension. Because of the obstruction to flow and high pressures in the portal vein, blood in the portal vein seeks other veins in which to return to the heart, veins with lower pressures that bypass the liver. Unfortunately, the liver is unable to add or remove substances from blood that bypasses it. It is a combination of reduced numbers of liver cells, loss of the normal contact between blood passing through the liver and the liver cells, and blood bypassing the liver that leads to many of the manifestations of cirrhosis.

      A second reason for the problems caused by cirrhosis is the disturbed relationship between the liver cells and the channels through which bile flows. Bile is a fluid produced by liver cells that has two important functions: to aid in digestion and to remove and eliminate toxic substances from the body. The bile that is produced by liver cells is secreted into very tiny channels that run between the liver cells that line the sinusoids, called canaliculi. The canaliculi empty into small ducts which then join together to form larger and larger ducts. Ultimately, all of the ducts combine into one duct that enters the small intestine. In this way, bile gets to the intestine where it can help with the digestion of food. At the same time, toxic substances contained in the bile enter the intestine and then are eliminated in the stool. In cirrhosis, the canaliculi are abnormal and the relationship between liver cells and canaliculi is destroyed, just like the relationship between the liver cells and blood in the sinusoids. As a result, the liver is not able to eliminate toxic substances normally, and they can accumulate in the body. To a minor extent, digestion in the intestine also is reduced.

      What are the symptoms and signs of cirrhosis?

      Patients with cirrhosis may have few or no symptoms and signs of liver disease. Some of the symptoms may be nonspecific, that is, they don’t suggest that the liver is their cause. Some of the more common symptoms and signs of cirrhosis include:

      Yellowing of the skin (jaundice) due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the blood
      Fatigue
      Weakness
      Loss of appetite
      Itching
      Easy bruising from decreased production of blood clotting factors by the diseased liver.
      Patients with cirrhosis also develop symptoms and signs from the complications of cirrhosis that are discussed next.

      What are the complications of cirrhosis?

      Edema and ascites

      As cirrhosis of the liver becomes severe, signals are sent to the kidneys to retain salt and water in the body. The excess salt and water first accumulates in the tissue beneath the skin of the ankles and legs because of the effect of gravity when standing or sitting. This accumulation of fluid is called edema or pitting edema. (Pitting edema refers to the fact that pressing a fingertip firmly against an ankle or leg with edema causes an indentation in the skin that persists for some time after release of the pressure. Actually, any type of pressure, such as from the elastic band of a sock, may be enough to cause pitting.) The swelling often is worse at the end of a day after standing or sitting and may lessen overnight as a result of the loss of the effects of gravity when lying down. As cirrhosis worsens and more salt and water are retained, fluid also may accumulate in the abdominal cavity between the abdominal wall and the abdominal organs. This accumulation of fluid (called ascites) causes swelling of the abdomen, abdominal discomfort, and increased weight.

      Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP)

      Fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites) is the perfect place for bacteria to grow. Normally, the abdominal cavity contains a very small amount of fluid that is able to resist infection well, and bacteria that enter the abdomen (usually from the intestine) are killed or find their way into the portal vein and to the liver where they are killed. In cirrhosis, the fluid that collects in the abdomen is unable to resist infection normally. In addition, more bacteria find their way from the intestine into the ascites. Therefore, infection within the abdomen and the ascites, referred to as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or SBP, is likely to occur. SBP is a life- threatening complication. Some patients with SBP have no symptoms, while others have fever, chills, abdominal pain and tenderness, diarrhea, and worsening ascites.

      Bleeding from esophageal varices

      In the cirrhotic liver, the scar tissue blocks the flow of blood returning to the heart from the intestines and raises the pressure in the portal vein (portal hypertension). When pressure in the portal vein becomes high enough, it causes blood to flow around the liver through veins with lower pressure to reach the heart. The most common veins through which blood bypasses the liver are the veins lining the lower part of the esophagus and the upper part of the stomach.

      As a result of the increased flow of blood and the resulting increase in pressure, the veins in the lower esophagus and upper stomach expand and then are referred to as esophageal and gastric varices; the higher the portal pressure, the larger the varices and the more likely a patient is to bleed from the varices into the esophagus or stomach.

      Bleeding from varices usually is severe and, without immediate treatment, can be fatal. Symptoms of bleeding from varices include vomiting blood (the vomitus can be red blood mixed with clots or “coffee grounds” in appearance, the latter due to the effect of acid on the blood), passing stool that is black and tarry due to changes in the blood as it passes through the intestine (melena), and orthostatic dizziness or fainting (caused by a drop in blood pressure especially when standing up from a lying position).

      Bleeding also may occur from varices that form elsewhere in the intestines, for example, the colon, but this is rare. For reasons yet unknown, patients hospitalized because of actively bleeding esophageal varices have a high risk of developing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

      Hepatic encephalopathy

      Some of the protein in food that escapes digestion and absorption is used by bacteria that are normally present in the intestine. While using the protein for their own purposes, the bacteria make substances that they release into the intestine. These substances then can be absorbed into the body. Some of these substances, for example, ammonia, can have toxic effects on the brain. Ordinarily, these toxic substances are carried from the intestine in the portal vein to the liver where they are removed from the blood and detoxified.

      As previously discussed, when cirrhosis is present, liver cells cannot function normally either because they are damaged or because they have lost their normal relationship with the blood. In addition, some of the blood in the portal vein bypasses the liver through other veins. The result of these abnormalities is that toxic substances cannot be removed by the liver cells, and, instead, the toxic substances accumulate in the blood.

      When the toxic substances accumulate sufficiently in the blood, the function of the brain is impaired, a condition called hepatic encephalopathy. Sleeping during the day rather than at night (reversal of the normal sleep pattern) is among the earliest symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy. Other symptoms include irritability, inability to concentrate or perform calculations, loss of memory, confusion, or depressed levels of consciousness. Ultimately, severe hepatic encephalopathy causes coma and death.

      The toxic substances also make the brains of patients with cirrhosis very sensitive to drugs that are normally filtered and detoxified by the liver. Doses of many drugs that normally are detoxified by the liver have to be reduced to avoid a toxic buildup in cirrhosis, particularly sedatives and drugs that are used to promote sleep. Alternatively, drugs may be used that do not need to be detoxified or eliminated from the body by the liver, for example, drugs that are eliminated by the kidneys.

      Hepatorenal syndrome

      Patients with worsening cirrhosis can develop the hepatorenal syndrome. This syndrome is a serious complication in which the function of the kidneys is reduced. It is a functional problem in the kidneys, that is, there is no physical damage to the kidneys. Instead, the reduced function is due to changes in the way the blood flows through the kidneys themselves. The hepatorenal syndrome is defined as progressive failure of the kidneys to clear substances from the blood and produce adequate amounts of urine even though some other important functions of the kidney, such as retention of salt, are maintained. If liver function improves or a healthy liver is transplanted into a patient with hepatorenal syndrome, the kidneys usually begin to work normally. This suggests that the reduced function of the kidneys is the result of the accumulation of toxic substances in the blood when the liver fails. There are two types of hepatorenal syndrome. One type occurs gradually over months. The other occurs rapidly over a week or two.

      Hepatopulmonary syndrome

      Rarely, some patients with advanced cirrhosis can develop the hepatopulmonary syndrome. These patients can experience difficulty breathing because certain hormones released in advanced cirrhosis cause the lungs to function abnormally. The basic problem in the lung is that not enough blood flows through the small blood vessels in the lungs that are in contact with the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs. Blood flowing through the lungs is shunted around the alveoli and cannot pick up enough oxygen from the air in the alveoli. As a result the patient experiences shortness of breath, particularly with exertion.

      Hypersplenism

      The spleen normally acts as a filter to remove older red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets (small particles that are important for the clotting of blood.). The blood that drains from the spleen joins the blood in the portal vein from the intestines. As the pressure in the portal vein rises in cirrhosis, it increasingly blocks the flow of blood from the spleen. The blood “backs-up” and accumulates in the spleen, and the spleen swells in size, a condition referred to as splenomegaly. Sometimes, the spleen is so swollen that it causes abdominal pain.

      As the spleen enlarges, it filters out more and more of the blood cells and platelets until their numbers in the blood are reduced. Hypersplenism is the term used to describe this condition, and it is associated with a low red blood cell count (anemia), low white blood cell count (leucopenia), and/or a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). The anemia can cause weakness, the leucopenia can lead to infections, and the thrombocytopenia can impair the clotting of blood and result in prolonged bleeding.

      Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma)

      Cirrhosis due to any cause increases the risk of primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). Primary refers to the fact that the tumor originates in the liver. A secondary liver cancer is one that originates elsewhere in the body and spreads (metastasizes) to the liver.

      The most common symptoms and signs of primary liver cancer are abdominal pain and swelling, an enlarged liver, weight loss, and fever. In addition, liver cancers can produce and release a number of substances, including ones that cause an increased in red blood cell count (erythrocytosis), low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), and high blood calcium (hypercalcemia). For more, please read the Liver Cancer article.

      What are the common causes of cirrhosis?

      Alcohol is a very common cause of cirrhosis, particularly in the Western world. The development of cirrhosis depends upon the amount and regularity of alcohol intake. Chronic, high levels of alcohol consumption injure liver cells. Thirty percent of individuals who drink daily at least eight to sixteen ounces of hard liquor or the equivalent for fifteen or more years will develop cirrhosis. Alcohol causes a range of liver diseases; from simple and uncomplicated fatty liver (steatosis), to the more serious fatty liver with inflammation (steatohepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis), to cirrhosis.
      Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide spectrum of liver diseases that, like alcoholic liver disease, ranges from simple steatosis, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), to cirrhosis. All stages of NAFLD have in common the accumulation of fat in liver cells. The term nonalcoholic is used because NAFLD occurs in individuals who do not consume excessive amounts of alcohol, yet, in many respects, the microscopic picture of NAFLD is similar to what can be seen in liver disease that is due to excessive alcohol. NAFLD is associated with a condition called insulin resistance, which, in turn, is associated with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2. Obesity is the most important cause of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD is the most common liver disease in the United States and is responsible for 24% of all liver disease. In fact, the number of livers that are transplanted for NAFLD-related cirrhosis is on the rise. Public health officials are worried that the current epidemic of obesity will dramatically increase the development of NAFLD and cirrhosis in the population. For more, please read the Fatty Liver article.
      Cryptogenic cirrhosis (cirrhosis due to unidentified causes) is a common reason for liver transplantation. It is termed cryptogenic cirrhosis because for many years doctors have been unable to explain why a proportion of patients developed cirrhosis. Doctors now believe that cryptogenic cirrhosis is due to NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) caused by long standing obesity, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. The fat in the liver of patients with NASH is believed to disappear with the onset of cirrhosis, and this has made it difficult for doctors to make the connection between NASH and cryptogenic cirrhosis for a long time. One important clue that NASH leads to cryptogenic cirrhosis is the finding of a high occurrence of NASH in the new livers of patients undergoing liver transplant for cryptogenic cirrhosis. Finally, a study from France suggests that patients with NASH have a similar risk of developing cirrhosis as patients with long standing infection with hepatitis C virus. (See discussion that follows.) However, the progression to cirrhosis from NASH is thought to be slow and the diagnosis of cirrhosis typically is made in patients in their sixties.
      Chronic viral hepatitis is a condition where hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infects the liver for years. Most patients with viral hepatitis will not develop chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. For example, the majority of patients infected with hepatitis A recover completely within weeks, without developing chronic infection. In contrast, some patients infected with hepatitis B virus and most patients infected with hepatitis C virus develop chronic hepatitis, which, in turn, causes progressive liver damage and leads to cirrhosis, and, sometimes, liver cancers.
      Inherited (genetic) disorders result in the accumulation of toxic substances in the liver which lead to tissue damage and cirrhosis. Examples include the abnormal accumulation of iron (hemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson’s disease). In hemochromatosis, patients inherit a tendency to absorb an excessive amount of iron from food. Over time, iron accumulation in different organs throughout the body causes cirrhosis, arthritis, heart muscle damage leading to heart failure, and testicular dysfunction causing loss of sexual drive. Treatment is aimed at preventing damage to organs by removing iron from the body through bloodletting (removing blood). In Wilson disease, there is an inherited abnormality in one of the proteins that controls copper in the body. Over time, copper accumulates in the liver, eyes, and brain. Cirrhosis, tremor, psychiatric disturbances and other neurological difficulties occur if the condition is not treated early. Treatment is with oral medication that increases the amount of copper that is eliminated from the body in the urine.
      Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a liver disease caused by an abnormality of the immune system that is found predominantly in women. The abnormal immunity in PBC causes chronic inflammation and destruction of the small bile ducts within the liver. The bile ducts are passages within the liver through which bile travels to the intestine. Bile is a fluid produced by the liver that contains substances required for digestion and absorption of fat in the intestine, as well as other compounds that are waste products, such as the pigment bilirubin. (Bilirubin is produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin from old red blood cells.). Along with the gallbladder, the bile ducts make up the biliary tract. In PBC, the destruction of the small bile ducts blocks the normal flow of bile into the intestine. As the inflammation continues to destroy more of the bile ducts, it also spreads to destroy nearby liver cells. As the destruction of the hepatocytes proceeds, scar tissue (fibrosis) forms and spreads throughout the areas of destruction. The combined effects of progressive inflammation, scarring, and the toxic effects of accumulating waste products culminates in cirrhosis. For more, please read the Primary Biliary Cirrhosis article.
      Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an uncommon disease found frequently in patients with ulcerative colitis (see Ulcerative Colitis article). In PSC, the large bile ducts outside of the liver become inflamed, narrowed, and obstructed. Obstruction to the flow of bile leads to infections of the bile ducts and jaundice and eventually causes cirrhosis. In some patients, injury to the bile ducts (usually as a result of surgery) also can cause obstruction and cirrhosis of the liver.
      Autoimmune hepatitis is a liver disease caused by an abnormality of the immune system that is found more commonly in women. The abnormal immune activity in autoimmune hepatitis causes progressive inflammation and destruction of liver cells (hepatocytes), leading ultimately to cirrhosis.
      Infants can be born without bile ducts (biliary atresia) and ultimately develop cirrhosis. Other infants are born lacking vital enzymes for controlling sugars that leads to the accumulation of sugars and cirrhosis. On rare occasions, the absence of a specific enzyme can cause cirrhosis and scarring of the lung (alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency).
      Less common causes of cirrhosis include unusual reactions to some drugs and prolonged exposure to toxins, as well as chronic heart failure (cardiac cirrhosis). In certain parts of the world (particularly Northern Africa), infection of the liver with a parasite (schistosomiasis) is the most common cause of liver disease and cirrhosis.

      How is cirrhosis diagnosed and evaluated?

      The single best test for diagnosing cirrhosis is biopsy of the liver. Liver biopsies, however, carry a small risk for serious complications, and, therefore, biopsy often is reserved for those patients in whom the diagnosis of the type of liver disease or the presence of cirrhosis is not clear. The possibility of cirrhosis may be suggested by the history, physical examination, or routine testing. If cirrhosis is present, other tests can be used to determine the severity of the cirrhosis and the presence of complications. Tests also may be used to diagnose the underlying disease that is causing the cirrhosis. The following are some examples of how doctors discover, diagnose and evaluate cirrhosis:

      In taking a patient’s history, the physician may uncover a history of excessive and prolonged intake of alcohol, a history of intravenous drug abuse, or a history of hepatitis. These pieces of information suggest the possibility of liver disease and cirrhosis.
      Patients who are known to have chronic viral hepatitis B or C have a higher probability of having cirrhosis.
      Some patients with cirrhosis have enlarged livers and/or spleens. A doctor can often feel (palpate) the lower edge of an enlarged liver below the right rib cage and feel the tip of the enlarged spleen below the left rib cage. A cirrhotic liver also feels firmer and more irregular than a normal liver.
      Some patients with cirrhosis, particularly alcoholic cirrhosis, have small red spider-like markings (telangiectasias) on the skin, particularly on the chest, that are made up of enlarged, radiating blood vessels. These spider telangiectasias also can be seen in individuals without liver disease, however.
      Jaundice (yellowness of the skin and of the whites of the eyes due to elevated bilirubin in the blood) is common among patients with cirrhosis, but jaundice can occur in patients with liver diseases without cirrhosis and other conditions such as hemolysis (excessive break down of red blood cells).
      Swelling of the abdomen (ascites) and/or the lower extremities (edema) due to retention of fluid is common among patients with cirrhosis though other diseases can cause them commonly, e.g., congestive heart failure.
      Patients with abnormal copper deposits in their eyes or certain types of neurologic disease may have Wilson’s disease, a genetic disease in which there is abnormal handling and accumulation of copper throughout the body, including the liver, that can lead to cirrhosis.
      Esophageal varices may be found unexpectedly during upper endoscopy (EGD), and they strongly suggesting cirrhosis.
      Computerized tomography (CT or CAT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and ultrasound examinations of the abdomen done for reasons other than evaluating the possibility of liver disease may unexpectedly detect enlarged livers, abnormally nodular livers, enlarged spleens, and fluid in the abdomen that suggest cirrhosis.
      Advanced cirrhosis leads to a reduced level of albumin in the blood and reduced blood clotting factors due to the loss of the liver’s ability to produce these proteins. Thus, reduced levels of albumin in the blood or abnormal bleeding suggest cirrhosis.
      Abnormal elevation of liver enzymes in the blood (such as ALT and AST) that are obtained routinely as part of yearly health examinations suggests inflammation or injury to the liver from many causes as well as cirrhosis.
      Patients with elevated levels of iron in their blood may have hemochromatosis, a genetic disease of the liver in which iron is handled abnormally and which leads to cirrhosis.
      Auto-antibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-smooth muscle antibody and anti-mitochondrial antibody) sometimes are detected in the blood and may be a clue to the presence of autoimmune hepatitis or primary biliary cirrhosis, both of which can lead to cirrhosis.
      Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) may be detected by CT and MRI scans or ultrasound of the abdomen. Liver cancer most commonly develops in individuals with underlying cirrhosis.
      If there is an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, a sample of the fluid can be removed using a long needle. The fluid then can be examined and tested. The results of testing may suggest the presence of cirrhosis as the cause of the fluid.

      How is cirrhosis treated?

      Treatment of cirrhosis includes 1) preventing further damage to the liver, 2) treating the complications of cirrhosis, 3) preventing liver cancer or detecting it early, and 4) liver transplantation.

      Preventing further damage to the liver

      Consume a balanced diet and one multivitamin daily. Patients with PBC with impaired absorption of fat soluble vitamins may need additional vitamins D and K.
      Avoid drugs (including alcohol) that cause liver damage. All patients with cirrhosis should avoid alcohol. Most patients with alcohol induced cirrhosis experience an improvement in liver function with abstinence from alcohol. Even patients with chronic hepatitis B and C can substantially reduce liver damage and slow the progression towards cirrhosis with abstinence from alcohol.
      Avoid nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, e.g., ibuprofen). Patients with cirrhosis can experience worsening of liver and kidney function with NSAIDs.
      Eradicate hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus by using anti-viral medications. Not all patients with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis are candidates for drug treatment. Some patients may experience serious deterioration in liver function and/or intolerable side effects during treatment. Thus, decisions to treat viral hepatitis have to be individualized, after consulting with doctors experienced in treating liver diseases (hepatologists).
      Remove blood from patients with hemochromatosis to reduce the levels of iron and prevent further damage to the liver. In Wilson’s disease, medications can be used to increase the excretion of copper in the urine to reduce the levels of copper in the body and prevent further damage to the liver.
      Suppress the immune system with drugs such as prednisone and azathioprine (Imuran) to decrease inflammation of the liver in autoimmune hepatitis.
      Treat patients with PBC with a bile acid preparation, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also called ursodiol (Actigall). Results of an analysis that combined the results from several clinical trials showed that UDCA increased survival among PBC patients during 4 years of therapy. The development of portal hypertension also was reduced by the UDCA. It is important to note that despite producing clear benefits, UDCA treatment primarily retards progression and does not cure PBC. Other medications such as colchicine and methotrexate also may have benefit in subsets of patients with PBC.
      Immunize patients with cirrhosis against infection with hepatitis A and B to prevent a serious deterioration in liver function. There are currently no vaccines available for immunizing against hepatitis C.
      Treating the complications of cirrhosis

      Edema and ascites. Retention of salt and water can lead to swelling of the ankles and legs (edema) or abdomen (ascites) in patients with cirrhosis. Doctors often advise patients with cirrhosis to restrict dietary salt (sodium) and fluid to decrease edema and ascites. The amount of salt in the diet usually is restricted to 2 grams per day and fluid to 1.2 liters per day. In most patients with cirrhosis, however, salt and fluid restriction is not enough, and diuretics have to be added.

      Diuretics are medications that work in the kidneys to promote the elimination of salt and water into the urine. A combination of the diuretics spironolactone (Aldactone) and furosemide can reduce or eliminate the edema and ascites in most patients. During treatment with diuretics, it is important to monitor the function of the kidneys by measuring blood levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine to determine if too much diuretic is being used. Too much diuretic can lead to kidney dysfunction that is reflected in elevations of the BUN and creatinine levels in the blood.

      Sometimes, when the diuretics do not work (in which case the ascites is said to be refractory), a long needle or catheter is used to draw out the ascitic fluid directly from the abdomen, a procedure called abdominal paracentesis. It is common to withdraw large amounts (liters) of fluid from the abdomen when the ascites is causing painful abdominal distension and/or difficulty breathing because it limits the movements of the diaphragms.

      Another treatment for refractory ascites is a procedure called transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunting (TIPS, see below).

      Bleeding from varices. If large varices develop in the esophagus or upper stomach, patients with cirrhosis are at risk for serious bleeding due to rupture of these varices. Once varices have bled, they tend to rebleed and the probability that a patient will die from each bleeding episode is high (30%-35%). Therefore, treatment is necessary to prevent the first (initial) bleeding episode as well as rebleeding. Treatments include medications and procedures to decrease the pressure in the portal vein and procedures to destroy the varices.

      Propranolol (Inderal), a beta blocker, is effective in lowering pressure in the portal vein and is used to prevent initial bleeding and rebleeding from varices in patients with cirrhosis. Another class of oral medications that lowers portal pressure is the nitrates, for example, isosorbide dinitrate ( Isordil). Nitrates often are added to propranolol if propranolol alone does not adequately lower portal pressure or prevent bleeding.
      Octreotide (Sandostatin) also decreases portal vein pressure and has been used to treat variceal bleeding.
      During upper endoscopy (EGD), either sclerotherapy or band ligation can be performed to obliterate varices and stop active bleeding and prevent rebleeding. Sclerotherapy involves infusing small doses of sclerosing solutions into the varices. The sclerosing solutions cause inflammation and then scarring of the varices, obliterating them in the process. Band ligation involves applying rubber bands around the varices to obliterate them. (Band ligation of the varices is analogous to rubber banding of hemorrhoids.) Complications of sclerotherapy include esophageal ulcers, bleeding from the esophageal ulcers, esophageal perforation, esophageal stricture (narrowing due to scarring that can cause dysphagia), mediastinitis (inflammation in the chest that can cause chest pain), pericarditis (inflammation around the heart that can cause chest pain), and peritonitis (infection in the abdominal cavity). Studies have shown that band ligation may be slightly more effective with fewer complications than sclerotherapy.
      Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a non-surgical procedure to decrease the pressure in the portal vein. TIPS is performed by a radiologist who inserts a stent (tube) through a neck vein, down the inferior vena cava and into the hepatic vein within the liver. The stent then is placed so that one end is in the high pressure portal vein and the other end is in the low pressure hepatic vein. This tube shunts blood around the liver and by so doing lowers the pressure in the portal vein and varices and prevents bleeding from the varices. TIPS is particularly useful in patients who fail to respond to beta blockers, variceal sclerotherapy, or banding. (TIPS also is useful in treating patients with ascites that do not respond to salt and fluid restriction and diuretics.) TIPS can be used in patients with cirrhosis to prevent variceal bleeding while the patients are waiting for liver transplantation. The most common side effect of TIPS is hepatic encephalopathy. Another major problem with TIPS is the development of narrowing and occlusion of the stent, causing recurrence of portal hypertension and variceal bleeding and ascites. The estimated frequency of stent occlusion ranges from 30%-50% in 12 months. Fortunately, there are methods to open occluded stents. Other complications of TIPS include bleeding due to inadvertent puncture of the liver capsule or a bile duct, infection, heart failure, and liver failure.
      A surgical operation to create a shunt (passage) from the high-pressure portal vein to veins with lower pressure can lower blood flow and pressure in the portal vein and prevent varices from bleeding. One such surgical procedure is called distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS). It is appropriate to consider such a surgical shunt for patients with portal hypertension who have early cirrhosis. (The risks of major shunt surgery in these patients is less than in patients with advanced cirrhosis.) During DSRS, the surgeon detaches the splenic vein from the portal vein, and attaches it to the renal vein. Blood then is shunted from the spleen around the liver, lowering the pressure in the portal vein and varices and preventing bleeding from the varices.
      Hepatic encephalopathy. Patients with an abnormal sleep cycle, impaired thinking, odd behavior, or other signs of hepatic encephalopathy usually should be treated with a low protein diet and oral lactulose. Dietary protein is restricted because it is a source of the toxic compounds that cause hepatic encephalopathy. Lactulose, which is a liquid, traps the toxic compounds in the colon. Consequently, they cannot be absorbed into the blood stream and cause encephalopathy. To be sure that adequate lactulose is present in the colon at all times, the patient should adjust the dose to produce 2-3 semiformed bowel movements a day. (Lactulose is a laxative, and the adequacy of treatment can be judged by loosening or increasing frequency of stools.) If symptoms of encephalopathy persist, oral antibiotics such as neomycin or metronidazole (Flagyl), can be added to the treatment regimen. Antibiotics work by blocking the production of the toxic compounds by the bacteria in the colon.

      Hypersplenism. The filtration of blood by an enlarged spleen usually results in only mild reductions of red blood cells (anemia), white blood cells (leukopenia) and platelets (thrombocytopenia) that do not require treatment. Severe anemia, however, may require blood transfusions or treatment with erythropoietin or epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit), hormones that stimulate the production of red blood cells. If the numbers of white blood cells are severely reduced, another hormone called granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is available to increase the numbers of white blood cells. An example of one such factor is filgrastim (Neupogen).

      No approved medication is available yet to increase the number of platelets. As a necessary precaution, patients with low platelets should not use aspirin or other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) since these drugs can hinder the function of platelets. If a low number of platelets is associated with significant bleeding, transfusions of platelets usually should be given. Surgical removal of the spleen (called splenectomy) should be avoided, if possible, because of the risk of excessive bleeding during the operation and the risk of anesthesia in advanced liver disease.

      Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Patients suspected of having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis usually will undergo paracentesis. Fluid that is removed is examined for white blood cells and cultured for bacteria. Culturing involves inoculating a sample of the ascites into a bottle of nutrient-rich fluid that encourages the growth of bacteria, thus facilitating the identification of even small numbers of bacteria. Blood and urine samples often are obtained as well for culturing because many patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis also will have infection in their blood and urine. In fact, many doctors believe that infection may have begun in the blood and the urine and spread to the ascitic fluid to cause spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Most patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis are hospitalized and treated with intravenous antibiotics such as ampicillin, gentamycin, and one of the newer generation cephalosporin. Patients usually treated with antibiotics include:

      Patients with blood, urine, and/or ascites fluid cultures that contain bacteria.
      Patients without bacteria in their blood, urine, and ascitic fluid but who have elevated numbers of white blood cells (neutrophils) in the asciticfluid (>250 neutrophils/cc). Elevated neutrophil numbers in ascitic fluid often means that there is bacterial infection. Doctors believe that the lack of bacteria with culturing in some patients with increased neutrophils is due either to a very small number of bacteria or ineffective culturing techniques.
      Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a serious infection. It often occurs in patients with advanced cirrhosis whose immune systems are weak, but with modern antibiotics and early detection and treatment, the prognosis of recovering from an episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is good.

      In some patients oral antibiotics (such as Cipro or Septra) can be prescribed to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Not all patients with cirrhosis and ascites should be treated with antibiotics to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, but some patients are at high risk for developing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and warrant preventive treatment:

      Patients with cirrhosis who are hospitalized for bleeding varices have a high risk of developing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and should be started on antibiotics early during the hospitalization to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
      Patients with recurring episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
      Patients with low protein levels in the ascitic fluid (Ascitic fluid with low levels of protein is more likely to become infected.)
      Prevention and early detection of liver cancer

      Several types of liver disease that cause cirrhosis are associated with a particularly high incidence of liver cancer, for example, hepatitis B and C, and it would be useful to screen for liver cancer since early surgical treatment or transplantation of the liver can cure the patient of cancer. The difficulty is that the methods available for screening are only partially effective, identifying at best only 50% of patients at a curable stage of their cancer. Despite the partial effectiveness of screening, most patients with cirrhosis, particularly hepatitis B and C, are screened yearly or every six months with ultrasound examination of the liver and measurements of cancer-produced proteins in the blood, e.g. alpha fetoprotein.

      Liver transplantation

      Cirrhosis is irreversible. Many patients’ liver function will gradually worsen despite treatment and complications of cirrhosis will increase and become difficult to treat. Therefore, when cirrhosis is far advanced, liver transplantation often is the only option for treatment. Recent advances in surgical transplantation and medications to prevent infection and rejection of the transplanted liver have greatly improved survival after transplantation. On average, more than 80% of patients who receive transplants are alive after five years. Not everyone with cirrhosis is a candidate for transplantation. Furthermore, there is a shortage of livers to transplant, and there usually is a long (months to years) wait before a liver for transplanting becomes available. Therefore, measures to retard the progression of liver disease and treat and prevent complications of cirrhosis are vitally important.

      What is new and in the future for cirrhosis?

      Progress in the management and prevention of cirrhosis continues. Research is ongoing to determine the mechanism of scar formation in the liver and how this process of scarring can be interrupted or even reversed. Newer and better treatments for viral liver disease are being developed to prevent the progression to cirrhosis. Prevention of viral hepatitis by vaccination, which is available for hepatitis B, is being developed for hepatitis C. Treatments for the complications of cirrhosis are being developed or revised and tested continually. Finally, research is being directed at identifying new proteins in the blood that can detect liver cancer early or predict which patients will develop liver cancer.

      Cirrhosis At A Glance
      Cirrhosis is a complication of liver disease which involves loss of liver cells and irreversible scarring of the liver.
      Alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C are common causes of cirrhosis, although there are many other causes.
      Cirrhosis can cause weakness, loss of appetite, easy bruising, yellowing of the skin (jaundice), itching, and fatigue.
      Diagnosis of cirrhosis can be suggested by the history, physical examination and blood tests, and can be confirmed by liver biopsy.
      Complications of cirrhosis include edema and ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, bleeding from varices, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, hypersplenism, and liver cancer.
      Treatment of cirrhosis is designed to prevent further damage to the liver, treat complications of cirrhosis, and preventing or detecting liver cancer early.
      Transplantation of the liver is becoming an important option for treating patients with advanced cirrhosis.

  11. QUESTION:
    I have a chronic liver disease with unusual lab and biopsy findings.?
    Labs: Elevated AST and ALT. GGT is consistently above 500. AP, Bilirubin, PT, LDH are WNL. Hepatitis profile for B and C were wnl. (vaccinated against A in 2000). Sed Rate 40. All ANA tests normal. Cerulugen normal. CBC normal.

    CT shows multiple large cysts consistent with Poly cystic Liver disease without renal involvement. CT showed same density in spleen and liver.

    Biopsy showed occasional cellular edema with Mast Cells, Eosinophils, and some lymphocytes. No fibrosis. Mild patches of fat noted.

    No history of drug or alcohol consumption. Non-smoker.

    Maybe some medical student out there can figure this one out. Ask on of your professors. All the physicians I have seen have no idea other than say it may be combination of conditions.
    additional details:

    University based Hepatologist have already been consulted. They don’t know either

    • ANSWER:
      Figure out what? You have liver disease which has multiorgan impact. What is it that you don’t understand or want us to tell you? Bottom line, liver disease is a complex disease, so just work with you doctors on this. Except for entertainment it’s not a discussion appropriate to YA. Hopefully you have a liver specialist on your team and not just a primary care MD. Good luck.

  12. QUESTION:
    Which pain reliever is safe to use for minor aches with a chronic liver disease patient?

    • ANSWER:
      if possible use liniment such as omega pain reliever, salonpas and other externally applied so as not to cause irritation on your chronic liver desease.

  13. QUESTION:
    Endoscopy for Chronic Liver Disease?
    My Grandma is a CLD (chronic liver disease) patient. She has been diagnosed with it since 3 months. She is also diabetic, around 85 years old.

    Doctor is recommending Endoscopy for her.

    My questions are:

    1) When is Endoscopy necessary for CLD patients?
    2) Keeping in mind her old age and weakness, should I go for her endoscopy? (I am afraid due to her old age).

    • ANSWER:
      I had liver failure and had a transplant. My doctors wanted me to get an endoscopy done every 3-6 months to help lower the risk of me bleeding internally. Unwanted veins called varix can grow inside with liver disease. They are not like the veins we are born with since they can be weak, leak and even burst. Should they be quite large, a person can actually bleed to death in a short time.

      When they do an endoscopy, they can check for these varices. When they see one that could be a problem, they will tie what looks like a little rubber band around it which cuts off its blood supply. Within a few days, the varix will die and fall off taking away the risk of it ever bleeding. The procedure for doing this is called banding. For the most part, endoscopes are quite safe and are low risk for anything to happen, but I certainly understand you questioning how necessary this is at her age. I think a lot would depend on how advanced her liver disease is right now and how much of a risk she has for internal bleeding based on the stage of her disease. Only her doctor is going to be able to answer that.

      They put the patient out with the “twilight” sleep which is not deep anesthesia. There is really no pain or real stress involved in this procedure. They do everything after they put you out. I used to get mine done as an outpatient which took about 2-3 hours total. The actual procedure depending on the banding only takes about 15 minutes or so. I often went shopping after wards even though they suggest you take it easy for the day.

  14. QUESTION:
    Chances of chronic liver disease.?
    my pop has chronic liver disease and has been in hospital on life support in a coma. he is bleeding internally .what are the chances of him beating this? please help.

    • ANSWER:
      Jake, I’m sorry about your Dad. Is there a reason you can’t ask his doctor this question? Sometimes they will be very honest with you, if they know you are ready to hear the truth. Nurses and staff caring for someone on life support also know more than they can say, but sometimes you can engage a nurse in conversation and she will hint at it. This is difficult for the family, especially for the one responsible for the decision to pull the plug. I’ve had to make it with family members, and quite frankly, it sucks. Everyone should have a living will. Here’s one thing to think on until you learn more from the doctor. If his EEG shows brain activity, and the internal bleeding stops, he has a chance. How big a chance, I can’t say, but a chance. If EEG shows no activity, it’s time already.

  15. QUESTION:
    Continued driniking even after Chronic Liver disease.?
    Hi, My father-in-law has been drinking day and night for past one year and has been hospitalized twice since then for Chronic liver disease , this August he was diagnosed to have Chronic liver disease with heptic encephalopathy and was hospitalized for almost 20 days. Doctors strictly asked him to quit drinking , but he resumed regular drinking within a months time. He is also taking his medications along with his drinking problem. How harmful is drinking for him at the moment when his liver is still damaged. Is there any amount of alcohol that is OK for him to take? Is there any side affects of being on liver medications and yet taking alcohol? Please advice what can be done to help him quit drinking and regain his damaged liver.

    • ANSWER:

  16. QUESTION:
    What are the risks to an unborn child if I have chronic liver disease?
    I have had liver disease for a little over nine months. I am now 22 and first got ill when I was 21. The doctors don’t know what caused it (though they keep trying to imply that it was drug use or drink which I am happy to say have never done drugs and did not drink excessively)

    They are telling me that its probably chronic liver disease and I need to know what the risks are if I were to potentially get pregnant.

    If anyone has any experience or information that would be gratefully received.

    Thank you very much
    x!

    • ANSWER:
      Since your doctor knows your history and has possibly performed a physical, can run this past him/her for the absolute right answer for you. I suspect the pregnancy would be very hard on your liver, and all around harder on you than the growing fetus. Doc can also tell you to what degree the liver is functioning, if there are toxins that could harm a fetus, etc.

  17. QUESTION:
    what is the best diet for chronic liver disease?

    • ANSWER:

  18. QUESTION:
    Progressive Chronic Liver Disease?
    is it true that Chronic Hepatitis B and C untreated over few years, has 80% Chance of developing Hepatocellular Carcinoma of the Liver?
    You see, my father passed away at the age of 59 from Hepatocellular carcinoma. as investigated by his previous Liver Specialist, that he was given a treatment medication to control his Hepatitis B and told it will get worse if it stopped. but my fathers regular physcian told him he don’t need to take it if his liver is healthy so my father stopped his treatment after three years of use. After two years of living without Hepatitis treatment, my dad got sick. after many blood or X-ray scans, they have diagnosed him with Chronic Hepatitis B and a stage four of Hepatic Cellular Carcinoma. Since stage four is difficult to treat. it spreaded to his lungs and killed him after being in the hospital for two weeks. after that i wanted to know if it is possible if there are people who got diagnosed with this type of cancer after living without treatment for Hepatitis B.

    • ANSWER:
      My guess is that it is not true because that is quite high to say the least. I know quite a number of people who have hep C and none of them have cancer. I know the risk is higher for anyone having a liver disease, but never heard any statistics even close to this figure.

  19. QUESTION:
    What is the sequence of stages that brings about advanced liver disease caused by chronic alcohol toxicity?
    a. Fat accumulation, fibrosis, cirrhosis

    b. Fibrosis, gout, cirrhosis

    c. Fibrosis, cirrhosis, fat depletion

    d. Cirrhosis, fat accumulation, fibrosis

    • ANSWER:
      Your answer is A.
      Overdosing on alcohol can cause fat
      accumulation inside the liver. This can
      damage the cells of the liver. When
      this happens, the immune system responds
      to this and cause inflammation to develop
      in the liver. This put more pressure on the
      cells and the cells can start to die, forming
      first fibrosis and then this advances to
      cirrhosis of the liver which is death of the
      liver cells and forming of scar tissue inside
      the liver that blocks the flow of blood
      through and to the liver cells…it is a progressive
      disease with no known cure.

  20. QUESTION:
    diuretics drug in chronic liver disease?

    • ANSWER:
      If you mean how diuretics are useful in chronic liver diseases, the answer would be: to treat ascites (the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity) which could rise as a complication of portal hypertension (increase in the pressure within the branches of the portal vein that run through liver) which is common in chronic liver diseases.

  21. QUESTION:
    about chronic liver disease-my hisband’s weight is 63kg SGOT-423,SGPT-460,NAT-138,K+-4.3?

    • ANSWER:
      There are blood tests that the doctor does to
      check the liver:
      (1)The liver enzymes which will give the doctor
      an idea if the cells of the liver have become
      damaged. (SGOT,SGPT[also known as ALT,
      AST], GGT and Alkaline phosphatase.
      (2)The liver function tests which will give the
      doctor an idea if the liver cells are able to do
      the functions they once did to keep the body
      healthy (Bilirubin, INR, Albumin)
      (3) The viral testing to see if a virus has entered
      the body and gone into the liver and is causing
      problems like Hepatitis A,B,C.

      Your husbands liver enzymes are high.
      The NA is sodium and it is fine. The K is
      potassium and it is also fine.

      There are many things that can cause a problem
      in the liver:
      (1) alcohol consumption (2) medication
      toxification (3) chemical exposure
      (4) hereditary conditions where the body holds
      onto excess amounts of iron or copper
      (5) fatty liver disease caused by any of these: alcohol, weight, diabetes, metabolic problems
      (6) biliary obstruction, malformations, twisting of
      or stricture of (7) viral infections such as Hepatitis A,B,C, etc (8) A deficiency in a enzyme being made by the liver. (9) Cardiac problems (10) Auto immune disease (11) glycogen
      storage disease ….and there are others.

      The doctor has to first find out what the cause
      is before he can be treated. Please remember
      that blood testing is not 100% accurate…the
      doctor may do more to be sure of the results.
      He may do an exam by placing his hand
      on the upper right hand quadrant of the abdomen
      ..just under the rib cage…to see if the liver
      is enlarged. If the liver is enlarged…it means
      that there is inflammation inside the liver because
      the immune system of the body has responded
      to the damage to the liver cells. He may then
      have an ultrasound done to look at the liver
      and see if the blood is flowing well through the
      liver, if it has any nodules or growths and how
      enlarged it is.

      If the cause of the inflammation is removed
      and it is treated, the liver cells can heal.
      However, if it can’t…it can lead to Cirrhosis of
      the liver.

      Your husband should be referred to a
      gastroenterologist or hepatologist if this is
      a true liver problem. The sooner he is
      treated…the more chance of the problem in
      the liver can be reversed.

      Some of the liver enzymes are made in other
      organs, also…therefore you need the results
      of the other blood tests I mentioned to be
      sure it is a problem in the liver/biliary area.

      I hope this information is of some help to you.

  22. QUESTION:
    Anyone KNOW about preg/chronic liver disease?Trusted Dr says your good canidate to terminate.3kids need mom .?

    • ANSWER:

      http://www.naspgn.org/sub/Chronic_liver_disease.htm

  23. QUESTION:
    any chronic painers; liver disease people out there.?
    sister has liver disease dont know what one yet, prob chirosis (spelled wrong). anyhow she has fibermyalgia and takes percocet,oxycontin for the pain. doctor wants her off the meds now ; she drank for years but quit a year ago so . anyone has liver disease and pain, what kind of meds do you take for pain? all testing being done right now, im just trying to ease her fear cause she has alot of pain. only if you are in this situation or know someone please answer. thanks

    • ANSWER:

  24. QUESTION:
    What is chronic parenchymal liver disease?
    My fater aged 65 yrs effected with Pnemonia & hospitalised. Now report shows that he is having CPLD. In the report it is also mentioned that “Liver is coarse echo texture with multiple tiny scatted hypoecholic nodular involving both the lobes of liver” what does this mean. He is also a diabetic patent. While he was hospitalised his blood sugar increased and after giving insulin & other medicines & diet now it is normal. He never have alchohol nor smoke. he is vegitarian. Doctor says that cold lead to Pnemonia. what is the treatment. what is the diet. whether cureable or what precautions to be taken?? Please help.

    • ANSWER:

  25. QUESTION:
    Liver disease with chronic alcohol abuse help?
    Heey :) Im 20 and my mam is a veryy bad alcoholic, she has been drinking litterally everyday for the pst 2 years…brandy and vodka. she is violently ill and is vomitting everyday. she is soo addicted to drink, she just sits in bed all day drinking her brndy until she vomits. She was admitted to a rehab clinic loads of times but keeps checking herself out again, she now has jaundice and cirrosis of the liver. i want to know how long do you think she has left? And cn her liver disease be cured? Honest answers please, and non judgemental! Thanks A Mill (:

    • ANSWER:

  26. QUESTION:
    Prevalence of cirrhosis/liver disease in Japan?
    Does anyone know the prevalence of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in Japan? I can’t seem to find it anywhere. If you have an internet source confirming it, that would be great. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      I found this article about cirrhosis in Japan… (the web url got cut off…it’s one website, so you have to connect the two parts!)

      http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/ cgi/content/abstract/20/4/921

      I hope it helped?!

  27. QUESTION:
    I’m 29 w/ chronic kidney disease for 4yrs, tylenol induced liver disease 3yrs. Wil I get kidney failure?
    I recently had another kidney infection and I was wondering if I take care of myself if I will get kidney failure eventually. My infection was about 3 weeks ago and my urologist think I still may have it. If you have any exp on this please let me know. I’m a single mother of 3 children and have been very weak, tired and have lost over 50 pounds in 11 months. My last urine tests are below perhaps if you know anything about them as well.. it’d be helpful. I was also peeing blood clots brown and stringy (yucky I know). But I go next week to get an ultrasound and ct scan on my kidneys. How likely is it that I die from kidney or liver disease?

    spec gravity 1.005
    ph 8
    leukocytes 1+
    nitrates neg
    protein trace
    glucose neg
    ketones neg
    urobillnogin neg
    billirubin 1+
    blood trace

    assement 599.0

    Thanks for your help any information would be greatly appreciated.
    I recently had another kidney infection and I was wondering if I take care of myself if I will get kidney failure eventually. My infection was about 3 weeks ago and my urologist think I still may have it. If you have any exp on this please let me know. I’m a single mother of 3 children and have been very weak, tired and have lost over 50 pounds in 11 months. My last urine tests are below perhaps if you know anything about them as well.. it’d be helpful. I was also peeing blood clots brown and stringy (yucky I know). But I go next week to get an ultrasound and ct scan on my kidneys. How likely is it that I die from kidney or liver disease?

    spec gravity 1.005
    ph 8
    leukocytes 1+
    nitrates neg
    protein trace
    glucose neg
    ketones neg
    urobillnogin neg
    billirubin 1+
    blood trace

    assement 599.0

    Thanks for your help any information would be greatly appreciated.

    Okay I have had kidney disease for 4 years it was diagnosed 5/?/04. I had a kidney infection but have the disease.

    • ANSWER:
      When you said you had “chronic kidney disease for 4yrs”, do you mean recurrent kidney infections? Or something else — like being told by your doctor that you have proteins in your urine, or that your kidneys are not functioning at 100%?

      Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is actually a medical entity with a very specific set of definitions: http://www.kidney.org/professionals/kdoqi/guidelines_ckd/p4_class_g1.htm
      On the other hand, people can have recurrent urinary infections without ANY kidney disease — their infections stay in the bladder, and never involve the kidneys themselves.

      To know whether your infections have actually done damage to the kidneys, you need blood tests (such as “creatinine” and “blood urea nitrogen”) in addition to urine tests. For example, kidney failure (medically known as End-Stage Renal Disease) usually does not occur until the creatinine goes above 4 or 5 (normal being around 1). It will be very helpful if you have your blood test results.

      Finally, your urine test is consistent with a urinary tract infection, but it does not tell us whether the infection is only in the bladder, or in the kidney(s) as well.

      The ultrasound and CT scan will look at the sizes of your kidneys (kidneys damaged by severe CKD tend to be smaller), but also see if the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder (ureters) are stretched by stagnant urine flow.

      I’m sure you will have more questions after the scans are done. Feel free to ask more questions then.

      Good luck.

  28. QUESTION:
    What are some things that are harmful to your liver?
    I’m doing a project on the liver (organ) and I need to know about 2 other things that you can do to harm it. For example, The abuse of alcohol shuts down your liver, causing a chronic liver disease called cirrhosis (which is caused by alcoholism, hepatitis b, hepatitis c and fatty liver disease).

    What are 2 other things you can to do harm your liver and what can that lead to?

    • ANSWER:
      There are a number of causes of a liver problem
      that can lead to cirrhosis of the liver:

      Alcohol consumption: some people are
      more sensitive to alcohol than others are.
      When the liver cannot handle the amount
      of alcohol taken into the body, then it
      stays in the blood and goes into the
      brain and causes a reaction there.
      The liver converts all toxic substances
      to a non toxic form so the body can
      dispose of them…however, this may not
      happen if the patient consumes too much
      alcohol and the liver cannot convert it
      fast enough…the alcohol itself, and its
      by product, can produce damage to the
      liver cells.

      Medication toxifications: it has been shown that acetaminophen taken with alcohol can cause permanent liver cell damage almost immediately. There are a lot of drugs on the market, including over the counter, herbs, and even prescription drugs that are very hard on the liver. Most all medications go through the liver first, to be broken down, before going to the rest of the body.
      Liver patients are told to only takes drugs
      prescribed by their doctors…if the liver
      cells become damaged…then this medication has to be adjusted according
      to how much damage there is.

      Chemical exposure: such as Carbon
      Tetrachloride..

      Mushroom poisoning: some people try to pick their own mushrooms…not knowing that some are very dangerous. This
      also can cause immediate damage to
      the cells of the liver and a very early death.

      Autoimmune disease: this is where the body’s immune system, turns on itself and causes destruction of its own cells. This can be a disease like Biliary cirrhosis or Sclerosing Cholangitis. In Sclerosing
      cholangitis…the bile ducts that the bile
      flows through from the liver to the
      gallbladder to be stored or to the intestines,
      become twisted or malformed.

      Hereditary Conditions: like Hemochromatosis where the body tend to retain iron too much. Or a disease where it retains copper.

      Gallbladder stones development where the
      stones move out of the gallbladder and into the biliary ducts and blocks them causing the bile to back up into the liver and harming the cells.

      Virus infections such as Hepatitis A,B,C,etc.

      Fatty liver disease which is caused by alcohol or non alcoholic reasons like hereditary conditions, weight, or metabolism problems.

      (There is even having a traffic accident where the liver may be lacerated or injured.
      Being gun shot or even stabbed with a knife.
      Sometimes sports accidents can also
      damage the liver.)

      Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver cells caused by any of those things I mentioned above. Any damage to the liver cells can cause the immune system of the body to respond to it and cause this inflammation.

      A liver is usually very smooth and soft…anyone that has cooked liver knows what it looks like. When inflammation develops, then it enlarges in size and takes on a spongy appearance. This inflammation cause more pressure inside the liver cause the liver is surrounded by a capsule membrane.

      If the inflammation is treated and the cause can be removed (as you can see, some cannot be removed)..then the liver cells
      may heal, if it is not done then it will progress to death of the liver cells and scar tissue forming inside the liver. This scar tissue blocks the flow of blood through the liver and also to the liver cells and even more
      cells will die off…it is a progressive disease that the doctors can only try to slow down, Known as cirrhosis then. Cirrhosis is the death of the liver cells that lead to fibrosis and scar tissue formation.
      When cirrhosis takes place, the liver will start to shrink in size and become hard in texture.

      I hope this information has been of some
      help to you.
      Here are a couple links to explain more about this disease and causes:

      http://www.medicinenet.com/cirrhosis/article.htm

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cirrhosis/DS00373

  29. QUESTION:
    fatty liver or chronic liver? is it the same?
    I am a 29 yrs. old female. I drink only occasionally (of course there are times when I gotten drunk when I hang out) I don’t do drugs or smoke. I had a gastric bypass last year and lost a lot of weight. On february this year I was complaining of abdominal pain and they did a sonogram, a HIDDA scan (to check if it was my gallbladder) but everything was ok. After that they did an abdominal CT scan to check. In the CT scan everything was ok but it said:

    ” the liver is somewhat heterogeneous in attenuation without discrete biliary tree dilatation or masses. There is subobtimal examination due to lack of IV contrast. The underlying coarse atrenuation may be related to fatty changes ”

    and in the area of impression it said:

    1. CT of the abdomen without contrast demostrates attenuation and coarse underlying hepatic parechyma which may correspond to chronic hepatic disease.

    When I read this I was scared as hell thinking I might have something irreversible on my liver so I went to my internist so he could interprete the results. He send me a liver profile and everything was fine and he also send me a coagulation lab test and everything fine. He told me that he was sure it was fatty liver and with diet modification everything was going to be normal in no time. After visiting my doctor I was relieved but I still can’t stop thinking why did they write on my CT chronic liver disease if its just fatty liver? My internist told me fatty liver is a liver disease but its reversible. What do you think?

    • ANSWER:
      Fatty liver disease is caused by:
      weight gain, obesity, fast weight loss, malnourishment,
      diabetes, insulin resistance, high cholesterol/triglyceride
      levels, and others.

      Simple Fatty liver doesn’t usually cause a problem in
      the liver. Diet or changes to medications can reverse
      the problem. (It would be best not to drink any
      alcohol and not to take any medications that are
      not approved of or prescribed by your doctor now)
      However, if the fat continues to build
      up inside the liver, it can lead to damage to the liver
      cells. The liver is surrounded by a tight membrane
      capsule. When the liver cells become damaged,
      the immune system of the body can respond to this
      damage and cause inflammation to also develop
      inside the liver. This is then known as
      Steatohepatitis. Steato stands for fat, hepat stands
      for liver, and itis stands for inflammation.
      This is, then, much more serious as the inflammation
      can lead to death of the liver cells and scar tissue
      formation inside the liver that will block the flow of
      blood.
      Apparently, the one that looked at your
      scan could not determine the cause of the problem
      or wasn’t sure how far advance this would go later
      on without treatment being done…only your doctor
      could do that. He said it “may” correspond to
      Chronic (ongoing) hepatic disease.

      Your doctor feels that this can be reversed, since
      he knows your medical background. It would be
      best to follow any advice he gives you. Don’t
      be afraid to ask him any questions about this.
      If he deems it necessary, he may refer you to a
      gastroenterologist.

      Best wishes…Hope this information has been of
      some help.

      Here are a few links, you can click on, to read
      more about this disease:

      http://www.aafp.org/afp/20060601/1961.html

      http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/fatty-liver.html

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_liver

      http://www.gastro.com/Gastro/liverdisease/fatty_liver.aspx

      http://www.medicinenet.com/fatty_liver/article.htm

  30. QUESTION:
    The VA claims I need a liver from drinking too much, but I don’t believe them. Why do they lie so?
    They say I have cirrohis, hep b, hep c, chronic liver disease, and are threatening to keep my new liver unless I capitulate to thier unreasonable demands. Beer is a part of me. I can’t imagine the NFL without beer. They don’t care. THEY ARE THREATENING TO KEEP MY NEW LIVER! Besides, the jail doctor said my liver is fine.

    • ANSWER:
      Let’s tear this apart. The VA would not withhold treatment even if you are stupid enough to go against all recommendations so that must be lie number 1. The jail doctor said your liver is fine – that must mean you are in jail so you cannot be drinking beer. That’s lie number 2. Threatening to keep your new liver – organs can’t be ordered or placed on hold, an organ donation comes from someone who had died who also is a close match to you and is somewhat rare so that must be lie number 3. If you have cirrohis, hepititis B and C plus chronic liver disease (and how is that different than hepititis) then you are dead or much too sick to use a computer so that must be lie number 4. As far as not having the NFL without beer – granted that being plastered makes the game look better if certain teams are playing but it is possible to watch without drinking – yup lie number 5. Do us all a favor and wipe your hard drive.

  31. QUESTION:
    My boyfriend has liver disease caused by Hep C & chronic alcoholism – What can I expect? (symptoms, etc)?
    He was told about 3 years ago that he had hep C, chirrosis and he is a chronic alcoholic. Dr told him to quit or he would die. He has tried and failed several times ( I know he’s not trying hard enough…. ) . I just want to know what to expect. He is tired all the time, has headaches, and is depressed – Is this part of it? Also I have heard that mood swings are common to this, is that true? I posted a similar question earlier but felt I needed to clarify…. I appriciate any info I can get! Thanks!
    I appriciate the replies but I am looking for real answers not opinions on the relationship….. we have been together for many years, it’s not something simple to walk away from…..

    • ANSWER:
      Hepatitis C is the inflammation of the liver cells
      caused by a virus. Cirrhosis is death of the
      liver cells. His disease can be brought on by
      the Hep C or his drinking problem. Trying to
      quit drinking on his own is extremely difficult.
      He needs to go into a detox program at a
      hospital in order to do this. The symptoms
      he has from trying to stop drinking may be
      too much to handle…they can give him drugs
      to lessen these symptoms and help him get
      through it much better. The symptoms that you
      stated are normal. You have to realize that
      he is now facing death straight on and he has
      to make decisions on what he can do now.
      Depression is normal now, because of having
      to live with all these hurdles to go over to
      save his life. Waking up everyday knowing
      that you may die is very hard.
      Liver patients are usually in shock when they
      first hear they have a terrible disease like this.
      The first reaction is unbelief…then it moves
      where they try to do something to help
      themselves, if it is possible…it leads from
      there to either coming to terms with the
      disease and trying to fight it or just giving up.
      They need alot of support and understanding
      at this time. They get mad and they feel
      helpless and they feel like someone cheated
      them or played a dirty trick on them or they
      feel like saying “why me”. Others people drink and they don’t have this. Cirrhosis can be caused by many different things.

      Your boyfriend doesn’t have a rosey future and
      he knows that. He also knows that if he wants
      to spend time with the people he loves he has
      to do it now. I’m going to explain a few things
      to you. Once there is death of the liver
      cells it forms scar tissue in the liver…this blocks
      the other normal healthy cells from receiving
      nourishment and oxygen and causes them to
      die also. This is a progressing disease and
      the only real option he has now, if he has
      cirrhosis, is being evaluated and placed on the
      transplant list for an organ. But, first he has
      to overcome his addiction of alcohol which
      he needs to get care in order to do. A
      person has to be free of alcohol for at least
      six months before he can be placed on the
      list for transplantation.

      There are symptoms that may start to develop
      with this disease that he may or may not
      show signs of. Some of them are listed in
      this short article.

      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003895.htm

      If he wants to stay with his loved ones longer,
      than he needs to stop drinking now. He is
      causing his liver much more damage faster
      and it will lead to a much much earlier death.

      Having others around him who truly care about
      him, will make whatever course he decides on
      alot easier on him. You cannot make decisions
      for him, but you can be there to support him
      with all he does. Best Wishes

  32. QUESTION:
    Wisdom Teeth Extraction with those with Liver Disease — Any way to reduce risk of death and complications?
    I have already made a post, a while back, in regards to having oral surgery to remove damaged wisdom teeth, but that I was concerned about the pain medications used afterwards (considering I have liver disease ). I would like to know now, after hearing about more potential risks involved with dental surgery on those with chronic diseases and health problems, including the recent death of a young girl from improperly delivered anesthesia, what there is exactly that could be done to reduce the risks involved with oral surgery and anesthesia administration. And if there is not much that can be done to reduce the risk, is there any way to perhaps not have anesthesia during oral surgery. Constructive, but honest opinions would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.
    I would appreciate any professional advice, as well as laymen’s advice.

    • ANSWER:
      Emma,
      there are many problems associated with treating your case outside a hospital or atleast an oral surgery department within a hospital. If you are actively treated by a physician the oral surgery department or surgeon must be in consult to go over your current disease stauts, medications, lab values, and other contraindications to medications, surgery, etc…If you haven’t seen your physician in several months, the oral surgeon will need key lab values like CBCw/diff, AST, ALT, platelet, Thrombin time, prothrombin time before any invasive procedures. The best thing is to talk to your oral surgeon and have them treat you in a hospital setting with full consult of your Gastroenterologist or Hepatologist. In this situation bleeding diatheses, infection spread, or unpredictable drug metabolism can be treated promptly.

      Good luck

  33. QUESTION:
    Would overdosing on OTC pain killers, but not have to go to the ER from it cause liver damage / liver disease?
    I use to take alot of aspirin (more than the recommended amount) for a chronic pain which turned out to be gallbladder infection. Could this cause liver disease / damage? How would I be able to find out if I have liver damage / disease?

    • ANSWER:
      Aspirin is safe. Even in moderate overdosages.

      Tylenol (acetaminophen) is not safe, and it very easy to overdose and destroy your liver.

      A physician can talk with you about your concerns.

      A common sign of liver disease is jaundice, the whites of your eyes turn yellow.

  34. QUESTION:
    Just found out I have a chronic disease?
    I just found out yesterday I have hepatitis (not a, b, or c, just inflammation of the liver) and I haven’t been fully diagnosed, but whatever happens it will be serious. It is most likely nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    I don’t know what to do. I know the depression will pass eventually, but right now I am writing this from my iPhone because I don’t even want to get out of bed. I feel sorry for myself because I’m only 19 and have tried to take care of myself…

    How can I make myself feel better? I want to run and hide but the problem is stuck inside of my body.

    • ANSWER:

  35. QUESTION:
    What does it mean when I have a sharp pain in my right ribcage?
    The reason I ask is because I have a chronic liver disease. Where is the liver located?

    • ANSWER:
      Based on your description and that you say you have chronic liver disease, it is most likely your liver that may be causing you pain. If the pain is very sharp and does not go away, then I would strongly suggest you see your doctor about it sooner than later! It may be a lot of things, but it’s better not to chance it when it could be from such an important body organ!

      Here is a picture to look at where the liver is in reference (generally) to your ribcage (it’s the one colored in purple):

      http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/832/20113049.JPG&imgrefurl=http://www.dkimages.com/discover/Home/Health-and-Beauty/Human-Body/Respiratory-System/Lungs/Lungs-91.html&h=768&w=572&sz=87&hl=en&start=1&um=1&usg=__ANu6mJxF2OpRMBtzsF_Dx1YUQ9g=&tbnid=w2kzstyDJ8EKiM:&tbnh=142&tbnw=106&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dliver%2Bribcage%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DG

      I hope this helps and that you feel better soon!

  36. QUESTION:
    Liver Transplantation?
    1. My mother is a patient of chronic liver disease. I want to clarify following questions for my further information / dicision:-

    (a) Sir please would you apprise us that is there any age specified for liver transplantation?

    (b) Is it possible to trasplant a liver of 64 year old lady?

    (c) What are the expenses of liver transplantation?

    2. I would be highly appriciated for the earliest response in this regard.

    Best Wishes

    Abid Aziz

    • ANSWER:
      I am in the USA…so my answers can only
      reflect it here.
      In the USA, they have transplanted liver organs
      to the age of 65.
      Transplantation is very expensive. The patient
      will not receive a transplant unless they have
      the financial means to pay for it. This means insurance or asking for help with a social worker.
      of the transplant team, to learn how to obtain the funds for it through contacting organization that will contribute to it, etc.
      On average, you may be looking at about
      0,000 or more.

      I am posting links, you can click on, so that you can learn more about the transplant process and also learn more about the financial help and what may be required:
      Organ Procurement and Transplant Network…

      http://www.optn.org

      This is a Patients guide to liver transplantation
      from one of the transplant centers in the USA..
      very good info:

      http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/hep/patientguide/index.html

      This is Transplant Living where there is
      info on all transplants and also on organ
      donations from live donors:

      http://www.transplantliving.org/

      This is the United Network of Organ Sharing
      where they decide what transplant center
      will receive an organ once it becomes available:

      http://www.unos.org/

      It is best to contact the “Transplant Center where
      you live and talk to them. Other countries
      don’t always follow the same rules and also
      are sometimes cheaper than the surgeries
      in the USA.

      I hope this has been of some help to you.

  37. QUESTION:
    my father is not well for past 7months….some liver problem:plz tell what these reports says……< his current reports are:
    GGT 311
    SAP 164
    SGOT 51
    SGPT 66
    ISB .50
    DSS .20
    TSB .70
    PLATELETE COUNT:177000

    diagnosis::autoimmune chronic liver disease with acute HEV
    Abdominal koch's
    PCR for koch's :positive

    now can any one help me writing in detail abt wt these reports say.......what is the position of liver???
    is something very serious??
    how it cud be cured??
    is it fully cureable<>???

    • ANSWER:
      Beings that you don’t have any units with your numbers I can’t for sure say what they mean but here are the normals for a male and what an abnormal value COULD mean (some of them were not listed in my lab book):

      Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT)
      -liver enzyme sensitive to biliary and liver disorders, including alcoholic liver disease. Normal value 9-50 International Units/Liter (IU/L) I can’t tell if this is high since you didn’t add the units his lab values were measured in.

      -Platelet Count: Normal 150,000-450,000 cubic millimeters (mm3) (his is normal)

      As for his diagnosis Autoimmune Chronic Liver Disease: Basically, chronic means it is long term. Liver Disease is very vague. There are many different types. Find out what type he has and google it.

      HEV is Hepatitis E Virus which is an infection spread through the feces (stool) of an infected person. It is acute, meaning it will last less than 6 months.

      I will give you a website where you can go and find information. Also just googling in “Chronic Liver Disease” or “HEV” should turn up with quite a few websites.

      I do not know what Abdominal Kochs is.

      As for the position of the liver: if you divide your stomach into four quadrants with the belly button being the very center, your liver is in the right, upper quadrant. It is a very vascular organ, filtering your blood at 1500 mL per minute. (L. White, 2000) Your liver also secretes bile which breaks down the fat you eat. Among many other things, it produces prothrombin and and fibrinogen, which are necessary for blood clotting. Poisonous toxins (e.g. alcohol) are detoxified in the liver.

      I hope I helped a little bit. There is quite a lot of information in your question. What did the doctor tell your dad? That is probably the best info you’re gonna get. I’m sorry to hear about your father, I hope he is doing well.

      you can go to http://www.webmd.com and just search for his diagnoses in the search box.

      or just go to http://www.google.com and type in either one of his diagnoses.

  38. QUESTION:
    Do I possibly have leukemia or some other blood disease? ADVICE FROM EXPERIENCED/ or DOCS?
    my symptoms are, and noted beggining about a year ago, disapearing and reapearing regulary but not serious, but recently symptoms have returned elevated and much more serious then past experiences, symptoms include…

    bleeding gums, paleness, red dots on skin that are itchy, patchy red palms,, white fingernails under nail, yellowing at tip of fingures, fatigue, joint pain. wrestlessness, trouble waking up. (sleep long hours) sometimes bed at 8pm and up at 4-6pm the next day. and swallen lymph nodes in my lower neck and under my jaw…. (SINCE THIS NIGHT I HAVE DEVELOPED BUMPS UNDER MY LEFT ARMPIT AND CHEST PAIN) I also am beggining to feel ill, feels like the flu, but rather strange as my headache will go and come back in a different area…

    Here is my doctors summary from saturday night. when i attended the emergancy dept…

    (Jaime Waters presented to Box Hill hospital Emergancy Department on 07 Aug 2010 at 15:40

    ED Diagnosis: Bleeding disorder for investagation
    History of presenting Complaint: 20 y.o male presented with 2 month histroy of bleeding gum and joint pain with no significant background histroy.

    Patient first noticed gum bleeding at least 3 or more months ago after brushing, since then bleeding has become more consistant, bleeding lasting now upto 10 minuts after brushing. also noticed incease of joint pain mainly on MCP joint and knee joints over this period of time.

    Bleeding has worsened over the past 5 days and become consistant in the past 2 days. patient now also complains of lethargy and weakness in this time frame.

    smoker since 14

    heavy drinker; usually 2-4 bottles a week.
    Last alcohol yesterday 1/2 bottle bourben.

    No family history of bleeding disorder, auto immune disease or leukemia.

    Resting tremor noted, no heptic flap, no obvious brusing/petechae
    No sign of chronic liver disease
    No conjuctiva pallor, no scleral jaundice

    chest clear
    abdo soft tender, no oragomegaly

    Oral examination – no active gum bleeding, no obvious gingervitis, tonsil not enlarged.

    tender submental lymph node bilaterally R>L
    Palpable R cervical lymph nodes
    Thyroid not enlarged

    stiffness of mcp joint both hands no tenderness on palpation and movement

    Managment: FBE/U+E/Coags/LFT/CRP
    may need medical refferal for bleeding disorder

    Results/outcome: Neutrophilia and increase WCC
    Normal LFT and Coagulation profile hb166

    Refferals and followup: Need LMO follow up for investagation of autoimmune disease and thrombolic screening,

    patient wil need new LMO for follow up and observation of progression.)

    in this letter not all my symptoms are noted. but i hav put as much as i can think of before i added this letter, also the doctor told me im developing a little bit of anemia but was nothing to be concerned about at this time and that i needed to be observed over the next few weeks for a diagnosis of whats happening. and refferd me to a GP.

    can anyone offer me advice?

    since seeing the doctor my under left armpit has become sore and stiff, my left hip bone upper left beg bone has began to ache with worsening bleeding of gums. and consistant taste of blood in mouth. im very confused and worried about whats goin on… advice?

    • ANSWER:
      When you go to that referral, ask them to test you for Lyme’s disease. I have a friend with similar symptoms and it turned out to be Lyme’s disease. Have you been camping or in the woods lately? Even if you haven’t, deer tics can be in tall grass and you don’t even know they are on you. It doesn’t sound like cancer to me
      I hope you find out what this is. Be well

  39. QUESTION:
    I know my kidneys are scarred and damaged. Do I have chronic kindey disease?
    Hi I am 29 and I have had kidney damage for over 4 years. My left kidney is the one that’s scarred and damaged. I have kidney infection every 2-3 months if I take care of myself by drinking lots of water. My kidney function test showed that they are still functioning normally at this point. I also have liver disease and hypothyroid.. although my thyroid probably has nothing to do with it. I am getting tested to see if I have bladder reflux. I think thats what it’s called. I always have protein in my urine also.

    What I am wondering is: Is kidney damage the same thing as kidney disease?
    Because I need to know if I need to follow the kidney diease diet or not. My doctor says I don’t but I fell much worse if I eat processed foods or drink pop. I drink about 64oz of water each day and some cranberry juice every week. Any help would be appreciated!!
    Okay thanks for the response. I have permanent kidney dmage due to too many kidney infections. I’ve had this for 4 years. It’s irreversible as I said the left one is damaged I have had blood tests as well as been to radiology for some tests.
    As far as the liver goes I had lost 30% of the finction of my liver when it was diagnossed. I have permanent liver damage also. It’s from an overdose of tylenol (about 300) and about 200 other pills. Yes I was ill but because I was in a coma 4 days before being taken to the hospital my liver couldn’t be saved.

    So both are permanently damaged I know for a fact. What I want to know is: “Is kidney damage the same as kidney disease?”
    Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      There are two blood tests that check for kidney
      damage: creatinine and Bun (blood urea nitrogen)…If these are in normal range…then
      there is a could chance that the kidneys will
      heal. Protein in the urine is not good however.
      Protein checked by a urine test, doesn’t show up
      much unless the kidney has been damaged.

      You said you have liver disease but do not
      mention what caused it. The kidneys are
      second in line to fail after the liver fails. The
      reason for this is because the toxins that
      the liver no longer handles, the kidneys try
      to dispose of and it taxes the kidneys sometimes
      beyond what they are able to handle. This only
      occurs when the liver is damaged to the point
      that the cells have started to die and form
      scar tissue inside the liver…also known as
      cirrhosis. Hypothyroid trouble can also be
      connected to the liver problem.

      There is acute kidney disease and chronic
      kidney disease. Acute means that it may
      comes and then leave, chronic means that
      it is ongoing. Damage to the kidneys, to
      me, means that it is a disease. But, the
      problem with the kidneys may be only a
      result of another problem you already have
      had and that is the liver problem. Once the
      liver problem clears up…the kidneys may
      return to normal also. Infections can occur
      in many people with no damage to the kidneys
      because of using antibiotics to fight it off.

      Most people who are having problems with
      their kidneys are told to limit the amount of
      sodium, potassium, phosphorus in their diets.
      Sodas have alot of phosphorus and
      processed food contain alot of sodium.
      However, a certain amount must be maintained
      in the body since sodium and potassium are
      needed for the heart to beat in rhythm and
      for water retention. It is best to get the
      advice from your doctor about what you stated
      here. He has your blood work and can tell
      you what you should or should not do.
      He can tell you if there are any limits to the
      amount of Sodium, potassium, phosphorus or
      proteins you should be taken in or refer
      you to a nutritionist. He can also inform you
      how much fluid you should drink a day.
      Most people who have had kidney stones are
      told to drink alot…but too much fluid can also
      overwhelm the kidneys if they have liver problems also. In cirrhosis of the liver,
      sodium is retained in the body by this disease
      and fluids have to be adjusted accordingly, to
      keep things in balance.

      Sorry that I cannot be of more help…just
      giving you some things to think about and
      maybe discuss with your doctor.

  40. QUESTION:
    Anyone else have enexplained liver pain?
    I have chronic liver pain that i have had for 2+years. I have had tons of ultrasounds that show nothing to be concerned with, and have slightly elevated liver enzymes. they have done MRI and cat scans, and still no answers to why i would be having PAIN. the only diagnoses they can give me is that i have “fatty liver disease” which is normally something someone would get if they were morbidly obese, or an alcoholic. Neither of which i am, not even close. I had my gallbladder removed 3 years ago, but i still feel like i am having gallbladder attacks, thats what the pain feels like: sharp, crampy, like someone is squeezing my organs and stabbing them. Its horrible and the pain can last anywhere from 20 min.-2 hours. Anyone know of anything that could cause this?

    • ANSWER:
      The liver itself doesn’t have nerves so most doctors don’t believe patients that complain of “liver pain.” However, my wife got Hep C from a blood transfusion at birth. Before she was diagnosed, she would complain of “liver pain”, not a severe as your description, but similar.
      You can only get Hep C from blood to blood contact. Maybe bring it up to a doctor next time. I don’t know if this is an answer to your question, but it’s good information at least.

  41. QUESTION:
    how can one die of chronic ethanol abuse and no damages to liver or other functions that ethanol would destroy?
    Just wondering someone close to me passed and on the death cet. it said that they died from chronic ethanol abuse, toxic effects of opiates and hypertensive cardiovascular disease. I just don’t get that ruling and the autopsy report says nothing about liver damges or nothing . Is it because the numbers were how with the ethanol.. or maybe he just died of high blood pressure…

    • ANSWER:
      It’s also possible that the liver damage, while indicative, was not so extensive as to be listed as a cause of death. Basically, this person slowly poisoned themselves on alcohol and pain killers.

  42. QUESTION:
    Would I qualify for medical marijuanna?
    I have colitis and I have a chronic liver disease. Marijuanna takes away the nasuea i get from taking pills for my liver disease. Also it helps my appetite. I live in Massachusetts by the way.
    By the way, there is a bill waiting to be passed for marijuanna to be decriminalized.
    what kinda doctor would I get the prescription from?

    • ANSWER:
      yea man, I know someone who had a hurt bone bruise in his arm and he got some, but that was in Cali and I know its stricter in other places. That sounds bad though, a lot worse than the bone bruise, so I would say you should be able to get some. Good luck, I hope that bill gets passed, I think we are on the way to decriminalization, and I cant wait.

  43. QUESTION:
    looking 4 a GP on the Gold Coast Australia, multiple problems, chronic pain – Diabetic,heart & liver, URGENTLY?
    looking 4 a GP on the Gold Coast Australia, multiple problems, chronic pain – Diabetic,heart & liver, URGENTLY?
    I am a 37 year old woman suffering from everything from a severely deranged liver & Kidney disease, 3 heart attacks, 2 T.I.A’s, Angina, CHRONIC PAIN for more than 8 years – requiring Morphine @ times daily & to top it off I’m a type 2 Insulin dependant Diabetic….PLEASE PLEASE GET IN TOUCH IF YOU KNOW OF A REALLY GOOD DR @ THE NORTHERN END OF THE GOLD COAST, I truly am desperate as my treating GP is retiring very soon, THANK YOU in advance, Yvette
    yvettebond2002@yahoo.com.au

    • ANSWER:
      Hey, I don’t live in Australia, but make sure you look into celiac disease. It is highly associated with diabetes and causes all kinds of health issues. There was a study I read recently where they found that almost 50% of people with diabetes have some adverse reaction to gluten and a good percentage of them have full blown celiac disease. Make sure to rule this out. It’s extremely common and wrecks havoc on your whole body. Many physicians don’t test for it unless you have digestive symptoms, but most patients don’t have digestive symptoms. definitely rule it out.

  44. QUESTION:
    Explain the effects of the following on glomerular filtration?
    1 Chronic liver disease
    2 kidney stones
    3 high blood pressure
    4 low blood pressure

    • ANSWER:
      I’m not sure about chronic liver disease, but…

      2. kidney stones lower the glomerular filtration rate because the stone is in there blocking the tubing, if it gets bad enough it can shut down the nephron/kidney

      3. high blood pressure increases the GFR becaues there is more pressure on the blood… if this happens things like blood cells and protiens that shouldn’t be filtered can get into the filtrate

      4. low blood pressure decreases the GFR because there isn’t enough pressure on the blood and it just passes by without being filtered. This causes problems because the ‘waste’ stays in the blood

  45. QUESTION:
    can someone be fired while taking medical treatment?
    emergency family medical leave absence is denied and employee gets fired. The employee is also under medical treatment that requires medical supervision and further tests with possible if not chronic disease (liver and lung)

    does the employee have any rights? can the person apply for workers compensation? will ssi give temporary disability?

    thank you

    • ANSWER:
      Depends on the State, for instance in TN you can get fired any day for any reason, the company doesn’t need to give a reason at all.

      Applying for SSI is easier said than done, because they will deny you the first time nearly a 100%. So then you have to run through all the red tape, which causes time and can cost you everything you worked for. Sorry but our “christian” nation is not very nice to it citizens once they need help.

  46. QUESTION:
    how long does one live after discovering chronic kidney failure?
    64 year old male. already has pancretitis, liver disease, gallballder trouble, and renal failure. has been treated medically to try and reverse kidney failure, and now does not wish to have dialysis, and has decided to stop treatments and wait to pass away. all conditions are caused by chronic alcholism. thanks for any input, personal experiences.

    • ANSWER:
      From a medical provider standpoint, you typically live as long as you feel like living, regardless of the disease.

  47. QUESTION:
    What multivitamins suitable for people with liver disease?
    26 years old female, was diagnosed with Hepatitis C and level 2 Fibrosis. She is now on Pegylated Interferon Alpha 2 b and Ribavirine medication. These drugs are really challenging and have a lot of side effects. The one side effect that is really bothering her is Chronic Fatigue. Doctor prescribed a multivitamin supplement called Centrum, the problem with this drug is that it contains Iron. Iron are known to be bad for liver patients. What vitamins does she need, and what multivitamins product (no iron included) is suitable for her? Help please!

    • ANSWER:
      If a liver patient doesn’t have hemochromatosis, which is a
      hereditary disease in which a patient body tends to hold onto
      too much iron…then this would not be a good idea to take more.
      However, other liver patients it doesn’t hurt to take some iron into
      their bodies because iron is needed. Iron is on the Red blood cells,
      it is what the oxygen molecules we breathe in, attaches to. Without
      some iron, the patient would become anemic…and this is not good.
      The doctors can do blood tests, like the hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin,
      and TIBC to be sure that she doesn’t have a problem with this.
      Apparently, she may be lacking in certain vitamins or they would
      not of started her on them. I would contact the doctor office and
      ask them, if you are not sure. The nurse, there, can look up her
      file and tell you, from her lab work tests done, if the doctor does
      want her to have this. Liver patients do lack iron at times.

  48. QUESTION:
    I have NAFLD (Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease). What are my chances of getting Cirrhosis?
    I went to the the ER the other day because I have had chronic diarrhea, dizziness, and abdominal pain for more than 3 months now. The Dr. found that I had NAFLD and said that I should be seeing a Dr. for this condition and said that I need MANY tests done to see what is causing it. She also said that I have to be on a vegan diet (I am not overweight) to see if it can reverse the Disease. My questions are: Is there a cure for this & What are the chances of it forming into Cirrhosis?

    • ANSWER:
      You should be seeing either a gastroenterlogist
      or hepatologist now.
      Fatty liver disease can be caused by many
      different things: alcohol consumption, certain
      medications like steriods, weight gain, hereditary conditions,
      diabetes, insulin resistance, high cholesterol/triglyceride levels
      and more.

      The cause needs to be determined.
      There are different stages of this disease….
      Simple fatty liver doesn’t usually cause a
      problem and can be easily reversed by
      stopping the cause. Alot of people are very
      thin and can still have this problem.

      The fat pushes on the liver cells and can
      even push the nucleus of the liver cell out of
      place. That is why it has to be treated immediately
      ….so the fat will disappear and not harm the cells.
      The liver is surrounded by a membrane capsule and
      the fat only adds to the pressure inside the liver.
      If the cells of the liver become damaged, it signals
      the immune system of the body to respond to
      this. The immune system then causes inflammation
      to develop inside the liver, also. This will cause the
      liver to enlarge in size. It then goes from simple
      fatty liver to steatohepatitis. Steato means fat,
      hepat means liver and itis means inflammation.
      This becomes more serious…the inflammation adds
      to more pressure inside the liver and the cells can
      more easily start to die off. When the cells die off,
      it becomes a progressive disease known as
      Cirrhosis of the liver. What happens now, it the
      cells die off and form scar tissue inside the liver
      that blocks the flow of blood through the liver on
      its way back to the heart and may also block
      the flow of blood to the other liver cells and they
      will continually die off.

      If the patient follows the doctor instructions and
      is treated for any inflammation that may have
      developed…then it may never go to the point of
      becoming Cirrhosis of the liver.

      Here are some links to help you learn more about
      this, that you can click on:

      http://www.medicinenet.com/fatty_liver/article.htm

      http://www.aafp.org/afp/20060601/1961.html

      http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/fatty-liver.html

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_liver

      I hope this information has been of some help to you.

  49. QUESTION:
    If a native American is suffering from end state live disease due to chronic alcohol intake?
    is a liver transplant a option
    It is my step-daughter and she is on public assistance, and her doctors have not ofter her that option, should it be because she is a public charge
    or could it be because she has not taken the step to stop drinking

    • ANSWER:
      A person has to be evaluated and go through a series of
      tests to be placed on the transplant list. To be placed on
      the list, a patient has to be without any alcohol for a period
      of 6 months and willing to give it up completely. The
      shortage of organs for transplant makes it harder to
      be placed on the list unless the person, themselves, prove
      to others that they do want to live and will be compliant
      with following the rules to have an donor organ…which includes stopping bad habits so there is little chance, that once transplanted, the organ won’t go into rejection and the
      alcohol won’t react with the medication they need to take
      for the rest of their life.

      When you said, “is a liver transplant an option”…that is
      exactly what it is. The cost of a liver transplant is well
      beyond what anyone could afford…it can range from
      0,000 to 0,000 or even higher. A person
      needs to have insurance that covers transplant or find
      a way to raise the money….or they could be on disability
      and may receive help from the government or organizations.

      The system for the transplant is fair…people are placed
      on the transplant list according to how long they may live
      without having a transplant. In other words, if they are
      fairly well and may recover and not need a transplant…
      according to what their blood work shows…they will be
      placed lower on the list and may even go off the list and
      lead a normal life. As you go higher on the list, you are
      less well and if you are very near the top…you will either
      receive a transplant or you may die before an organ
      becomes available. This has nothing to do with sex,
      race, or any other similar thing. Blood type may be a factor…
      cause some blood types are rare and it is hard to find
      someone else who had the same blood type.

      The links below will give you alot more information about
      the process of liver transplant, organ donation, living organ
      donors, pre evaluation for transplant and many other things.

      http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/hep/patientguide/index.html

      http://www.transplantliving.org/

      http://www.unos.org/

      So many people are trying to be placed on the list when they
      have developed the disease because of alcohol. Alcohol is
      only one of the reasons for this disease of about 20 others.
      Some people have no problem stopping their alcohol, but
      most need help and that help is there…the doctors can
      give them medication to help with the symptoms that may
      develop from stopping the alcohol. This is usually done
      in a hospital setting. It helps the patient cope alot better.
      It may be very scary for a person with alcohol cause they
      know what it feels like if they don’t take a drink and how much
      that can multiply if going cold turkey. They don’t just have
      one hurdle to cross…they now have two, overcoming
      the addiction and then having a transplant.

      It has been shown, that when people stop drinking alcohol,
      that their liver may heal if it has not progressed to the
      point where the liver cells have died, which is known as
      cirrhosis.

      To help you understand cirrhosis, here is another link:

      http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/cirrhosis/

      The best doctor that she could be with right now is a
      Hepatologist which is a liver specialist.

      Another thing that may help is for her not to use any
      medications except those prescribed by the doctor…
      this included herbal teas, herbs, or any over the counter
      medication (especially pain, NSAID)

      I hope that this information is of some help to you.

  50. QUESTION:
    hi! do you know any Hepatologist in Southern California?
    A close someone had chronic liver disease, and he doesn’t have a health insurance yet. it’s hard for me to buy one for him b/c most health insurance wouldn’t let him since he’s currently sick. I want him to be cured as soon as possible while it’s young. I’ll be paying out of the pocket. But i don’t know where to start consult. By the way, he still has no symptoms yet but his labs are already abnormal.

    • ANSWER:
      no good asking on yahoo uk and ireland is it! try US.