Liver Failure Symptoms Mayo Clinic

If you experience the early symptoms of diabetes (commonly called pre-diabetes), it means it is too late for its prevention. However, reversal of those symptoms is possible with aggressive intervention and lifestyle modification. Proper control means reversal of the syndrome, and is possible even in later stages of this debilitating disease.

Early Symptoms Diabetes is an Oxymoron If a person is experiencing early symptoms diabetes it is said that he is suffering from pre-diabetes. Have you ever thought what is pre-diabetes. Have you ever talked of pre-pregnancy? A woman is either pregnant or not pregnant. If a person is pre-thirsty; it means that he is not thirsty. Once a person starts to experience symptoms like frequent urination, increased HbA1c level and other potential signs of diabetes; it means that this severe disease has already set in.

Generally the signs and symptoms of diabetes can be divided into two groups:

1- Symptoms common for both types of diabetes, and

2- Symptoms specific to the type of diabetes

Some of the early signs of diabetes can mimic other conditions, so if you experience any of these symptoms, check with a medical professional to determine the actual cause. Diabetes can begin to make changes in your body in subtle ways, like increased irritability or fatigue. Most people can relate to feeling this way at one time or another and these symptoms may not reflect anything other than stress or lack of sleep. However, if these signs are present along with frequent urination, blurred vision or a dramatic or unusual weight loss, it’s time to talk to a doctor.
Another important early symptom of diabetes includes a constant and annoying feeling of hunger. This is because your body is not digesting your food at the maximum level, and is thereby creating a false sense of emptiness. An increase in infections, particularly yeast infections, and an inability to heal at a normal rate are also symptoms that could signal the onset of diabetes. These signs point to a diminished immune system that is created in a diabetic condition.

WHEN DIABETES SYMPTONS INDICATE A CALL TO YOUR DOCTOR:

You feel very thirsty and find yourself urinating, much more often than normally.

You become nauseous, for no apparent reason, and this happens more than once.

Weight loss has become an issue, and you’re unsure why you’ve lost weight.

Your breathing has changed, and you notice your breathing deeper and more rapidly than before.

Your breath smells very strange, and even brushing your teeth are gargling with mouthwash, it’s only a temporary solution.

You find that your vision has become blurred, possibly you feel weak and tired, and you’re thinking is not as clear as it should be.

You notice that your coordination is not as good as it should be.

You have a small cut that simply won’t heal.

People can and do live with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, however early detection is the key to health and longevity. If you or someone close has been displaying diabetes symptoms, make an appointment with your doctor as soon as possible.


Liver Failure Symptoms Wiki

As we mentioned in previous articles we know that the American diet contains high saturated fat, trans fat, and other harmful substances such as sugar, caffeine, pesticides, additive substances, and less in fruits and vegetables. These types of harmful substances are toxic. Our body’s detoxifying functions try to get rid of them everyday, when they fail it causes a disruption of hormone production, damaging our body’s detoxification organs and weakening our immune system resulting in hormone imbalance and many chronic illness consequently. In this article, we will discuss symptoms of body toxins.

In fact, our body toxins are removed by some vital organs such as the liver, kidney and skin. If one of these organs start to malfunction, others must take the toxins and remove them. In many case our body cannot completely remove all the toxins causing accumulation of toxic substances in our body resulting in chronic illness.

1. Liver
The liver plays a major role in metabolism, it has a number of functions in the body. It also is among the few internal human organs capable of natural regeneration of lost tissue. Liver has a vital function in removing toxins in our body. Overdose of medication, vitamin A and other substances damages the normal function.
Symptoms of a weakened liver includes:
a) Arthritis
b) Pale or Brittle nails
c) Unable to sleep
d) Bitter taste in the mouth
e) Limited muscle flexibility

2. Kidney
Works together with the Liver in removing toxins from our diet including overdose of medication through urinary extraction. The kidneys also make hormones that control blood pressure, bone maintenance, and the production of red blood cells. Most cases of kidney disease are caused by high blood pressure, kidney inflammation and hardening of arterial walls. Symptoms of a weakened kidney includes: a) Sexual dysfunction
b) Mental retardation
c) Low grade back pain
d) Weakness of knee and leg
e) Frequent urination

3. Skin
Skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues. It also is the third system helping to remove toxins from our body, if the liver and kidney cannot completely remove them. Symptoms of toxic skin include:
a) Skin rashes caused by vitiligo and psoriasis
b) Red, itchy rash
c) Inflammation
d) Temporary disability

4. Intestine
Intestine includes 2 parts
*the small intestine is further subdivided into the doudenum, jejunum and ileum. it helps to digest materials passing through and from where nutrients are absorbed.
* the large intestine is subdivided into the cecum and colo. It helps to absorb water from digested material and any nutrients that may have escaped primary digestion in the ileum.
Symptoms of dysfunction of the intestine include:
a) Abdominal pain
b) Peripheral vision losses, night vision losses
c) Weight loss
d) Upset stomach, fever, earache, headache
e) Bowel obstruction
f) Muscle spasms and cramps

5. Colon
The colon is the last portion of the digestive system. It helps to extract water and salt from solid waste before eliminating them from the body. Symptoms of a malfunctioning colon include:
a) Memory loss
b) Inability to concentrate and confusion
c) Joint pain
d) Weakening the colon’s ability to properly eliminate all the waste materials
f) Autointoxication or self-poisoning.

6. Blood
If the liver, kidney and skin cannot completely remove toxins, then they remain in the bloodstream causing blood to thicken, and become sticky and clotted resulting in inflammation of blood vessels and buildup of plaque. Symptoms of poisoned blood include:
a) Illusion
b) Confusion
c) Black Stew
d) Black skin
e) Inflammation

7. Lung
The lung is the essential respiration organ. It helps to transport oxygen into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. Symptoms of a weakened lung include:
a) Build-up of mucus
b) Irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, lips and tongue
c) Blockage of air way
d) Sudden illness
e) Chronic cough
f) Tiredness or depression

I hope this information will help to rejuvenate your health, if you need more information of the above subject, please follow my series of the above subject at my home page at:

http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com

http://detoxification09.blogspot.com

http://detoxification08.blogspot.com

All rights reserved. Any reproducing of this article must have all the links intact.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Have a question and request… about my 18 day old daughter please read VERY important!!!?
    SO my pediatrician called today and said that my daughter got a positive test result back for galactosemia. They said that the test results can be affected by the heat and the time it takes to process it, it goes through the mail to Austin, to be processed and I live in Tx, so my pediatrician said that is definitely a possibility. The only sign my daughter ever showed of this was jaundice. They also say you know with in 24 hours of birth and some babies have been known to die after 4 days. I do have a 1/2 cousin who has this… but it is really rare. Oh it’s any allergy to lactose. It can cause liver failure, blindness, mental retardation, slow learning, and death. The symptoms that show up with in 24 hours of birth are jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galactosemia

    That is the wikipedia like just for anyone’s interest.
    Anyway, I am a breastfeeding mommy who has to stop for 2 days till we find out for sure if she has it or not. If she has it, the she goes on soy formula. I had to feed my daughter her first bottle today and it killed me, I have always wanted to breastfeed! Anyway, I am just curious if anyone on here has a child with it or has it themselves. I would ask my cousin but we do not talk much, due to the family situation.

    Also, if you could just pray for me and my daughter. You have no idea how much I would appreciate it. I want her to be fine and my heart is breaking. I know that I did not “give this to her” per se, but I feel like a bad mommy! So please whether you cross your fingers or pray, please just keep me and my daughter in your thoughts and prayers. I really need it right now!! Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      I don’t want to get your hopes up but my son got a false positive and the second test proved that he is perfectly fine! So keep your head up and don’t worry about not being able to breast feed that just means her daddy can help more with feedings =D
      just try to look on the bright side and stay strong with your daughter.

  2. QUESTION:
    Have a question and request… about my 18 day old daughter please read VERY important!!!?
    SO my pediatrician called today and said that my daughter got a positive test result back for galactosemia. They said that the test results can be affected by the heat and the time it takes to process it, it goes through the mail to Austin, to be processed and I live in Tx, so my pediatrician said that is definitely a possibility. The only sign my daughter ever showed of this was jaundice. They also say you know with in 24 hours of birth and some babies have been known to die after 4 days. I do have a 1/2 cousin who has this… but it is really rare. Oh it’s any allergy to lactose. It can cause liver failure, blindness, mental retardation, slow learning, and death. The symptoms that show up with in 24 hours of birth are jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galactosemi…

    That is the wikipedia like just for anyone’s interest.
    Anyway, I am a breastfeeding mommy who has to stop for 2 days till we find out for sure if she has it or not. If she has it, the she goes on soy formula. I had to feed my daughter her first bottle today and it killed me, I have always wanted to breastfeed! Anyway, I am just curious if anyone on here has a child with it or has it themselves. I would ask my cousin but we do not talk much, due to the family situation.

    Also, if you could just pray for me and my daughter. You have no idea how much I would appreciate it. I want her to be fine and my heart is breaking. I know that I did not “give this to her” per se, but I feel like a bad mommy! So please whether you cross your fingers or pray, please just keep me and my daughter in your thoughts and prayers. I really need it right now!! Thanks!

    I did post this earlier… I am just trying to get as many people praying or crossing their fingers for my little girl as possible! And if anyone has this I would love to hear from them!!
    Thanks again!

    • ANSWER:
      I will keep the two of you in my prayers. Hopefully, since she doesn’t have many symptoms, she has a mild form and restricting her diet will be all that is necessary for her to live a normal life.


Liver Failure Symptoms In Men

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The condition that we know of as Graves disease is named for a physician named Robert Graves, who lived almost two centuries ago. It is a disease also referred to as hyper thyroidism, which means the thyroid is over active. If the thyroid creates excessive hormones, a rather serious metabolic discrepancy is created. Hence the probable onset of Graves disease The typical sufferer of Graves disease is a younger female in between 30 and 60 years old. However it’s not uncommon for males to also have problems with this terrible ailment.

This information is written to inform the reader as to what Graves disease is, and what are the 3 most common symptoms. It is our desire that this information will help the reader to more accurately self-diagnose the issue, and encourage them to seek medical assistance.

Graves Disease Symptoms Number One: Osteoporosis

The word Osteoporosis essentially means bone loss. This issue can become particularly problematic for women because this bone loss adds to that previously incurred by possible menopausal problems. Ultimately, osteoporosis can cause a curved back, and likely loss of mobility.
Graves Disease Symptoms Number Two: The Thyroid Storm

The thyroid storm comes about from an awful condition called Thyrotoxicosis. It’s constantly been a mystery to me exactly why the medical community insists on using names that are so terribly tough to pronounce. This particular condition can be more easily described this way: it’s a result of greater serum elevations in thyroid hormonal levels. It’s important to know about this issue if you have recently undergone surgery, or fought some sort of infection, or experienced any type of trauma. Whenever these troubles are added to people who have already contracted Thyrotoxicosis, then there are large prospective difficulties. Up to a short while ago the death rate was nearly 100%. However with the advancement of medical technology, these days almost 80% of patients will survive.

Graves Disease Symptoms Number Three: Anxiety Disorders

Once again we find an extremely complex term used in the medical community to describe a fairly simple concept. In this case the term is cognitive dysfunction. Most of us would call it anxiety disorders. Whatever way you want to explain it, it’s not unusual for the Graves disease patient to experience mood and anxiety disorders. It is not always obvious, however, what has caused these mood swings. Some patients are born having a grouchy disposition, while some develop these personality traits all through their life. Cognitive dysfunction should only be regarded as a sign of Graves disease if other symptoms are also present.

Conclusion:

Unfortunately, there is no cure for Graves disease. Nevertheless, there are lots of remedies available to ease the suffering and extend the life span of the Graves disease sufferer. If you or a loved one is struggling with Graves disease, you are well advised to seek medical aid.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    liver failure?????please…any feedback is great!…?
    what are the symptoms of liver failure??
    also, in an 80 year old man, what could a bruise on the lower back coming around the front mean??

    • ANSWER:

  2. QUESTION:
    Special Conditions for Failure to Appear In Oregon?
    If there is a lawyer, or anyone with any experience with the Oregon legal system, especially in Washington County that can help me, I would really appreciate it. My Uncle is dying. He is 65 years old, and has had a stroke, or is going through liver failure, or something. We dont know what it is because he refuses to be seen by a doctor, and they wont take him in without his consent. We cant get power of attorney over him, and we cant get him to help himself basically.

    Whats happened is he is experiencing dementia like symptoms, and doesn’t even know where he is half the time. He is not in his right mind, and is suffering greatly.He drove the other night at 3:00 am without knowing where he was going, and drove very eratically. Obviously, a police officer pulled him over eventually adn breathalyzed him. He breathed 0.1. He was charged with DUII though, because the office was sure he was on some kind of drugs.

    He now has a court date on the 25th, and absolutely can not go. He can hardly even tell who we are or where he is at. He’s not eating, drinking, or doing anything but smoking. He will probably be dead this week, but should he survive long enough, he will have to go to court. The insensitivity of the officials in this matter is baffling. What can I do so he doesn’t have to go to this court date? He dosen’t do drugs, and he wasn’t drinking. He’s a sick, suffering, dying man that doesn’t deserve this crap, he has always been such a great person.

    Any police officers or judges or lawyers on here that can help me out? I cant afford my own attorney.

    • ANSWER:
      There was obviously something residual in his mouth which made him blow a 0.1. I dont see how a relative can not admit him to the hospital if he’s really as sick as you make him out to be. There are only to plausible ways out of court. #1 Get him admitted to the hospital, #2 talk to the D.A and explain the situation.

      As far as your comment ” The insensitivity of the officials in this matter is baffling ” they are only doing there job. Just like you and I when we’re at work, there are policies in which we must abide by.

  3. QUESTION:
    What Do You Think Of My Story?!!?
    Story Plot: It’s 2020. Unexpectedly a disease breaks out starting in the United States of America. The disease starts with meaningless symptoms like coughing and sneezing. But soon it advances and mutates over time. The coughing was replaced with vomiting, and sneezing was replaced with diarrhea. But then it all seems to get under control. The government deploys a cure, and starts giving vaccines to the uninfected. But with the disease able to mutate, the new vaccines and the cure turn the old diseases into a pandemic across the world. New symptoms arise. People are dying from brain hemorroging, liver failure, and heart failure. But one symptom turns up and people get worried they start becoming violent. Neighbors become enemies and the murders of the innocent starts to push man-kind to ¼ of the original population. One country is left untouched though, New Zealand.

    A group of survivors who think of themselves as immune to the super-disease want to get away from the violence in all of the infected countries. They take a fishing boat out to the sea on a voyage to the disease free country.

    Half way across the Atlantic, and one of the female passengers comes down with a fever. The crew see the fever as just the start of a cold. They give her some meds and put her to bed. One night, she started walking. Her eyes were blood shot and her breathing was rapid. Suddenly she bites one of the passengers necks and he falls to the ground, dead. The once boat ride to happiness has now turned to a fight for their lives. The crew hides in the boat and locks the infected girl on the main deck. She becomes aggressive and smashes the doors down and starts attacking and then killing the crew one by one. 5 survivors are left. The crew has failed killing the infected girl. The disease seems to reanimate cells no matter how many times the infected person dies. 2 of the remaining 5 commit suicide. And 3 are left in the middle of the night one of the 3 falls asleep and is then eaten by the girl. 2 are left and there is nowhere to hide. There are no weapons on board and they are running out of food. Michael, one of the survivors, is ready to kill Phil, the other survivor, over the food shortage.

    Now with these two fighting eachother with another trying to kill them both on board, they hit a reef. They have now reached New Zealand and they send the boat adrift with the monster aboard. They reach the safe zone and are greeted with healthy children. They are welcomed with food and shelter. 2 weeks in, Michael comes down with a fever.

    • ANSWER:
      I like it, but something is bugging me. Do you know where New Zealand is? It’s not in the Atlantic Ocean. It’s in the Pacific Ocean. If the people were to sail off in the Atlantic they would have to go under Africa into the Southern Ocean, into the Indian Ocean, under Australia into the Southern Ocean again, then into the Tasman Sea and depending on where they land they’ll either be in the Southern Ocean or the Tasman Sea. New Zealand is in the South Western Pacific Ocean.

  4. QUESTION:
    Can you tell me what you think of my story plot!?!?
    Story Plot: It’s 2020. Unexpectedly a disease breaks out starting in the United States of America. The disease starts with meaningless symptoms like coughing and sneezing. But soon it advances and mutates over time. The coughing was replaced with vomiting, and sneezing was replaced with diarrhea. But then it all seems to get under control. The government deploys a cure, and starts giving vaccines to the uninfected. But with the disease able to mutate, the new vaccines and the cure turn the old diseases into a pandemic across the world. New symptoms arise. People are dying from brain hemorroging, liver failure, and heart failure. But one symptom turns up and people get worried they start becoming violent. Neighbors become enemies and the murders of the innocent starts to push man-kind to ¼ of the original population. One country is left untouched though, New Zealand. A group of survivors who think of themselves as immune to the super-disease want to get away from the violence in all of the infected countries. They take a fishing boat out to the sea on a voyage to the disease free country. Half way across the Atlantic, and one of the female passengers comes down with a fever. The crew see the fever as just the start of a cold. They give her some meds and put her to bed. One night, she started walking. Her eyes were blood shot and her breathing was rapid. Suddenly she bites one of the passengers necks and he falls to the ground, dead. The once boat ride to happiness has now turned to a fight for their lives. The crew hides in the boat and locks the infected girl on the main deck. She becomes aggressive and smashes the doors down and starts attacking and then killing the crew one by one. 5 survivors are left. The crew has failed killing the infected girl. The disease seems to reanimate cells no matter how many times the infected person dies. 2 of the remaining 5 commit suicide. And 3 are left in the middle of the night one of the 3 falls asleep and is then eaten by the girl. 2 are left and there is nowhere to hide. There are no weapons on board and they are running out of food. Michael, one of the survivors, is ready to kill Phil, the other survivor, over the food shortage. Now with these two fighting eachother with another trying to kill them both on board, they hit a reef. They have now reached New Zealand and they send the boat adrift with the monster aboard. They reach the safe zone and are greeted with healthy children. They are welcomed with food and shelter. 2 weeks in, Michael comes down with a fever.

    • ANSWER:
      Okay. You have a pretty detailed outline here. Now you need to sit down and turn it into a novel. I don’t know how well you will work through the twists and turns, but the only way to find out is to write it.

  5. QUESTION:
    Have any organ transplant recipients had an experience such as this?
    In March of this year I started suffering from flu-like symptoms. Within 3 days I was in a coma suffering from Acute Liver Failure and in need of an emergency transplant. I was within hours of death when I received a liver from a young man who passed away. Ironically, he had also been laying in a coma in the very same hospital.
    When I woke up after the operation I began having hallucinations-seeing people that did not exist. The hallucinations were blamed on the powerful drugs that were in my system. But there was one imaginary person, in particular, that was continually harassing me in a playful way. I reported him and of course no one believed me. He came back later and I grabbed his two wrist when he said “no one will believe you (my name here)”. Moments later I was strapped down to my bed.
    Weeks later after being discharged from the hospital I wrote my anonymous Donor’s family to thank them for the gift of life that I had received. A few weeks after that his mother sent me a letter and picture of her son. Chills came over me when I saw his picture. He was the person who was harassing my in the ICU. I have read up on ‘Cellular memory’ where a recipient can develop their donor’s characteristics but have not heard anything similar to my experience. Has anyone out experienced this or heard of someone who has?

    • ANSWER:
      If “cellular memory” was plausible would people with blood transfusion respond similarly?

  6. QUESTION:
    Writing a paper about alcoholism? Help with topic ideas?
    I have an eight page paper about alcoholism due this Friday. I’m brainstorming what I want to write about and trying to come up with questions I can answer within my paper, relating to the disease, of course.

    So far, I’ve thought of:

    Basic statistics (How many people are affected by alcoholism in the US? How many are men/women? What’s the economic/social level of those affected? Age range? Race?…)
    Risk Factors
    Possible causes (I’ll only touch briefly on this, since no one really knows whether it’s inherited or not. I will present both sides.)
    Symptoms
    Diagnosis (Using the AUDIT/CAGE testing system, etc…)
    Treatment (How many treated actually stay sober, as opposed to going back to the bottle? What are the treatment options?)
    Other health issues that stem from being an alcoholic (Liver failure, cancer, depression, bi-polar disorder, etc…)
    What could be done better/more to inform the public about alcoholism

    What else would you like to know about alcoholism, if you were reading my paper? Do you have any other topic ideas I could touch on? Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      costs to business community for employees with alcoholism–a, absenteeism/lost productivity and b, expense for health insurance/rehab

      social stigma/public view of alcoholism

      portrayal of alcoholism in popular culture ie literature, movies, tv-has it changed over time?

      drinking age and its correlation to alcoholism; contrast USA to other countries where younger poeple can drink

  7. QUESTION:
    Has anyone else had this type of spiritual encounter?
    In March of this year I developed flu-like symptoms and within days I slipped into a coma suffering from Acute Liver Failure and in need of a transplant. I was within hours of death when another young man who was laying in a coma in the very same hospital that I was in passed away. His mother decided to donate his organs. A decision that saved my life because we were a perfect match.
    After I became conscious following my surgery I began having hallucinations-seeing people that did not exist. At the time it was blamed on the strong medications. One imaginary nurse, in particular, that I had an encounter with was harassing me continually in a playful way. But I became so frustrated that I needed to be strapped down.
    A few weeks after I was released from the hospital I wrote my anonymous Donor’s family to thank them for the gift of life that I received. My Donor’s mother wrote me back with a picture of her son whose liver I had. When I saw his picture chills came over me. He was the same nurse who harassed me. Has anyone had or known anyone who has had a similar experience?
    I’ve never posted this question for fear of getting silly responses like blue foots.

    • ANSWER:
      I would say that you had a visitor from your donor. The drugs you were on could have distorted things a bit, but I really do think he was trying to make you aware it was him.

      I also had a liver transplant and was in transplant ICU for 6 weeks and in the hospital for 62 days. I know all about those hallucinations. I even died once. I was in a coma for the first 3 weeks. When I was at my very sickest with an infection and alert at this time, I saw a woman standing by the nurses station off to the side. She was standing there doing nothing, but yet I felt she was there for me. I kept trying to see her face all night long, but every time I looked at her, she would turn her head away quickly and I never did see her face.

      It was very busy with nurses, doctors, etc. and yet no one would talk to her or even acknowledge she was there. She stood there all night long until I fell asleep at about 5 a.m. When I woke up later, she was gone. I always knew when I was hallucinating, but this was no hallucination. She looked like a real person, and I just knew she was there for me for some reason. I was running a fever of 104 the entire night, and it broke that morning. It’s the one strange thing that happened to me. I thought I would mention that I was strapped down for an entire month plus some. I also couldn’t talk because I had a trach and was on a vent plus had my hands tied down, so there was no way for me to communicate.

      Don’t believe for a second that your encounter was bad in any way, shape or form. It certainly wasn’t Satan. This young man gave you a gift of life. That is a good thing. Hope your are doing good now with your transplant. I’m doing great.

  8. QUESTION:
    Should we sue the doctor for malpractice?
    Okay so my mother is 69 years old, and she THINKS she has gout.
    Her right middle finger has swollen up and was a deep deep purple for a month. She thought it would go down because this has happened before and it went down. She finally gave in and went to the clinic in our home town and saw the doctor. When he walked in he asked her if she has diabetics, she said yes. She then said, “I also have had 4 congested heart failures, and bad kidneys”, he then grabbed her finger (knowing it was hurt) and asked if it hurt. (DUH) He said if it is gout the medicine will clear it up, and if it doesn’t clear up come back and he’ll give her a different medication because it must be a under the skin fungus.
    He told her he was going to give her colchicine and to take two initially and 1 every hour. This was on Monday. She took 12 pills out of the 30 in the bottle.
    She started vomiting/diarrhea/weakness/tired/heavy breathing and loss of breath.
    When she was puking in the bathroom she was coming back and she collapsed on me and couldn’t speak for about 10 minutes.When she could, she was breathing so hard and speaking so weakly it was hard to make out what she was saying.
    She stopped taking the medication on Tuesday at 2 in the morning.
    She is very tired but can walk now.
    I read in the TWO papers that the medication came with
    it says ,”do not take if you have a history of kidney/heart/liver/stomach problems.” “Symptoms: nausea,vomiting,diarrhea/stomach ache or upset stomach, sore throat, fever, unusual bleeding or bruising, or numbness or tingling. An allergic reaction to this medicine is unlikely, but seek immediate medical attention if it occurs. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include rash, itching, swelling, dizziness, or trouble breathing. This is not a complete list of all side effects that may occur.”

    I looked it up on a medical website and this is different from the paperwork. The following reads:”Colchicine poisoning has been compared to arsenic poisoning: symptoms start 2 to 5 hours after the toxic dose has been ingested and include burning in the mouth and throat, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and kidney failure. These symptoms may set in as many as 24 hours after the exposure. Onset of multiple-system organ failure may occur within 24 to 72 hours. This includes hypovolemic shock due to extreme vascular damage and fluid loss through the GI tract, which may result in death. Additionally, sufferers may experience kidney damage resulting in low urine output and bloody urine; low white blood cell counts (persisting for several days); anemia; muscular weakness; and respiratory failure. Recovery may begin within 6 to 8 days. There is no specific antidote for colchicine, alt”.
    This man asked if she had diabetes and he was aware of her kidneys and heart problems, but yet he STILL gave this to her? Where she could have lost her life?
    And another thing I read was that gout can only be determined from an X-ray and then they extract fluid from the joint and run a test to see if it tests positive for gout. All they did before was draw a vile of blood and said she had it.

    From what you read, does it sound like we have a suit?
    And no my mother is NOT obese.
    She hardly weighs 115lbs.
    Don’t make assumptions.

    • ANSWER:
      Ask your mother if she is willing to go through the cross examination that the defense will put her through. They will rake her over the coals, try to portray her as scum & make it all her fault.

  9. QUESTION:
    History of health anxiety/paranoia/scares . This time I feel it’s legit?
    I am an 18 years old male dealing with Health Anxiety. In general, I am a very anxious, nervous, stressed out, tense, and paranoid person. I am deathly afraid of making appointments to see the doctor because I am convinced they will tell me I have something cancerous or terminal. If you have the patience to listen to my health anxiety, please read on as you may be entertained or have encouraging/discouraging advice. Otherwise if Blocks of texts discourage you… ON WITH THE SHOW

    I swear I become possessed and obsessed whenever I have a health problem. I remember when I was 14, I started getting floaters. Boy I was utterly convinced that something serious (I had no idea floaters were harmless) was going on but due to the fear of doctors, getting diagnosed, checkups, I kept quiet about it fearful for the consequences. I had no idea what I had until I did research about 6 months later, found out it was floaters, and was relieved to learn it’s perfectly normal.

    When I was 15, I started having vision problems, Very weird to describe it, basically I had like mild vertical ghosting vision (don’t know if I’m describing it right lol) and My eyes had visual disturbances around light sources at night (starbursts). Oh my, I was researching these symptoms and stumbled across scary things like Retinal Detachment and I was so scared! I kept on looking on the internet for more and more info but I just kept getting more scared and paranoid! No courage to go to the doctor or tell my parents my exact symptoms. I was fearful that I was going to go blind. A year later at 16 years old, I finally had the courage to get my eyes checked. Doctor did the normal eye routine stuff, during the procedures I was so nervous and pessimistic as to how the trip to the doc would turn out. In my mind I kept thinking horrible stuff like Retinal detachment and eye cancer. Then It’s over and I’m told that My eyes have no significant problems and It’s just the floaters and mild astigmatism. I got prescribed glasses which is BS because I know my vision was not doubled, or blurry. I always believe the doctors always give me some BS diagnosis, but I keep it to myself because of that fear of going to the doctors to confront my health fears. To this day, I Still experiencing Vision phenomena but I have accepted to cope with it till I die.

    As for other health anxiety, Oh man they are minor yet I obsess over them. One major problem is that since I am a highly paranoid and anxious person, I am highly alert and aware. Example, breathing. There have been many instances in which I become aware and alert of my breathing (like now since I’m typing about it >_<) and I always get the sensation that I am not breathing not enough oxygen so I monitor my breathing. Swallowing. (guys don't think sexual) Similar to the breathing. Sometimes for whatever reason I become aware of swallowing saliva. Like the breathing obsession I monitor my swallow rate and saliva when I'm aware of it. Heartbeat. So many times I have had a fearful suspicious feeling so I clutch my chest and listen for the heartbeat. Other times I don't even have to clutch my chest for the heartbeat. When I feel pain like at my hips, at first I dismiss it, but if it lingers, i'm like "OH GAWD LIVER FAILURE" Yeah the trivial things and pains basically, no real problems until now.

    Now I am experiencing what seems to be a multitude of problems. Started out 2 months ago, Went reluctantly to the doctor to finally confront a problem of constantly having a persistent productive cough with usually yellow sputum as well as burning sensations in chests. As usual I anticipated the worst. I get diagnosed with GERD and I believe it's a bs diagnosis. The doc told me to do a fasting blood test. Yes I was also fearful of taking the blood test too thinking nasty results would arise. So didn't do it. A month passes by and I'm still experiencing lung problems, go to the doc and she tells me inflammatory symptoms are normal and casually dismisses it, but reminds me to do the blood test. I finally did it after family convinced me to do it, NERVOUS is all I gotta say when they were drawing blood. I get a phone call regarding the results, they tell me I'm all good which astonishes me. This time though, I cannot be put at ease because I'm still experiencing respiratory/lung problems and new respiratory problems like morning wheezing and chest tightness and I genuinely believe the Doctor misdiagnosed me. to make it worse, I have been experiencing tingling sensations all over my body and I mean all over. But it did go away for 2 weeks while I started college (it's back right now though)

    Now I am scared for my life. I have literally spent the previous 2 hours (not including typing this up) looking up lung cancer, lung cancer stages, tumors, brain cancer, cancer symptoms, etc.

    So please I would appreciate any wise counsel, kno

    • ANSWER:

  10. QUESTION:
    Can someone please read my assignment about ARDS please?
    Hey i need someone to read my paper and correct any grammar mistakes,
    and if there’s anything missing about the disease in general please don’t hesitate to mention them.

    An Acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) is a life threatening illness that damages the lungs over time. The disease has a mortality rate of 65% and it’s more common for men than women to catch ARDS . Pediatrics and infants can be receive with ARDS too. The problem of the disease is caused by the crumpling and the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli sacs. This affect the lungs to deliver poor concentration of oxygen into the blood, which leads to hypoxia. Essentially, ARDS starts to take affect from 24 to 48 hours from the start of incident. As the disease continues to worsen, the lungs will become stiff, heavy and unable to expand properly resulting to pulmonary edema. Eventually, other vital organs will start to malfunction such as the heart, the kidneys and the liver due to the lack of oxygen in the blood. The most common reasons that people get ARDS is caused by any major inflammation or injury to the lungs like aspiration, sepsis, pneumothorax, trauma, massive transfusion of blood products, and drug overdose. Also, Heavy smoking and heavy drinking are other risk factors. Symptoms may include severe difficulty breathing, anxiety, low level blood pressure, agitation, fever and multiple organ failure. Signs of ARDS includes presents of crackle sounds in the lungs, cyanosis, and diaphoresis]. The disease can takes months to cure depending on its severity, however the longer ARDS is delayed for treatment, the more closer it becomes inevitable to cure. Complications. The disease is treated through intensive care unit (ICU) and requires mechanical ventilation support. Patients are given antibiotics, IV fluid, and oxygen for hospital treatment.
    Essentially on scene, a patient with ARDS will be or might be in respiratory distress. Again, signs may includes, cyanosis, dysnea, diaphoretic, wheezing, and excess muscle usage. Symptoms may include rapid breathing, SOB and organ failure. Paramedics should quickly give 100% oxygen by using a mask, a nasal canula or a combitube, then positioning the patient into a comfortable respiratory position. If possible, medication such as salbutamol can be given to treat ARDS to open the pt’s airway, only applicable if the patient fits in the inclusion criteria and has no exclusion concerns. In some cases, patient with severe ARDS will be in grave pain if they move too much. Paramedic may want to check the lungs and any complications that may be present and treat it if they can. These complications may includes multiple organ failure, pneumothorax, and pulmonary fibrosis. A physical examination is necessary to rule out any other problems. Other useful practice are monitoring the patient heart, O2 saturation, and taking vital signs. Patient with ARDS needs hospital care ASAP. Overall when paramedics are dealing with an ARDS call, they must provide breathing support, try to figure out the cause of ARDS and get the patient to the hospital.

    • ANSWER:
      ARDS is a commonly misused term and has specific criteria by definition including the PaO2/FIO2 ratio is less than 200 and bilateral infiltrates on a CXR. Paramedics in the field will not know this nor will they have the appropriate diagnostic equipment. Not that many patients have “ARDS” although they have many of the other signs and symptoms. Some Paramedics will say the patient is in “ARDS” but the patient may just need a couple of nebulizer treatments and corticosteriods with a scrpt and they are back home later that day. Not all respiratory distress patients will be in ARDS. some may just have bilateral pneumonia which might meet a sepsis protocol but may not require intubation.

  11. QUESTION:
    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the buildup of glycogen in certain tissues….?
    ….especially muscles. The defect is due to a mutation in the gene that codes for an enzyme, acid alpha-glucosidase that is normally found in lysosomes. The enzyme normally breaks down glycogen into glucose, but mutations in the gene prevent the enzyme from breaking down the glycogen so that it bulds up in muscle cells, eventually damaging cells throughout the body. Infants with the disorder typically exhibit symptoms such as muscle weakness, and enlarged liver and heart, and heart failure. Most infants with Pompe disease cannot hold up their heads or move normally. As the disease progresses swallowing may become difficult and the tongue may become abnormally enlarged. Most children do not survive beyond the age of 1. The disease affects about 1 in 40,000 people. A man who had a brother that died of Pompe disease marries a woman who is heterozygous for the disease. What is the probability that their children will have the disease??

    • ANSWER:
      The probability that their children will have the disease is dependent on knowing the genotype of the father. Since his brother died of the disease, we know that his brother was homozgyous recessive. Therefore, their parents must have both been carriers (note that we have to assume that neither of the parents had the disease because they would be unlikely to survive to reproductive age). Usually a cross between two carriers would give offspring in a 1:2:1 ratio of homozyous normal : heterozygous : homozygous recessive. However, since the man doesn’t have the disease, we can eliminate the homozygous recessive in the probability equation and so this means that he is either homozygous normal (1/3 chance) or heterozygous carrier (2/3 chance). So the man has a 2/3 chance of being a carrier. If he is a carrier, then the probability that the man would pass on the recessive allele would be 1/2. So, the probability that he is a carrier AND that he would pass on the recessive allele is 2/3 x 1/2 = 2/6 = 1/3. Since his wife is a carrier, then she has a probability of passing on the recessive allele of 1/2. So, the probability that they would have an affected child is the product of both probabilities: 1/3 x 1/2 = 1/6.

  12. QUESTION:
    i think this can make the zombie virus?
    I then thought of the Ebola virus, the most fatal disease known to man. Only 1500 cases worldwide and only 20% of cases survived. It only occurs in Humans and Primates, and is usually carried by Fruit Bats. The Ebola virus originated in Africa.

    Among humans, the virus is transmitted by direct contact with infected body fluids such as blood. The incubation period is 2 to 21 days. Symptoms are variable and often appear suddenly. Initial symptoms include: high fever (at least 38.8° C, 101° F), severe headache, muscle/joint/abdominal pain, severe weakness and exhaustion, sore throat, nausea, and dizziness. Before an epidemic is suspected, these early symptoms are easily mistaken for malaria, typhoid fever, dysentery, or various bacterial infections, which are all far more common. The secondary symptoms often involve bleeding both internally and externally from any opening in the body. Dark or bloody stools and diarrhea, vomiting blood, red eyes from swollen blood vessels, red spots on the skin from subcutaneous bleeding, and bleeding from the nose, mouth, rectum, genitals and needle puncture sites. Other secondary symptoms include low blood pressure (less than 90mm Hg) and a fast but weak pulse, eventual organ damage including the kidney and liver by co-localized necrosis, and proteinuria (the presence of proteins in urine). From onset of symptoms to death (from shock due to blood loss or organ failure) is usually between 7 and 14 days .

    The “Zombie” effect: Some cases and patients can actually develop the “Zombie effect” which is extreme as the skin on the body deteriorates and causes and almost “Zombie-like” look.

    However, the most shocking information I found on the Ebola virus is that it’s been genetically engineered with viruses such as Smallpox to create even more deadlier viruses to be used as Biological weapons. And that’s probably just the icing on the cake! How someone can do this is beyond me but it shows how far people can go.

    Anyway, want to know the only cool fact on the Ebola? It’s the origin of the viruses in Resident Evil. Umbrella used this to create the Progenitor virus which led to all the T’s and G’s etc. Cool eh? And the slice of information regarding the genetic modifying could lead me to believe that an Umbrella-esque division is out there in several countries.

    the Ebola was the base for the “Mother” virus which was combined with Leech DNA to create the T-Virus which creates Zombies. However, it’s not certain what the Ebola virus on it’s own would cause if combined with Leech DNA. Progenitor Virus (Which is the “Mother” virus) is an RNA Virus. An RNA Virus is also a real-life Virus. Hepatitis B is an example of this. So Hepatitis B + Ebola = ??? You guessed it, a strain of Virus similar to the Progenitor Virus. Combine this new strain with Leech DNA or something along the lines and what do you get? A similar strain of T-Virus. Now whether or not this could all mount up to a similar Virus remains to be seen but this some EXTREMELY serious stuff.

    but all of them combined together can create a t-virus, the only thing missing is the actual need of cannibalism. Which brings me to this:

    If a biochemist were to have the means of creating the virus, for lets say a bio-weapon (Which was the sole purpose of the t-virus in the first place) He would need the parasite Leucochloridium paradoxum.

    In some cases of infection of the parasite, the host receives the common symptoms, like headaches and pains. But what can happen is that the host can go into a violent rage that has been noted to kill someone in order to obtain the victims blood or flesh, whichever you choose. The host is not the one that needs the blood, but the parasite. The parasite needs to keep enough fluids and what not in its host, which is now its home, in order to keep it “alive” but has to keep itself alive, thus forcing the host to attack another of its kind or something else.

    Now if you injected the virus above into the parasite, then injected the parasite into the victim, it would create a weapon like no other.

    …now if you have the money. Im sure this can work out just fine

    Well for the top answer you would also have to make a virus that is imediatlly affective also the virus has to control the central nervous system which is tom thumb. plus it also has to have some sort of way to tell the body it wants meat or blood like rabies. this has to be made to make it grow or multiply at a fast rate. Also I have discover that there is a way to fuse viruses together.

    • ANSWER:
      The moral of this story? Don’t expect to learn much about real-life virology from Resident Evil.

  13. QUESTION:
    what are the neurological complications of cerebral malaria?
    1)What are the neurological complications of Cerebral Malaria?
    It was Four years back since I have suffered from an attack of malaria.And, the onset of illness was a week back with complaints of headache,fever,nausea and vomiting. Then, I was admitted to hospital and I had been stayed in Coma for seven days. Blood smears confirmed infestation by falciparum malaria.
    And its complications followed by Acute Renal Failure then immediate hemodialsis treatment started with all supportive care, after third session my condition markedly improved but I have developed psycho-neurological symptom complex.
    After three weeks of stay in the hospital, Liver and renal function tests markedly reduced, then I was partially recovered and discharged.
    Although, EEG and MRI imaging four weeks after the onset of illness have shown normal findings, I was told by the doctor as I have brain stem encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy.
    I am now a 36 years old man having difficulty in walking as well as writing. And also I have minimal difficulty to talk. I have visited so far to notable neurologists in this country, but all recommend me one thing ‘’physical exercise’’ however, my conditions get worsening while I started to exercise. Now, I have stopped all exercises except the occupational therapy and walking using a standing frame.
    2)What will you recommend me to be able to walk again and work independently?

    • ANSWER:
      habtu – Neurologic effects have been reported in children but have not been described in detail in adults. The most striking findings were neuropsychological disorders, in particular memory impairment and diffuse white matter damage on magnetic resonance imaging. Only three of the patients had made a full recovery after 6 months.
      In adults, sequelae are less common, and range from 3–10% in prevalence in India, 10% of adults had neurological sequelae on discharge, including psychosis (4%), cerebellar ataxia (3%), and extrapyramidal rigidity or hemiplegia.45 The depth and duration of coma and multiple convulsions were independent risk factors for neurological sequelae.

      Subtle deficits (for example, cognitive difficulties, language and behavior problems) are increasingly recognized, and have been documented in 24% of children after recovery from cerebral malaria. The prevalence of these impairments in adults or after other forms of severe malaria is not known, because of lack of long-term follow-up studies with neuropsychological examinations.
      Continue to exercise and remain active.

  14. QUESTION:
    What Do You Think Of My Story?!!?
    Story Plot: It’s 2020. Unexpectedly a disease breaks out starting in the United States of America. The disease starts with meaningless symptoms like coughing and sneezing. But soon it advances and mutates over time. The coughing was replaced with vomiting, and sneezing was replaced with diarrhea. But then it all seems to get under control. The government deploys a cure, and starts giving vaccines to the uninfected. But with the disease able to mutate, the new vaccines and the cure turn the old diseases into a pandemic across the world. New symptoms arise. People are dying from brain hemorroging, liver failure, and heart failure. But one symptom turns up and people get worried they start becoming violent. Neighbors become enemies and the murders of the innocent starts to push man-kind to ¼ of the original population. One country is left untouched though, New Zealand. A group of survivors who think of themselves as immune to the super-disease want to get away from the violence in all of the infected countries. They take a fishing boat out to the sea on a voyage to the disease free country. Half way across the Atlantic, and one of the female passengers comes down with a fever. The crew see the fever as just the start of a cold. They give her some meds and put her to bed. One night, she started walking. Her eyes were blood shot and her breathing was rapid. Suddenly she bites one of the passengers necks and he falls to the ground, dead. The once boat ride to happiness has now turned to a fight for their lives. The crew hides in the boat and locks the infected girl on the main deck. She becomes aggressive and smashes the doors down and starts attacking and then killing the crew one by one. 5 survivors are left. The crew has failed killing the infected girl. The disease seems to reanimate cells no matter how many times the infected person dies. 2 of the remaining 5 commit suicide. And 3 are left in the middle of the night one of the 3 falls asleep and is then eaten by the girl. 2 are left and there is nowhere to hide. There are no weapons on board and they are running out of food. Michael, one of the survivors, is ready to kill Phil, the other survivor, over the food shortage. Now with these two fighting eachother with another trying to kill them both on board, they hit a reef. They have now reached New Zealand and they send the boat adrift with the monster aboard. They reach the safe zone and are greeted with healthy children. They are welcomed with food and shelter. 2 weeks in, Michael comes down with a fever.

    • ANSWER:
      That’s pretty interesting.
      I’d read it if it was a book.
      Love the cliff hanger :)

  15. QUESTION:
    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the buildup of glycogen in certain tissues….?
    ….especially muscles. The defect is due to a mutation in the gene that codes for an enzyme, acid alpha-glucosidase that is normally found in lysosomes. The enzyme normally breaks down glycogen into glucose, but mutations in the gene prevent the enzyme from breaking down the glycogen so that it bulds up in muscle cells, eventually damaging cells throughout the body. Infants with the disorder typically exhibit symptoms such as muscle weakness, and enlarged liver and heart, and heart failure. Most infants with Pompe disease cannot hold up their heads or move normally. As the disease progresses swallowing may become difficult and the tongue may become abnormally enlarged. Most children do not survive beyond the age of 1. The disease affects about 1 in 40,000 people. A man who had a brother that died of Pompe disease marries a woman who is heterozygous for the disease. What is the probability that their children will have the disease??

    • ANSWER:
      Autosomal Recessive means that you must have 2 copies of the recessive gene in order to be affected.

      To have Pompe, you must be pp.

      Since the man had a brother that died from the disease, the brother was pp. In order for this to happen, his parents must be heterozygotes, Pp and Pp, as they were carriers and mated.

      The likelihood of their offspring is Pp x Pp:
      PP 1/4 not carrier
      Pp 2/4 carriers
      pp 1/4 affected/dies

      The man who is alive is either Pp or PP, so 1/3 PP or 2/3 Pp.
      The woman he marries is Pp.

      Now take the likelihood of the man’s genotype and multiply that.

      1/3 (PP x Pp) + 2/3 (Pp x Pp)
      1/3 (2/4 PP + 2/4 Pp) + 2/3 (1/4 PP + 2/4 Pp + 1/4 pp)
      2/12 PP + 2/12 Pp + 2/12 PP + 4/12 Pp + 2/12 pp

      4/12 PP
      6/12 Pp
      2/12 pp

      **2/12 pp

      I think this is correct. You might want to check my math, as I am heading out. Email me with questions.

  16. QUESTION:
    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the buildup of glycogen in certain tissues….?
    ….especially muscles. The defect is due to a mutation in the gene that codes for an enzyme, acid alpha-glucosidase that is normally found in lysosomes. The enzyme normally breaks down glycogen into glucose, but mutations in the gene prevent the enzyme from breaking down the glycogen so that it bulds up in muscle cells, eventually damaging cells throughout the body. Infants with the disorder typically exhibit symptoms such as muscle weakness, and enlarged liver and heart, and heart failure. Most infants with Pompe disease cannot hold up their heads or move normally. As the disease progresses swallowing may become difficult and the tongue may become abnormally enlarged. Most children do not survive beyond the age of 1. The disease affects about 1 in 40,000 people. A man who had a brother that died of Pompe disease marries a woman who is heterozygous for the disease. What is the probability that their children will have the disease??

    • ANSWER:
      1 chance in 8.
      The man has a 0.5 chance of being a carrier, and his wife is a carrier. If they have children and both are carriers, the chance of having a child with the disease is 0.25. Multiply 0.25 by 0.5 and you get 0.125, or one chance in 8.


Liver Failure Signs

Wilson’s disease is a rare disease and hence, not many are aware about it. This disease is also known as the hepatolenticular degeneration, which is a rare genetic systemic disorder of copper metabolism. The victims of this disease have copper accumulated in the liver and when the capacity of that storage is exceeded, copper is released from the liver and starts getting collected in other organs of the body, like kidneys, brain and eyes.

Copper accumulation, in an individual, may start at birth but the symptoms of this disease are seen at a later stage of adolescence. All the victims have copper initially accumulated in the liver which may cause chronic or acute hepatitis – inflammation of the liver or a severe liver disease due to gradual loss of liver function, known as cirrhosis. This may include mild degree of involvement of the liver or complete liver failure. The symptoms may include abdominal swelling and yellow discoloration of skin and eyes like in jaundice, anorexic behavior, ascites – fluid accumulation in abdomen, weight loss and weakness, liver or spleen enlargement or both – known as hepatomegaly and splenomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly respectively. If the age is young at the onset of symptoms, there is a greater degree of liver involvement. The patients of Wilson’s disease have predominant neurological symptoms after the age of 20 years.

According to healthcare experts, the symptoms of this disease are also associated with the nervous system but vary with the age of the patient. These symptoms may be dystonia – repetitive movements, balancing difficulty, slowness of finger movements, tremor of the head, arms, or legs, slowness of movements (bradykinesia), especially of the tongue, lips, and jaw, sustained muscle contractions that produce abnormal postures, clumsiness and impaired coordination of voluntary movements, such as walking (ataxia) and loss of fine motor skills. Tremor or trembling may be present in one hand or leg and gradually include all four limbs and speech may become increasingly slurred or slowed (dysarthria).

Wilson’s disease may also result in psychiatric problems like increased irritation, agitation, suicidal thoughts and depression, mood swings, strange behavior, neurotic anxiety or hysteria. Those on advanced stages may experience dementia – loss of intellectual skills and cognitive abilities or in worst case, psychosis could happen like manic depressive disease, schizo-affective disorder or schizophrenia.

Sometimes, Wilson’s disease may include dark skin patches, low level of circulating blood platelets due to which bruising and bleeding happens easily, impaired kidney functions, early breakdown of red blood cells , softening and thinning of bones and problems of joints of the arms and legs.

Once the causes and symptoms are known, it becomes easier to choose the mode of treatment.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What is the link between liver failure and signs of oedema?

    • ANSWER:
      The venous system that drains from the body into the heart is divided into 2 main branches. The superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava. The superior vena cava drains blood from the upper half of the body mainly the head, neck and the upper extremities (ie the hands).

      The inferior vena cava drains blood that is from the lower half of the body. All the veins of your abdomen, your digestive tract and your lower limbs drain into the inferior vena cava and is then carried back to the heart. However, there is another important venous system called the portal vein. This is a major vein that all the veins from the digestive system drains into. It is also known as the portal circulation.

      One of the main functions of the liver is to detoxify and to filter. Because all toxins and nutrients are absorbed into the blood circulation from digestion, it must pass through the liver whereby the liver would remove or detoxify all the toxic substances before the nutriets goes into the main blood circulation in the body or also known as the systemic circulation.

      Thus, when the liver plays such an important role as to detoxify and filter all the blood that passes through it from the veins of the whole digestive system, mainly esophagus until the rectum, if and when there is a failure in the functions of the liver, the circulation would be congested and the fluids would start to move out from the lumen of the veins. This is how oedema develops. And i guess what you are referring to would be known as ascites (an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen).

      I hope this is the answer you are looking for.

  2. QUESTION:
    What are the early signs of liver failure?
    Just answer the question so just tell me.

    • ANSWER:
      Early signs:
      -Nausea
      -Loss of appetite
      -Fatigue
      -Diarrhea

      Later signs:
      -Jaundice
      -Easy bleeding
      -Swollen abdomen
      -Mental disorientation or confusion
      -Coma
      -Sleepiness

  3. QUESTION:
    What are the signs of Liver failure?
    I am wanting to know what to look for when in liver failure

    • ANSWER:
      The liver is a very quiet organ until it cells
      becomes so damaged that they start to die
      off and then signs and symptoms appear.
      Why? cause the cells are not able to do
      the functions they once did and the body
      starts to respond to this.
      Usually the very first sign is extreme tiredness.
      Depending on what has caused the liver
      problem in the first place…you could develop
      flu like symptoms. The next real thing that
      happens is the yellowing of the skin and
      whites of the eyes known as Jaundice.
      This happens because the liver can no longer
      handle a pigment known as bilirubin…it usually
      breaks it down into a soluble form but now
      cannot do it, so it stays in the blood and builds
      up. It’s color is what causes the yellowing.
      As the disease progresses, you could develop
      memory problems (encephalopathy), you
      could gain fluid weight in the abdominal region
      (Ascites), you could develop varies in the
      esophagus (portal hypertension), you could
      lose your muscle mass, start to have red palms
      and soles of feet, develop fluid build up in
      your legs and other extremities, have changes
      in your sleep patterns, and many other symptoms.

      There is a difference between liver failure and
      complete liver failure. A person is considered
      in liver failure when cirrhosis of the liver first
      starts. Cirrhosis is the death of the liver
      cells that form scar tissue inside the liver.
      It is an ongoing disease because the cells
      will keep dying off and the symptoms will
      appear as they do. Complete liver failure is
      when the cells have died off to the point that
      they can no longer do anything that will help
      the body exist and function.

      To learn more about this, here is a web site:

      http://www.medicinenet.com/cirrhosis/article.htm

      I hope this has been a help.

  4. QUESTION:
    What are the first signs of liver failure due to drinking?

    • ANSWER:
      There are actually four stages of alcoholic liver disease. Fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.

      Fatty liver may produce no symptoms at all but blood tests/liver function can determine if there is a problem. Symptoms of more advanced liver disease may include jaundice/yellowing of the skin, tenderness and enlargement of the liver, even fever.

      If you suspect liver damage, it is best to be tested before such symptoms occur. Early stage/fatty liver can be successfully treated/reversed along with life-style changes.

  5. QUESTION:
    Signs of kidney or liver problems/failure?
    what are the signs of early or already kidney problems or failure or liver problems or failure? what are the signs of liver or kidney problems/failure for those who have diabetes?

    • ANSWER:
      i don’t know about the kidney, but if your liver begins to fail your skin turn a shade of yellow.

  6. QUESTION:
    how serious is early signs of liver failure?
    Over the past 2 years ive had Minor liver damage i had a ultra sound 1 year ago and again 6 months ago first showing a fatty liver the second showing damaged cells and a fatty liver. I was told parts of my liver wont repair but the pain got worst i went to the doctors 2 days ago to have more blood tests and a liver function test the doctor thinks ive got early signs of liver failure. Im feeling tired im depressed and feel sad all the time. The damage is caused by me liking a drink im 32 years old ive drank for about 10 years now i use to drink 2 pints and 8 cans a night minimum now i drink 2 pints and 4 cans i find it really hard to stop when i do all my problems become reality and i feel really down. What shall i do.

    • ANSWER:
      well the damage is done but that doesn’t mean all is futile, you can change your life style and live for some time or you can do what your doing and live a short life, but you know its really all up to you!!!! I wish you well

  7. QUESTION:
    Possible Warning Signs of Liver Failure?
    I had an tylonal overdose about a year agoand lately I have been having werid pains on my sides and the middle of my stomach. The pains don’t really last long maybe a minute or two. Also a werid pain in the middle of my stomach…kinda like idk ard to explain. Some headachs once in a while, sometimes I kinda blackout for a sec and have trouble getting to sleep. I am not sure what going on, if ow many pills matter ut was about 70….Are these signs of liver failure?

    I looked it up online and the warning signs are kind of unlclear

    • ANSWER:
      If it was a year ago when you had the acetaminophen overdose, then it isn’t the cause of your problems now. Acute acetaminophen toxicity to the liver would have happened when the overdose occurred. Not a year later.

      There are several muscle groups around your side and abdomen that could be the cause of the pain or it could be something else. If you are having severe abdominal cramps and pain you should see a doctor.

      You may also want to look at what you have eaten in the past few days/weeks. Intestinal blockage can cause the symptoms you describe. Make sure you are drinking plenty of fluids.

      Blacking out can be serious as well. So get evaled by a doc. It will set your mind at ease and you may find out it’s nothing at all. It’s definitely not liver failure. You would be in severe discomfort, have severe itching all over, jaundice, mental confusion, and your abdomen would be swelled up like a basketball.

  8. QUESTION:
    what are some signs of liver failure in a cat?? plz help ?
    my cat [moo-moo] is acting weird and my girl friend says it might be liver failure and we should go to the animal hospital can u plz help?

    • ANSWER:
      Dark urine, jaundice (yellow eyes and skin), diarrhea, vomiting, lethargy, and weight loss. While I can’t say if your cat is in liver failure or not, I can say if he seems to be sickly, he needs to see a vet. The sooner the better.

  9. QUESTION:
    how many paracetomols to cause liver/ organ failure and what are the signs?

    no i am a victim of an accidentle overdose, and i dont dont want to die, but i dont want to tell my family!!
    yeah but im 15, wont my doctor tell my mom?

    • ANSWER:

  10. QUESTION:
    what are the final signs/symptoms of liver failure you experience?

    ok then the 2nd to the last

    • ANSWER:
      - jaundice
      - confusion due to ammonia that can’t be degraded, can be a whole personality change
      - accumulation of ascites (fluid in the belly that needs to be drained off
      - pain
      - not able to eat because you feel so awful
      - bleeding/bruising easily because of the lack of clotting factors

  11. QUESTION:
    signs of kidney or liver problems/failure?
    what are the signs of early or already kidney problems or failure or liver problems or failure? what are the signs for type 1 diabetics?
    im not that stupid i know what the signs are for diabetes bcuz i have type 1 diabetes i was asking what are the signs of liver or kidney problems/failure for those who have diabetes and im not gunna smell y damn urine

    • ANSWER:
      Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it usually starts in people younger than 30. Symptoms are usually severe and occur rapidly.The exact cause is unknown.
      Symptoms
      Increased thirst
      Increased urination
      Weight loss despite increased appetite
      Nausea
      Vomiting
      Abdominal pain
      Fatigue
      Absence of menstruation
      The early symptoms of untreated diabetes are related to elevated blood sugar levels, and loss of glucose in the urine. High amounts of glucose in the urine can cause increased urine output and lead to dehydration. Dehydration causes increased thirst and water consumption. The inability of insulin to perform normally has effects on protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin is an anabolic hormone, that is, one that encourages storage of fat and protein. A relative or absolute insulin deficiency eventually leads to weight loss despite an increase in appetite. Some untreated diabetes patients also complain of fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Patients with diabetes are prone to developing infections of the bladder, skin, and vaginal areas. Fluctuations in blood glucose levels can lead to blurred vision. Extremely elevated glucose levels can lead to lethargy and coma.

      A person with liver failure usually has jaundice, a tendency to bruise or bleed, ascites, liver encephalopathy, and generally failing health. Other common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, nausea, and a loss of appetite. In acute liver failure, a person may go from being healthy to near death within a few days. In chronic liver failure, the deterioration in health may be very gradual until a dramatic event, such as bleeding varices (large, tortuous veins), occurs.
      The clinical manifestations alone provide strong evidence of liver failure. Blood tests usually show severely deteriorated liver function.

      Kidney disease often proceeds silently over many years, with no signs or symptoms the patient can recognize or with signs that are too general for the patient to suspect kidney trouble. For that reason, routine blood and urine tests are especially important; they detect blood or protein in the urine and abnormal chemical levels in the blood, such as creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), early signs of kidney disorder and failure. The following problems may, however, be warning signs of kidney disease and should not be ignored. Prompt medical attention is required when any of these conditions are present.

      Swelling or puffiness, particularly around the eyes or in the face, wrists, abdomen, thighs or ankles
      Urine that is foamy, bloody, or coffee-colored
      A decrease in the amount of urine
      Problems urinating, such as a burning feeling or abnormal discharge during urination, or a change in the frequency of urination, especially at night
      Mid-back pain (flank), below the ribs, near where the kidneys are located
      High blood pressure

  12. QUESTION:
    what are the signs of liver failure?

    • ANSWER:
      You get a big belly, turn yellow, get itchy, get spider naevi, get caput medusa (google them), your body stops producing clotting factors so you tend to bruise easily and sometimes get these little red dots on your arms (petechae)

  13. QUESTION:
    K could this be signs of liver failure?
    K ive been having sharp pains under my breasts for a bit
    i missed my period but my stomach is big
    i feel kinda naustious
    i feel really sick to my stomach
    i have dark yellow pee
    i dunno what my stool looks like
    my arm really hurts , when i move it ..its been like that for like 2 hours now
    im sorta tired
    i havent eaten a lot today because i feel sick to my stomach and feel like throwing up
    i have a brown spot on my hip
    and the other day i dunno if i got bit from a spider but i had a red spot on my arm that was vieny radnomly
    thr is times in the day my breathing is slow
    i tried eating to make me feel better but i still feel sick
    **********************************************
    i overdosed on tynoel a lot this week..i took 90 this whole week…different days and then a week before 30 ibprofen
    does the liver repair itself that fast?
    i throw up most of the tynoel and when i did i had this wierd pink colour which might be from the red popsicle i ate
    and im irratible and my chin is swalloen
    and i had a fever today

    • ANSWER:

  14. QUESTION:
    Anyone have experience of early signs of liver/kidney failure/damage?
    Particularly from paracetamol/tylenol use?
    :)

    • ANSWER:
      Tylenol caused liver toxicity is the foremost cause of liver failure in the western world. Usually there are no symptoms within the first 24-hours, although there may be some nausea, vomiting and sweating. This usually resolves then a person can slip into a coma or have metabolic acidosis – a low blood pH. Necrosis can occur, then bleeding, hypoglycemia, renal failure, water on the brain and possibly even sepsis. Renal failure is actually less common with this type of toxicity unless the overdose is massive then the liver failure can lead to renal failure and multiple system shutdowns.

  15. QUESTION:
    what are the signs of liver or kindney failure ..?
    and where is your kindney located..and your liver….. tell me if it’s like by your sides or above your chest like where is it located?

    • ANSWER:
      I think you are jumping to conclusions here about liver/kidney failure if you don’t know where they are located? But anyway, i’ll educate you.

      You’re kidneys (you have two) they are located pretty much in your lower back. Sometimes if you have to urinate, u will find ur lower back will hurt.

      Signs of kidney failure: Tired, shortness of breath, decreased urine output (less pee), low calcium, high potassium levels–which can lead to deadly cardiac arrhythmias. loss of appetite, which obviously will lead to decreased mental status, n possibly coma.

      Your liver is located under your right rib cage. STOP — DO NOT POKE IT. Some people can palpate their liver, I do NOT recommend this.

      Signs of liver failure can be difficult to diagnose at first (unless ur jaundice which is yellowing of the skin). At first the person can be nauseaus, tired, no appetite, & have diarrhea. As liver failure progresses other more obvious signs are jaundice, swollen abdomen(ascites), bleeding easily, mental disorientation or confusion, sleepy, possibly a coma.

  16. QUESTION:
    Is diarrhea a sign of liver failure?
    Last night I had diarrhia all night and it was liquidy is this is a sign of liver trouble? should I see a doctor?

    • ANSWER:
      More than likely it was just what you ate

  17. QUESTION:
    What treatments are there for liver failure?
    I am doing research on liver failure in people who overdose on acetaminophen. I was hoping I might find out what some of the treatments are, how long the person has to live without treatment, and what some of the signs and symptoms are.

    • ANSWER:
      HI Pepto

      DO you mean like a disease like cirrhosis? These methods here will heal the issue and all other kinds of internal problems.

      Cause
      Liver function can be impaired by a toxic bowel. Most pharmaceutical drugs, if taken on a consistent basis, can also cause liver disease. If you are on such medications, be sure to have your liver function monitored regularly (every 3-6 months) by your physician, and consider other healing alternatives that might reduce or eliminate your need for medications.

      ——————————————————————————–

      Natural Cures

      Aromatherapy: Juniper, rosemary, and rose essential oils can all help stimulate liver function.

      Detoxification: Liver function can also be impaired by a toxic bowel. For this reason, bowel cleansing and rejuvenation techniques may be very important. In severe cases, repeat the bowel cleanse once a month, or as needed, and stay on bowel nutrients for up to one year depending on the severity of your condition and your response to treatment.

      Diet: Diet is extremely important in preventing and reversing all forms of liver disease, including cirrhosis. Eat a low-protein, whole foods diet of organic foods, including seeds, nuts, whole grains, beans, nuts, and goat or rice milk, and also eat plenty of leafy green vegetables. Avoid all alcohol and processed fats such as margarine, hydrogenated oils, and foods with these oils added, rancid oils, and hardened vegetable fats. Instead, use cold-processed oils such as olive. Also increase your consumption of foods high in amino acids and potassium, such as nuts, seeds, bananas, raisins, rice, wheat bran, kelp, dulse, brewer`s yeast, and molasses, and drink plenty of pure, filtered water. Avoid animal protein as well as raw or undercooked fish, and limit your overall intake of fish.

      Also avoid all stressors on the liver, such as overeating, drugs of any kind, a highly processed diet (especially one high in processed fats, additives and preservatives), and foods high in animal protein, and accumulation of toxins from chemicals that have to be processed by the liver such as alcohol, drugs, acetaminophen, insecticides, and chemicals from rancid and processed oils. Toxins from Candida yeast organisms within the body can also contribute to liver stress, as can the use of contraceptives.

      Herbs: Milk thistle is an excellent herb to help in the treatment of cirrhosis because it helps liver cells regenerate. It may be taken in the form of tablets or the non-alcohol extract called a glycerate. The dose is based upon the content of silymarin (the active ingredient of milk thistle) and so standardized extracts are preferable. The typical dosage range is 70-200 mg of silymarin daily. The herb Picrorhiza kurroa is not as well-known as milk thistle, but may have similar effects. Licorice can also be helpful. The Chinese herb bupleurum (chai-hu) may also be helpful, as can the herbal mixture of kutki (200 mg), shanka pushpi (500 mg), and guduchi (300 mg), with is used by practitioners of Ayurvedic medicine to boost liver function. Take 1/4 teaspoon of this mixture taken twice a day, after lunch and dinner, with aloe vera juice.

      Juice Therapy: The following juices can help the liver eliminate toxins that cause stress on it: beet and carrot juice and wheat grass juice. To either juice, you can add raw flaxseed oil and garlic as tolerated.

      Nutritional Supplementation: Lipotrophic factor nutrients are essential for aiding liver function. These include vitamin C, vitamin E, silymarin, lipoic acid, and raw liver tablets. Other useful nutrients in this regard include vitamin B complex, vitamin B12, folic acid, niacin (in small doses such as 10-30 mg. three times), liver glandulars, digestive enzymes with hydrochloric acid (HCL) and ox bile extract, and the amino acids L-methionine, L-carnitine, L-cysteine, L-glutathione, and L-arginine.

      Caution: For all cases of liver disease, do not use more than 10,000 IU of vitamin A daily and avoid cod liver oil entirely.

      Alternative Professional Care
      If your symptoms persist despite the above measures, seek the help of a qualified health professional. The following professional care therapies have all been shown to be useful for treating and relieving the symptoms of cirrhosis: Acupuncture, Cell Therapy, Detoxification Therapy, Magnetic Field Therapy, Natural Hormone Replacement Therapy, Naturopathic Medicine, Reflexology, Qigong, and Traditional Chinese Medicine.

      Best of health to you

  18. QUESTION:
    If you have impending liver failure (from overdose) would you show outside signs?
    My precious 13 year old niece took 35 Tylenol Friday morning at 1am. Her mom found her at 7:30am vomiting and she was at the hospital and on treatment by 8am.

    She threw up basically all the way until 11am yesterday morning and had stomach pains, but since then she has been doing pretty well – looks healthy and isn’t having pain. She has 10 more hours of anectdote left and last night it was up in the air whether he liver would fail or repair.

    My question is, if her liver was going to fail would she be showing signs of being ill? Or could she look perfectly normal? I’m not sure when they are doing the liver function test…I guess I’m trying to pass the time and try to guess if she’ll be okay until they do. Thank you!

    ————————–
    On a side note, please do not let any young people you know take the drug Lunesta! Her Dr. put her on it a few days ago to try and help her sleep at night, even though he knew she had some history of mild depression. She has never attempted suicide before and this is a complete shock to us all.

    • ANSWER:
      Right now, drs. know how the liver enzymes have been affected. They are not doing anything else because it will take time to regenerate.. The liver can readily regrow especially if the damage is not total and she is young. She can look perfectly normal or be yellow and bloated. When she is better, a day or so, they will give her an ultrasound of the liver, will produce much info. They may even do a liver biopsy, which hurts like a prick in the finger.

      I have had all this. Unfortunately, my liver was too damaged to degenerate, and I had a liver transplant. I am here over 4 years later in perfect health. So be very hopeful because she likely will be better and may not even have permanent damage.

  19. QUESTION:
    what happens to your body when you get liver failure and die right away?
    i’m writing a story about what death would be like and the girl dies from taking a bottle of tylonal (killing herself) and so what are some signs that your body is shutting down and is about to die from liver failure?

    • ANSWER:
      acute liver failure is not easy to detect. it happens suddenly. usually liver disease is something that happens gradually over time. if i were u would do some more research on suicide by drugs and what it does to the body prior to death.also, is this this girls first attempt on suicide and if not how many times then it would be a gradual liver failure.

  20. QUESTION:
    hepatitus c liver damage signs?
    what are the signs( that you see ) of progressing liver failure due to hepatitus c? A list of progression signs would be great!

    • ANSWER:
      easy fatiguability -> abdominal pain -> decreased appetite -> flu like symptoms -> (sometimes) light colored stools and dark urine -> jaundice or yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes -> itching -> weight loss -> scarring of liver tissues -> liver failure or liver cancer

  21. QUESTION:
    What are the sign of liver failure?

    • ANSWER:
      Symptoms of liver failure are usually vague initially, and can include nausea or fatigue. The progression to jaundice (yellow skin) and confusion or coma can be very rapid. When a patient has the first signs of confusion and disorientation (hepatic encephalopathy), when liver enzymes increase dramatically, or when coagulation factors begin to change – a quick referral to a liver transplant center is highly recommended.

      Hepatic encephalopathy always accompanies fulminant liver failure. It can manifest as irritability, drowsiness, sluggishness, insomnia, confusion, and coma. With hepatic encephalopathy, the patient is suffering an impairment of proper brain function, which is related to the inability of the liver to metabolize toxic products such ammonia. These toxic products are normally broken down or eliminated by the healthy liver. Treatment is directed at preventing ammonia production in the intestine. This is done with the use of a liquid sugar (lactulose) and neomycin (antibiotic). The neomycin is poorly absorbed and kills the bacteria that promote ammonia production.

  22. QUESTION:
    Is dizziness a sign of liver failure? Can sudden stop of the use of alcohol trigger liver failure?
    I’m in need of some help here, its not for me, nevertheless its important.

    If a person has drank their hole life from adolescence, never going more than a few weeks without the use of alcohol ( and who is now in his/her mid 40′s), obviously develops alcoholism, emotional and physical dependence on the substance, >>>>does their liver depend on the constant intake of alcohol in order to function properly too?<<<< And if so (and I doubt it does), can sudden stop of the use of alcohol trigger liver failure? And is slight dizziness for a few minutes a sign of liver failure?

    And also (this is a bonus question, not really in need of an answer), is steatohepatitis, or fatty liver, characterized by obesity? Or can a person have fatty liver without being overweight?

    Thanks for your help, I greatly appreciate it.

    • ANSWER:
      If someone has been drinking alcohol their whole life then that would cause liver damage. Stopping drinking it would not cause liver failure, but may help to stop any increase in damage if it is not already too late to do so. Alcohol is a major cause of liver failure. It is the brain that has the dependency on alcohol, not the liver.
      Dizziness could be a symptom of anything alcohol or non-alcohol related, not just the liver.
      A person can have a fatty liver without being over weight, it depends on diet as much as anything else, alcohol would be one cause.
      The only way to find a reason for the dizziness is to see a doctor.

  23. QUESTION:
    Treatment for liver failure with an older dog(personal experiences needed)?
    I have a 13 y/o Rat Terrier and he has signs of liver failure (they done blood work). I was wondering if had the treatment ( iv through weekend with special diet and medication) if he has a chance for a longer quality of life. Right now he is not suffering but my decision will have to be made before this evening. I plan on speaking with the vet again but would love any or all personal experiences being this is the most difficult thing I’ve ever had to do.

    • ANSWER:
      If the dog has the chance of living a good quality of life I would have him treated. Diet and medication may be enough for him to enable him to enjoy life for a while longer. If he’s not suffering I would be inclined to keep him going.

      I don’t have any personal experience but I would probably take the advice of the vet who’s seen this many times before.

      It’s a horrible position for you to be in to have to make this life or death decision about your beloved dog.

  24. QUESTION:
    What are the noticable symptoms of liver failure?
    My dad passed away in January. He drunk a lot of alcohol all his life, he did like a good drink but I believe he wasn’t alcoholic.
    I was told by the doctors died of pneumonia, but he was in and out of hospital a while before that with problems (wasn’t eating, weak, very very skinny, yellow eyes, seemed to be disorientated as if he had no idea where he was or what he was doing). It turned out he did indeed have liver problems, but they kind of…pushed it to one side, and told us to just buy things for our home to help him walk and get up, like zimmer frames and stuff.
    Just before he died, his liver had completely failed, as well as his kidneys, pancreas and spleen.
    I’m just wondering, what are noticeable signs of liver failure? Would I have known this would happen and could I have prevented it?
    Thanks x

    • ANSWER:
      You could not have prevented his organs from shutting down. There were signs. Early on brown spots on the back of his hands and forearms, the yellow eyes, and a (Jaundice) yellowing of the skin. He would have noticed the color of his urine being dark instead of clear, and would likely have had pain in the small of his back (kidney area). These things happen over time, and unless he mentioned them, you would be unaware.

  25. QUESTION:
    What’s the difference between hepatoxicity and liver failure? My doctor said my blood tests showed some ….?
    signs of toxicity. I asked if I would need a liver transplant and he said no. Of course I’m happy about that, but he wasn’t very clear about it all.

    • ANSWER:
      toxicity of the liver can be due to drugs/alcohol etc. liver failure means the liver is in the end stage of liver disease like cirrhosis, cancer,hepatitis,aids, etc– what are you doing to make your liver toxic?

  26. QUESTION:
    Itchy feet and liver failure?
    i heard that a sign of liver failure is a insanly itchy foot is this true?

    • ANSWER:
      Itchiness is often associated with liver failure but it is not the only cause of itchiness.

      There are many many things that can cause itchy skin. Itchy feet can also be associated with athletes foot.

      Here is a link to the health issues associated with itchiness.

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/itchy-skin/ds00847/dsection=causes

      If you are concerned about liver health, you can ask your doctor for a liver function test.

      The liver like the skin is a detoxification organ. Hence issues with the liver do sometimes show up in the skin. But again, there are many other causes of itchiness.

  27. QUESTION:
    Symptoms of liver/kidney failure? Itching in particular?
    I think I have a few signs of kidney and liver failure. One of them is itching. I was just wondering what the itching of kidney/liver failure is like so I can compare it to the way I am. I have had liver/kidney problems in the past, I’m not just a hypachondriac btw.

    • ANSWER:
      Itching from organ failure occurs indirectly though dried out skin. In winter, its not uncommon to have dried out skin, so there’s not much diagnostic value – too many possible causes. To put your mind at ease go to the doc for a blood test panel.

  28. QUESTION:
    Could I Have Liver Failure?
    About 2 days ago (45 hours to be exact…) I accidentally consumed twice the daily limit of acetaminophen (about 9500 mg, from nyquil). At first I felt sick, and threw up shortly after, but for most of yesterday and today I felt fine. But recently I have had diarrhea, nausea, loss of appetite and just in general felt bad. Could this be a sign of Liver Failure? Or has it been to long since the consumption of the acetaminophen? Thanks for any answers…

    • ANSWER:
      Oh gosh, that’s a lot and you’ve undoubtedly done some damage. If you’re healthy otherwise, though, your liver should be able to heal itself. The symptoms you’re feeling could very well be from your liver, but 9500 mg is not usually a fatal dose. The tricky thing about tylenol overdose is that by the time you feel the symptoms, the damage is already done and it’s too late for antidotes.

      To be sure, you could go to an ER. I can tell you what they’ll do, though. They’ll draw blood to measure your liver enzymes, and if they’re elevated they’ll admit you and monitor them to be sure they return to normal levels. There’s no real treatment they can offer you at this point.

      If you feel better by tomorrow, I’d say you’re on the path to healing. If you continue to feel worse and worse, better get to a hospital. The only treatment for complete liver failure is a liver transplant.

      Good luck, try not to worry. Take a multivitamin — just one — drink plenty of fluids to help flush the toxins (liver enzymes) out and stay hydrated, and please never do this again. I do believe you’ll be fine.

  29. QUESTION:
    Liver failure,Pneumonia,help?
    My cousin was found last thursday 11/19 not concious. He was rushed to the ER and they had to hook him up to a ventilator. He deficated on his self. They don’t know how long he was like that before they found him. He has been in the hospital since and not alert. Today is the first time he has nodded yes or no and smirked. They had to give him 4 blood transfusions and some platelets.His platelets were at 17k but not that he got some blood and platelets it’s at 83k.. When he was brought in his WBC was at 31k… He has been getting dialysis every other day and they are taking fluid out of him, because he is swelling. They told us he is in liver failure, kidney failure and his bowels are NOT working at all. They gave him doculax to get his bowels moving, but it’s not helping. He also has sepsis.(blood infection) and pneumonia. They don’t know WHY he is like he is. He has been on psych meds for yrs for schizophrenia. We are wondering if these meds are the cause for this or what could have happend. We are hoping his liver shows signs of imrovement. They finally took him off blood presusre meds and sedatives. He is holding his own blood pressure pretty well. The nurse informed that that could be because of the fluids in him. We don’t know if he has any brain damage, but he nods yes and no and he looks at us.We tried to give him a pen to write us something, but he doesn’t seem to be able to close his hand or squeeze our hand with him. Does anyone have any idea on what the chances for his liver to come back are, or what if anything tthey can do about his bowels not working? I was informed that he was constipated for almost 2 months, but he never had pains from it. The DR’S First thought that he perforated his colon and the toxins went through his blood, but now they say NO. That they don’t think it was that. So what could this be from!?!?!

    • ANSWER:
      this is only my opinion, but going on the info you gave it sounds to me like maybe he was first into some type of infection due to his wbc being so high. The normal count is around 10-12,000k and since he was at 31 I’m willing to go with a colon problem. There’s no one that can go without a bowel movement for 2 months.After a week there would be some type of problem within the abdominal cavity causing so much pain, swelling and bloating with gas that the bowels would start to back up into the stomach. Does he still have his appendix? This is worth a chance at thinking that if his appendix was infected and not taken out it could have burst and then the infection would have gone into the abdominal cavity wreaking havoc their. I’m also wondering who was in charge of your cousin’s care too. This person is the one that needs to be answering these questions. Good luck and God Bless

  30. QUESTION:
    Is it possible that I could be suffering from liver failure because of an OD of paracetamol/alcohol?
    Okay, I overdosed on 48 pills of paracetamol, went to hospital several hours later, doctors said i was lucky that my liver was okay, i just needed to look after myself ect ect. Anyway, the liver ‘score’ or whatever it is said that the healthy average liver is on something like 33, whereas mine was on 477, i was put onto a drip for like 36 hours and my liver went down, meaning i could go home. (putting details in so i can get as much help as possible), i was told not to drink alcohol for about 6 months in order for my body to be okay or something, about 3 weeks later i drank and got drunk, i roughly had about 1/2 a cask or wine, which is about 2 litres. Did i damage my body enough to suffer from liver failure? I heard it was a slow process and painful? What should I expect/see the signs of potential liver failure?
    Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      You should have more blood work done to be
      sure your liver is okay. The doctors used
      certain medications before to try and
      counteract the paracetamol you took.
      It must of worked. You are fulling around
      with your life, here. Alcohol and
      paracetamol together can cause instant
      permanent damage to your liver cells.
      If the cells of the liver die off, scar tissue
      forms inside the liver that blocks the
      flow of blood back to the heart and to the
      other liver cells, so they continue to die
      off. It is really a horrible, irreversible
      disease known as Cirrhosis of the liver.
      You end up looking like a skeleton with
      a belly of fluid that is the size of carrying
      triples in the abdominal area.
      A liver transplant cost in the range of
      0,000 and up. Considering you
      are trying to commit suicide, you may
      not even be placed, after evaluation,
      on the transplant list.

      Only the doctor can tell, by more testing,
      if you have damaged the cells.
      The liver is very quiet about showing
      signs and symptoms until the cells
      can no longer do the functions they
      do to keep the body well. Usually,
      the very first sign is tiredness and
      possibly, but not always, flu like symptoms.
      The next thing is the yellowing of the whites
      of the eyes and skin.

      You want to know what to expect…here are
      links about cirrhosis of the liver:

      http://www.medicinenet.com/cirrhosis/article.htm

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cirrhosis/DS00373

      http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/cirrhosis.html

      You need to get some sort of counseling.
      There are so many people who wished they
      had a good liver and didn’t need a transplant or
      wish they could of gone back and done things
      differently.

  31. QUESTION:
    Can you live after liver and kidney failure?
    So I post a question earlier about my grandmother being on life support (ventilator) and wondering what her change of making it would be. If you don’t want to read them questions… She has lymes disease, ulcers, and a colostomy bag to begin with and on top of that she has taken to many sleeping pills (Tylenol PMs) over a time period so they can’t really do anything for her other then wait and give some meds to help the kidneir. Anyways so now we went up there to see her and the doctors said that they can’t keep her blood sugar up at all, that she as a fever and she has a kidney infection and her kidneys and liver were weak. They said that the low blood sugar was a sign of liver failure and after her liver failed that he kidneys would go next. They said they would give meds for the kidneys after the liver failed then go from there. Oh and I forgot to say she is in her 70s … so can you live after kidney and liver failure, what are the chance?
    Also she isn’t awake and hasn’t been awake in at least 24 hours…they now have her knocked out though…they let up on the sedation a little though.
    Sorry I didn’t mean kidneir I meant kidney … not sure how that one came up … lol … I read it a second ago and I thought it all read right and spelled correct.

    • ANSWER:
      This is a very grim picture and it looks like you Grandmother is very critically ill. It would be inappropriate to say how long she has or what kind of a chance she has here on Yahoo answers. It is important you ask this same question of the nurse or the doctor. Your question is very good and just take it as you wrote it and ask the doctor for answers.

  32. QUESTION:
    Is my liver failing or is something just off in my body?
    i was addicted to painkillers for over a year and a half and I also drank and did other stuff during that time period im all clean now, but one of my friends noticed my eyes were somewhat yellow and i know that’s a sign of liver failure. Is my liver failing or is something just off in my body .

    • ANSWER:
      The yellowing of your eyes is a sign of jaundice and could be due to a number of factors ranging from hepatitis to cancer. Jaundice in these cases is caused by the liver’s inability to properly metabolize and excrete bilirubin. The best way you to examine your eyes for yellowing is outside in natural sunlight. Other lighting may give you a false shading.

      Excessive intake of alcohol over a prolonged period of time will cause a cirrhotic liver. Drugs and toxicity can overload the liver and cause a jaundice condition. Another possible cause is blockage of the bile duct. I’m assuming this is the onset of your jaundice condition and therefore can rule out Gilbert and Crigler=Najjar syndrome since they’re hereditary .

      You need to go to your physician for blood work and determine the root cause of the jaundice.

  33. QUESTION:
    liver and kidney failure?
    I won’t to find out info on the signs of liver and kidney failure in Dogs. My husband was killed and after 15 years we are left at ground one so am trying to make the most of it with 3 boys. Vet bills are not ok right now. When hubby was here financially we where set. Dazy is 14 not a young baby. She only sleeps these days eats maybe half cup kibble a day. She drinks I swear 3 gallons a day.I just worry about her. I know she has lumps all over her and she is a Basset. She is my baby now hubby is gone she seems to be down hill. I want to know like sign and symptoms..

    • ANSWER:
      So sorry. We recently lost a dearly loved dog to kidney disease/congestive heart failure who was 16 years old.

      You can try to treat or alleviate the symptoms with special diets … check the following sources below for some additional information.

      Good luck to you.

  34. QUESTION:
    what is the first sign of an alcoholics liver failure?

    • ANSWER:
      tHE FIRST SIGNS ARE BLOOD IN THE URINE,LIVERT SWELLING, YOUR SKIN,FINGERS & TOE NAILS TURN YELLOW, AND YOU WILL START SLEEPING ALOT TOO OR WANT TOO, BECAUSE THAT IS A SIGN YOUR BODY IS WANTING TO TRY AND HEAL ITSELF

  35. QUESTION:
    congestive heart failure and enlarged liver?
    My husband has category 4 congestive heart failure (dilated cardiomyopathy) and copd. Now he has been diagnosed with an enlarged liver as well. Can anyone tell me if this is a sign of a serious worsening of his condition? I have read everything I could find online but I have only been able to find out that enlarged liver is a side effect of heart failure, not how serious it is. Any information would be greatly appreaciated.

    • ANSWER:
      i have chf , copd and enlarged liver for me i have a three lead pacemaker now i able to breathe i still take medications lasix, coreg. and b.p.. meds ask the doctor about a three lead pacemaker mind is bostonscientific.com

  36. QUESTION:
    Am I in danger of liver failure? ?
    I took about 15-20 extra strength tylenol in the course of a day about 24+ hours. Today I started feeling nauseated and started to vomit. I threw up 3 times and now i just feel a little dizzy and sick to my stomach. Should I be concerned about liver failure? I read that tylenol overdose leads to exactly what’s happening to me right now nausea/vomiting and than maybe a couple days later liver failure than death. I’m kind of scared I would go to the E.R but I have no money and can’t afford it. Not being able to afford the dentist for my tooth ache in the first place is what caused me to take so much tylenol. But, I only took like 15-20 and not all at once in the course of a day, I hear people who take like 40-70 and don’t recieve any major problems. Should I be worried about liver failure/death? Only reason why I’m so concerned is because I’m showing the signs of the first symptoms of overdose and thats nausea/vomiting but, my question it should I be worried about having a sudden case of liver failure in a couple days by just taking like 15-20 tylenol…..that’s ridiculous if that’s the case….I can’t afford the E.R. Any help is appreciated I’m a 19 year old male by the way and weigh about 110 lbs.
    Oh, and I don’t drink or do much that damages my liver in the first place so my liver should be pretty healthy.

    • ANSWER:
      You should go to the ER. Would you rather risk your life or have a medical bill that you can most likely pay over time?

  37. QUESTION:
    11 year-old black lab in acute liver failure. How much longer does she have?
    My 11-year-old black lab mix is in acute liver failure, and the vet feels it’s due to liver cancer, although my parents are refusing to subject the poor dog to any more tests at this point, since it won’t change the outcome – either way, her liver is failing.

    But the vet didn’t tell us how long she has, or what the final signs are going to be when it gets near the end. We believe she’s lost 75% of her liver function already, based on the blood tests. Cancer is tricky, right? Some dogs, it’s days. Some, it’s weeks. And some, even years. We know she could have seizures and such. but how long does she have? Even an estimate….? And what should we watch for, to know if she’s in pain? to know if it’s time to maybe put her to sleep so she doesn’t suffer? or to know that it’s almost her time?

    Thanks in advance to anyone who can give me honest, kind advice.
    Thank you everyone for all your suggestions, comments, etc. I appreciate it. I guess we’ll have to speak to our vet one more time, and then go from there. Once again, thank you, everyone.

    Diana – You make some really good points, but we’re almost 100% sure it’s cancer. We know for a fact her liver is failing. She has something that came up in her blood that only happens after 75% liver function has gone, and we just don’t want to put her through anymore testing. But thank you for the suggestions. I appreciate it very much.

    • ANSWER:
      I’m so sorry that your dog is sick. Honestly the only one who can answer these questions is your vet. The vet knows your dogs situation a lot better than anyone here does. We would only be guessing. You need to call your vets office and tell the receptionist, that you want to speak to the vet personally and to please have the vet call you at home. Ask the vet these questions and I’m sure that he or she will be able to answer them for you.

  38. QUESTION:
    How fast can the liver fail due to starvation?
    Kinda been on this fast for five days where I’ve eaten nothing, and drank maybe a total of 2 liters of beverages. ( Coke, Juice, Water )
    Before that for two days all I had was cereal ( with milk)
    Now my eyes are kinda bloodshot, yellow and in a lot of pain… I wonder if it’s signs of liver …failure? Or is it something different?
    Also.. what would fail first – Liver or kidneys?
    And yes… I’m fully aware that starving myself isn’t smart, so please- Give me some educational answers?

    • ANSWER:
      Your kidneys and liver with both start to shut down at the same time – slowly.. It’s terribly painful, and you need to go to the hospital now. Get checked out. If you really understood how dangerous what you’re doing is, you wouldn’t even attempt it.

  39. QUESTION:
    pnemonia, liver failure question?
    A 56 year old man with a bad liver is admitted to the hospital with weakness and coughing blood. He is diagnosed with double phnemonia, admitted to I.C.U., and given oxygen through a mask to help him breathe. It is determined that he needs to be intubated to deliver oxygen directly to the lungs. He is sedated and placed on 100% oxygen. A strep infection spreads throughout his blood. He is given a powerful antibiotic which clears the blood of the infection, but not the lungs. He is given an echocardiogram, and his heart is in good condition. His vital signs are stable, kidneys are adequate, but the liver is not good. He has been sedated and on oxygen support for 3 days. When the medical staff is asked if he were to have the breathing tube taken out could he breathe on his own? The answer is no-he would stop breathing. How is this possible if he is basically back to the condition he was in when he arrived? Did putting him on the oxygen tube screw things up?

    Update: His blood pressure has gone up a little (it was too low before), and at 7:00 this morning they took him off his sedation medication but he still hasn’t woken up..and it is now 4:30 in the afternoon. Is this bad? How long does it usually take to wake up? He is still breathing but with the oxygen machine. The doctors haven’t even said anything about pneumonia recently.

    • ANSWER:
      I’m sorry to hear about this. You need to ask how what sounds like an overwhelming infection has affected his brain. It can take a good 24 hours to assess neurological impairment allowing for the sedative drugs to wear off. Fingers crossed.

  40. QUESTION:
    What Hepatic Failure/ Liver Failure?
    i got a very huge presentation to find out definition, clinical manifestation/signs and symptoms, investigation, treatment (surgical/medical), Diagnosis… Pls and Thank you…

    • ANSWER:

  41. QUESTION:
    Liver Failure Question concerning Mental Capacity / Confusion?
    I have a good friend who suffers from liver failure, we believe brought on by side effects from a prescription medication. He was diagnosed with the illness in February 2006. At the time in 2006, a primary symptom was mental confusion (hepatic encephalopathy). This symptom was obvious to everyone who knew him going back to August 2005.

    In July 2004, my friend was persuaded to sign some legal documents which in the time since have not worked out in his favor. His business “partner” has taken advantage of him.

    My question is whether the liver failure could have clouded his judgement as far back as July 2004. And if so, whether this might be a reasonable argument to void the legal documents.

    If mental confusion became obvious to friends and family in August 2005, is it possible that he was not of sound mind to sign legal documents in July 2004? Could his judgement have been impaired back then without anyone realizing it?

    Thanks for any insight you can provide.

    • ANSWER:

  42. QUESTION:
    rare Interferon side effects when used for melanoma?
    my step dad has melanoma and is having interferon treatment. He was admitted to the ICU early this morning with severe muscle pain and weakness, kidney failure, liver problems, signs of dehydration even though he isnt dehydrated, and extremely low BP. he is normally on high BP medication which has been stopped. They are telling us that there is a rare side effect where the muscles start eating away at themselves but they cant give us any reason for the rest of the symptoms. anyone have any anwsers?

    • ANSWER:
      Hello friend,
      Melanoma is a nasty disease! I lost my husband to it six years ago. As a nurse myself; I have never heard of “muscles eating away at themselves” from chemo-therapy. Obviously, Interferon is a toxic drug; all cancer drugs are and it does cause a diverse range of symptoms. Sorry to tell you but melanoma does not respond well to chemo but it’s always worth trying.
      Good luck and many prayers to your step-dad and you. Hang in there and enjoy every day.

  43. QUESTION:
    chihuahua..liver failure? MARIJUANA TO BLAME?
    We got my little 6 month old chihuahua fixed two weeks ago, doing pre-blood work tests they found that her ALT levels are at 200..normal being at 75. They put her on meds for two weeks..we brought her back in today, and her levels are at 360. They want to do an ultrasound test on her..which is going to cost me about 0 dollars, and other tests. She is acting fine, just her fine little self. I was wondering what could cause something like this? I know that the liver will put off more of those enzymes because it is killing off toxins.

    Well, I am NOT a marijuana smoker, I haven’t touched it in close to two years. But, we brought her over to our friends house to stay the day because both my boyfriend and myself worked that day and wanted her to have some company. Needless to say, their bong fell over, and she had drank some of the water and some ash that was on the ground. That night I stayed up with her all night crying because she was acting so strange, almost brought her to the vet, but I kept her hydrated with water, and gave her food. She was back to normal the next day. We are no longer talking to our friends, or bringing my pup over there. It was a horrible ordeal.

    Would her liver be spiking high levels of ALT because it is trying to breakdown THC in her system? Should I tell my vet about this incident? It was on Wednesday that it happened. I Googled it some, and found that some people that smoke the drug, have elevated levels of ALT. Could it be the same for animals? I’m terrified for her..
    There was a ‘nug’ left in the bowl piece as well..which was also ingested. Hadn’t been smoked..and when they clear the bowl, they turn it upside down and suck..so the little pieces of pot left over is in the water. She showed all the signs of animal toxicity. uncoordinated, listlessness, drooling, breathing slowed, not very responsive, she couldn’t walk ok! she was falling over, and her head kept moving side to side when she was trying to hold it up.. This lasted 6 hours..and looking online, it said it could last up to three days. she weighs a whole 4.5 pounds
    it’s not that I wasn’t telling the truth guy. She got fixed two weeks ago..it was a check up appoinment, they did blood testing and found the levels of ALT. It’s not like the first thing that popped in my head was OH! she ate some pot four days ago..NO..i was more concerned with the next step that I have to take for her health and well being. Now that the information has sunk in a little bit I started to think that maybe the marijuana might have played a role..but I’m not positive. Jesus..some people just can’t read properly.. How does your thought process work?
    i talked to vet..and she said it is a very common thing for liver enzymes in dogs to spike if they have consumed any amount of marijuana..so for all of you people that said i was basically being an idiot..get your facts straight.
    As for my pup..doc said that the medicine might have very well worked..but that she ate the pot, which could have caused her liver to go into over drive. So she has another appointment on wednesday to do a liver biopsy and see if that is what caused the spike. Thanks to the people that gave me intelligent answers. All was appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      You should definitely tell your vet about her ingesting the marijuana. It most likely is causing the elevated liver enzymes and the sooner she gets treatment the better her chances are of the liver damage being reversed and it not being permanent. Hopefully the vets can flush the toxins out of her system.
      It’s not your fault what happened at your friend’s house. They were neglectful by not being more careful around your dog. The sooner your vet knows what happened, then they know what the toxins are and can hopefully help your dog. You trusted them to care for your dog and they should have known that marijuana, especially when a puppy so small ingests it would be harmful.
      Liver disease that is genetic usually happens at an older age and if your puppy has been healthy up until the episode with the marijuana, then you know what caused the liver problems.
      I had a dog with liver disease. The sooner your dog gets treatment, the better her chances are for a healthy life. Call the vet as soon as possible. Then they will know the best way to treat your puppy. I really hope that your dog gets better. I can tell she means a lot to you.
      Best of luck with your puppy. Hope I helped.

  44. QUESTION:
    questions on Liver Failure?!?
    My grandfather has been battling esophageal cancer for the past 2 years. The cancer spread to his liver. last week his wife was told that his liver was failing how long do the doctors said he might have a couple weeks. My grandma don’t say a whole lot about his health how do I know when his time is near are there signs? My grandma has him get up and try to walk at least once a day but, it’s getting harder and harder for us to keep him awake and when he is awake he has a almost empty look in his eyes. He is still eating a little i don’t think he drinks alot though. He has been having alot of pain in his stomach and having a hard time having a bowel movement. I’m not sure if they are symptoms or not. Since grandma is not saying alot im looking for someone to give me an insight Of what to look out for.

    • ANSWER:
      When anyone has liver failure the sure sign is the skin. It will turn a bronze color or gold, Yellow even. That’s when you know it’s pretty bad. It’s bile that is causing the skin to turn color. Don’t wait for the end to be near before you pay more attention to your grandfather. You know he’s ill so be with him as much as you can. Your grandmother is probably not saying to much because it hurts her. She knows she’s going to loose her beloved husband and that’s a hard thing to deal with. I hope he’s on pain medication because that’s not right for the Dr to withhold medication for pain. The blank look sounds like he’s going to go into a coma. It’s hard on your grandmother so please be a support for her. Don’t ask her a lot of questions because she’s only going to cry. I’m sure the Dr told her not to expect him to live long. Once any disease hits the liver, until something can be done, the life span won’t be long. The whites of his eyes will also turn yellow. It’s all because of the bile from the liver. Stay close to grandmother. I don’t know your religion, but whatever it is, ask her if she would like prayer. Pray over your grandfather. From what you said about the blank stare, It doesn’t sound like he has long. I am so very sorry for your grandfather and grandmother. I know this is hurting you inside too. Just be there for her, lots of hugs help. I promise, I will pray. God bless all of you.

  45. QUESTION:
    am I dying of liver failure?
    Hey I am a 19 year old male. I was exposed to a high amount of naphtha fumes about 12 times in a short period of time. I am now showing scary signs/ I have not gone to a doctor because I have no money or insurence. My symptoms are portal hypertension ( I know from veins appearing in the back of my throat) prominent veins ( not to bad but more but can see my arteries in my arms more then usual) I think I have jaundice in the roof of my mouth, its a little yellowish. My urine was cloud for a bit but that has stopped. I have minor itching. Some adominal pain. My gums bleed randomly, Usualy towards night. It was bad before but then stopped for a bit then started again but is very light now. I did lose my apetite for a bit but now Im eating like normal again. I was depressed for a bit. Wasnt taking care of my self. Wasn’t bathing, grew a beard. But now I am fine. I am up and out riding my bike and enjoying nature. I dont really have problems with sleepyness, a little tired but nothing that will keep me from being active. My kidneys hurt a little time to time. I was having light colored foul smelling stool but that ended to. Im confused and stressed a little because it seems Im getting better but at the same time getting worse. As most of the symptoms I stated have faded. The prominent veins are new symptom. they come and go through the day. Ive done very extensive research so I know all the symptoms of liver problems. Ive stated all the symptoms I have. Its just that there is so so so much mixed info on the net. What I have been doing to treat my self is taking milk thistle, cranberry extract, pomigranent extract, flax seed oil, and once the following come in the mail Ill be doing them, castor oil therapy with a heating pad, dandelion extract and artichoke extract. I told my work Im not going to be in for a bit because Im very sick. I figure avoiding as much stress as possible is vital to recovery. Please only answer from people who really know what they are talking about. I know I should be going to a doctor. But there is no way I could afford it

    • ANSWER:
      Ethan, the only way to know for sure is to have
      blood work taken for the liver enzymes and
      liver function tests levels. The liver is very
      quiet about any damage that may be done to it.
      It usually starts to show signs and symptoms if
      the liver cells are damaged to the point that
      they start to die off.
      For portal hypertension, the vessels that
      become enlarged are usually found in the
      lower part of the esophagus, in the rectum,
      and around the belly button area.
      Liver disease can cause a person to become
      really tired and the tiredness doesn’t usually
      go away.
      When noticing jaundice, it is best down in
      outside lighting, as inside lighting can mask it.
      It does appear in the mucus membranes, but
      it is usually most noticed in the whites of the
      eyes and the skin area.
      The urine will become darker in yellow and
      even turn into a deep brown if a person is
      jaundice. This is caused by bilirubin rising
      in the blood. Bilirubin is a pigment (colors
      things)that is made from our dead red blood cells that flow with the bile from the liver through tube
      like structures, known as ducts, to the
      intestines to help emulsify and digest the
      fats we eat. If the liver cells become damaged
      where they are not able to convert this non
      soluble bilirubin into a soluble form…then it
      can go higher in the blood. Anything that
      blocks the ducts or if the ducts are malformed,
      can stop the flow of this bilirubin and it can
      back up into the liver and go into the blood, also.
      If the bilirubin doesn’t reach the intestines,
      the stools will be light in color, almost a grayish
      white and they may float on top of the water.

      I know that no one here will be able to tell you
      for sure what your medication problem may
      be…I think you should locate a free clinic
      in your area and go to them…it is the only way
      you will know for sure.

      Best wishes

  46. QUESTION:
    my friend with colon cancer spread to the liver has liver failure, he is swelling in his abdoman and legs/he w
    they sent him home today with no plan for chemo, they took out his port because it was infected, he is bloated in the abdoman and legs/ankles. is this the early signs of the end for him????

    • ANSWER:
      Matt

      A detox of the body would do wonders for him (anybody for that matter). It’s never too late in the game, unless his time (kharma) is over. Doing a colon and liver cleanse while doing a juicefast for 30 days can change everthing. I have seen it done!
      Here are a few websites to get more info:

      curezone.com
      dr-shulze.com

      Best of health to you and your friend.

      Cheers

  47. QUESTION:
    Liver cirrhosis and liver cancer?
    My husband has just been informed that he has “slight scarring” on the liver and that his liver is enlarged. I have many questions regarding this, but PLEASE, I am looking for serious-minded answers, not for people telling me that he should stop drinking or other kinds of moralizing; it is hard enough as it is. First: the doctor said “there is slight scarring but no sign of cirrhosis”. I don’t quite understand this because I though scarring of the liver IS cirrhosis, although it might be at a very early stage in his case. Also, is an enlarged liver the same thing as fatty liver, or could there be other reasons for it being enlarged? Unfortunately, his main health issue is not the liver but advanced heart failure (severe dilated cardiomyopathy) and also COPD. He was told some years ago that he has Hepatitis C but then it was in a dormant state. Could his Hepatitis C have caused the scarring over time even if it has been in a dormant state? Also, when the scarring has started, is it bound continue? His doctor says that his liver is “working”, although I’m not sure whether she meant that it is working without any problems or working at a diminished capacity. I have done a lot of reading and it seems to me that he has many of the symptoms associated with acute liver failure: itching and small red lesions scattered over his body, a brief (one day) period of yellow skin and vomiting, periods of flu-like symptoms with fever, loss of appetite, severe sleep disturbances, clay-colored stool, brown urine, and his nails have turned very light. Also, he quit smoking, not because of his own determination but because he lost taste for cigarettes, which apparently is a sign of liver failure. He also bruise and bleed very easily, and he is easily fatigued. Many of these symptoms are of course also associated with heart disease, but it seems that they have become worse in the last couple of months. His bleeding and bruising can of course be caused by the heavy doses of coumadin he is on, but it seems that the bruising has gotten worse too. He is also getting easy confused and is becoming more and more forgetful. He is 60 years old. So, this is what I wonder: Can the heart disease and/or the COPD have caused the liver disease, or affect it negatively? And vice versa, what effect does the liver issue have on the heart disease and the COPD? His doctor wrote in the last report that there is no sign of ascites but he keeps saying that he feels very bloated and to me it seems like fluid, not fat. He often complain of discomfort in his lower right side and get winded very easily (also a sign of the heart disease, of course). How serious is this liver problem? If in fact he does have acute liver failure due to Hepatitis C, what is the outlook? I don’t believe liver transplant is an option in his case due to his advanced heart failure and generally poor condition. If it is left untreated and he continues to drink (he has at least 3 beers and usually a couple of shots of hard liquor per day. I am desperately trying to make him stop or seek help, but I am not able to), what is likely to happen? If scar tissue continues to build up in his liver, how dangerous is it and what kind of life expectancy does he have? Is it a matter of decades or years/months before his liver gives in completely? How do people with this kind of disease typically die, slowly by wasting away or suddenly? If it is not acute liver failure, what else could it be? Does the complications of Hepatitis C always come from cirrhosis/scarring caused by it, or can it cause symptoms independently without leading to cirrhosis? And is scarring always a sign of cirrhosis or can there be other reasons for it? If so, how likely is it that the scarring does lead to cirrhosis (unless it is the same disease just at different stages) How great is the risk of developing liver cancer? Is this risk increased because of his generally poor health or is it determined by other factors? Please, please, any information at all would be of great help. I know that all these questions should be directed to his doctor, but my husband refuses to let me meet her, and he himself seems to live in denial and doesn’t want to know anything about his disease. This is my reality, and any information you could provide would be gratefully accepted. Thankyou for reading all the way through this long question.

    • ANSWER:

  48. QUESTION:
    Questions about liver failure…?
    I have an uncle who is in a severe depression after the loss of his daughter, but if you ask me, theses signs were apparent long before the incident. From what I hear his abdomen is protruding, his ankles are swollen, his eyes are beginning to become yellow and his overall health in general is not how it should be. Through his depression he stopped eating for a long period of time, but from what I hear he has begun to eat very scarcely (my guess would be atleast 100 calories to 200 calories a day). He has also consumed tremendous amounts of alcohol (mainly beer) throughout this time as well. Me and many family members have told him to seek medical help, but he refuses. I believe my aunt has been successful in getting him off the alcohol, and he has grown irritable, and easily agitated which is not like him at all (withdrawals?). So if anybody with any medical knowledge or background reads this please respond ASAP with some feeback. I want to know what I can do to get him help without violating any legal rights or liability laws. THANK YOU!!!

    • ANSWER:
      I can’t believe some idiot is suggesting you move your uncle to California so he can get life saving marijuana to keep him alive from liver failure. It’s people like that who proves that marijuana should never be legalized.

      There is not much you can force him to do as long as he is capable of making his own decisions and is not out of his mind with confusion. Getting him off the alcohol is very important. From what you describe, he has cirrhosis of the liver. It’s when scar tissue replaces healthy tissue and the liver cannot function right. If the damage to the liver is severe, only a transplant will save his life. If it’s not too severe, then with proper treatment, there is a chance of improvement to his health. He would need a biopsy to determine how much damage has occurred to his liver.

      I know it is quite frustrating for all of you to know he needs help, but he refuses to even see a doctor. This is pretty typical behavior for an alcoholic. They are often in denial about their health and sad to say by the time they do wake up, it’s too late to help them. Maybe all of you could get together and have an intervention if you think he might listen to all of you begging him to go for help.

      If he is a steady heavy drinker, I would suggest you talk to someone like AA or his doctor before he goes cold turkey on the alcohol. If he is already off it and OK, that’s great. But withdrawals can be risky to some and they need medical help sometimes to do it safely.

      If your uncle has a swollen abdomen, then it probably is from ascites (fluid retention) from the cirrhosis. If it gets too bad, he will need to be “tapped” or drained at the hospital which will make him feel better since all that fluid can make a person quite uncomfortable. It can also be dangerous if it is squeezing on other organs like the lungs and heart. Jaundice (yellow whites of eyes) is just a symptom of cirrhosis having to do with high biliruben. It will not hurt him and there is really nothing you can do about it.

      If he starts to become confused, hallucinates, becomes disoriented or lethargic, then it’s possible his ammonia level is high and he will need treatment ASAP for that. It can lead to coma and death if left untreated. They can also become agitated and violent. He really should be on Lactulose if his ammonia levels are high. Anyone with cirrhosis usually takes this drug to keep this under control. High ammonia levels can lead to a condition called encephalopathy. Once the ammonia level is brought down, his mental state will return to normal.

      I can tell you care about your uncle and commend you for trying to get him the help he needs. As long as he is of sound mind, there is not much you can do other that to try and talk some sense into him.

  49. QUESTION:
    Scarring of the liver and cirrhosis?
    My husband has just been informed that he has “slight scarring” on the liver and that his liver is enlarged. I have many questions regarding this, but PLEASE, I am looking for serious-minded answers, not for people telling me that he should stop drinking or other kinds of moralizing; it is hard enough as it is. First: the doctor said “there is slight scarring but no sign of cirrhosis”. I don’t quite understand this because I though scarring of the liver IS cirrhosis, although it might be at a very early stage in his case. Also, is an enlarged liver the same thing as fatty liver, or could there be other reasons for it being enlarged? Unfortunately, his main health issue is not the liver but advanced heart failure (severe dilated cardiomyopathy) and also COPD. He was told some years ago that he has Hepatitis C but then it was in a dormant state. Could his Hepatitis C have caused the scarring over time even if it has been in a dormant state? Also, when the scarring has started, is it bound continue? His doctor says that his liver is “working”, although I’m not sure whether she meant that it is working without any problems or working at a diminished capacity. I have done a lot of reading and it seems to me that he has many of the symptoms associated with acute liver failure: itching and small red lesions scattered over his body, a brief (one day) period of yellow skin and vomiting, periods of flu-like symptoms with fever, loss of appetite, severe sleep disturbances, clay-colored stool, brown urine, and his nails have turned very light. Also, he quit smoking, not because of his own determination but because he lost taste for cigarettes, which apparently is a sign of liver failure. He also bruise and bleed very easily, and he is easily fatigued. Many of these symptoms are of course also associated with heart disease, but it seems that they have become worse in the last couple of months. His bleeding and bruising can of course be caused by the heavy doses of coumadin he is on, but it seems that the bruising has gotten worse too. He is also getting easy confused and is becoming more and more forgetful. He is 60 years old. So, this is what I wonder: Can the heart disease and/or the COPD have caused the liver disease, or affect it negatively? And vice versa, what effect does the liver issue have on the heart disease and the COPD? His doctor wrote in the last report that there is no sign of ascites but he keeps saying that he feels very bloated and to me it seems like fluid, not fat. He often complain of discomfort in his lower right side and get winded very easily (also a sign of the heart disease, of course). How serious is this liver problem? If in fact he does have acute liver failure due to Hepatitis C, what is the outlook? I don’t believe liver transplant is an option in his case due to his advanced heart failure and generally poor condition. If it is left untreated and he continues to drink (he has at least 3 beers and usually a couple of shots of hard liquor per day. I am desperately trying to make him stop or seek help, but I am not able to), what is likely to happen? If scar tissue continues to build up in his liver, how dangerous is it and what kind of life expectancy does he have? Is it a matter of decades or years/months before his liver gives in completely? How do people with this kind of disease typically die, slowly by wasting away or suddenly? If it is not acute liver failure, what else could it be? Does the complications of Hepatitis C always come from cirrhosis/scarring caused by it, or can it cause symptoms independently without leading to cirrhosis? And is scarring always a sign of cirrhosis or can there be other reasons for it? If so, how likely is it that the scarring does lead to cirrhosis (unless it is the same disease just at different stages) How great is the risk of developing liver cancer? Is this risk increased because of his generally poor health or is it determined by other factors? Please, please, any information at all would be of great help. I know that all these questions should be directed to his doctor, but my husband refuses to let me meet her, and he himself seems to live in denial and doesn’t want to know anything about his disease. This is my reality, and any information you could provide would be gratefully accepted. Thankyou for reading all the way through this long question.

    • ANSWER:
      Lena, an alcoholic is THE most difficult of all patients to help, especially when you want to do so much. ALL that you describe is due to alcohol. At first alcohol causes liver cells to fill with fat and produce an enlarged fatty liver which alone has caused sudden death. In time, as liver cells die, scarring results and can then progress (under the microscope) to produce a smaller scarred liver called alcoholic cirrhosis. The liver then produces inadequate clotting factors which can produce skin and other hemorrhages, as well as leak fluid into the belly (ascites), and change blood circulation to overload and damage an eenlarging heart under strain as well as dilated, thin-walled esophageal veins (varices) which can anytime suddenly rupture as great quantities of blood are coughed up. Hepatitis c also damages the liver and is believed to be a cause of liver cancer. As long as your husband continues to drink alcohol, he will continue to go downhill and die in spite of your efforts. Try the phone book or call Al-Anon, an organization for spouses of alcoholics for much more information on how to deal with your extremely difficult situation. You cannot go it alone and expect and success.

  50. QUESTION:
    Is my liver failing? ?
    The white of my eyes has a yellow tinge to them, and someone told me this is a sign of liver failure.. Is this true? If so, could smoking marijuana everyday be a contributing factor to liver failure?

    • ANSWER:
      No, pot does not hurt the liver. The eye thing could be so many things, too numberous to list. Jaundice (yellow whites of the eyes) is often due to a high biliruben level, but it could also be something else altogether. If it is high biliruben causing it, then find out why your biliruben is high. Once the level returns to normal, the yellow will go away if that is the problem. You would most likely have more symptoms that just yellow eyes if you have true liver failure. The biliruben can be high for quite a number of reasons other than liver problems including multiple problems with the gallbladder.


Liver Failure Progression

Syphilis is a STD, sexually transmitted disease, that is caused by a bacteria. This is a highly infectious disease that can also be passed through blood transfusion or from the fetus of the mother to the womb where she carries her baby. If left untreated, syphilis can cause serious damage to the brain, nerves, and body tissues.

This STD is caused by the bacteria known as Treponema pallidum. The bacteria can enter from the chafed skin or the mucous membranes. Transmission occurs when the person infected with it had sexual intercourse with his partner. Men are more likely to get the STD than women.

People with syphilis do not know that they are already infected. This makes this disease easy to transfer. There are 3 stages of symptom progressions. Sometimes these symptoms are not evident.

Primary stage: In this stage, a sore on the part of the infection becomes noticeable. This sore looks like a craterlike lesion on the male or female genitals, although it can also grow in any part of the body. This sore develops 3-4 weeks after the infection and heals spontaneously after 1 week. Even if the sore is healed, the disease still remains; it then moves to the second stage.
Secondary Stage: This stage usually happens 4-10 weeks after the sore phase. Here, the symptoms start to manifest. However these symptoms are mistakenly identified as symptoms of other diseases that is why syphilis is also known as the great pretender. If during this stage the infection is left untreated, syphilis can progress to the third stage. The most frequently reported symptoms in secondary stage include fever, join pain, muscle pain, sore throat, flulike symptoms, headache, rashes in the whole body, loss of appetite, patchy hair loss and swollen lymph nodes.

Dormant stage: For the first 1-2 years, this is characterized by occasional relapses back to the symptoms of the secondary stage. After 2 years after the start of the latent phase, you can still have no evident symptoms. However, the infection can now be transmitted from mother to fetus or through blood transfusions. In the latent phase of syphilis, the infection can spread in the heart, brain, skin and bones. An expectant mother who has syphilis can infect the baby in her womb. The infection can cause teeth abnormalities, bone problems, brain infection, poor growth, jaundice, low blood counts, liver/spleen/ kidney enlargement and skin rashes.

Considering the health risk posed by syphilis, it is recommended that those people who have active sex life must get themselves tested for STDs. There are STD testing centers that guarantees confidential analysis of your condition. Here, you will not be dealing with doctors. By law, doctors are required to submit reports on your condition. In STD testing centers, this is being bypassed because you will just submit a blood or urine sample and it will be analyzed by expert technician. Aside from confidentiality reasons, there are other reasons why a visit to STD testing centers is better than going to a doctor. Here you will get faster results, 3 times faster than the results from doctor or clinic. STD testing centers charge 50% less than the cost of doctor visit.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Progression of liver failure and death?
    If someone suffers a liver disease, can the doctors provide any type of pain management or will they suffer a horrible death? If the liver is supposed to process everything, does the body simply shut down one day?

    • ANSWER:
      Morphine is usually the preferred type of pain reliever in death. Any time a person is going through their final phase of life can bring pain. Yes, the body will shut down. The person will have a yellow tinge to their skin & even the whites of their eyes. Their abdomen will probably become distended (bloated) They may experience multiple organ failure all at once or each organ may shut down one at a time. I found a good website: http://www.canine-epilepsy.com/liverdisease.htm

      If one knows that a family member is dying from a liver disease, the best thing to do is to contact your local hospice. They provide support to the person & family members & help you deal with end of life issues. It needs to be discussed with the person whether or not they want any life supporting measures (respirator, CPR, feeding tube). It would also be wise to make a will and give medical power of attorney to someone the person trusts.

  2. QUESTION:
    Is a 9.80 Bilirubin level considered critical? At what level is the liver in complete failure?
    My mother in law has breast cancer that spread to her brain, and liver. The ultrasound showed that the liver had many tumors in it. In one week her Bilirubin levels went from 3.2 to 9.80. We are trying to determine if we should fly down. We know she is terminal. Earlier today the doctor said she has two weeks to two months depending on the results of these latest tests he could better judge the progression. Well we got the results but he has not called back. We realize that this is a significant increase in one week. We are trying to determine if we should book the first flight out tomorrow to be with her. What is the highest the levels can go before someone goes into complete failure?

    • ANSWER:
      i dont know the answer to your question. i just wanted to give my condolences and best wishes. its really a terrible thing to go through. good luck to you.

  3. QUESTION:
    hepatitus c liver damage signs?
    what are the signs( that you see ) of progressing liver failure due to hepatitus c? A list of progression signs would be great!

    • ANSWER:
      easy fatiguability -> abdominal pain -> decreased appetite -> flu like symptoms -> (sometimes) light colored stools and dark urine -> jaundice or yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes -> itching -> weight loss -> scarring of liver tissues -> liver failure or liver cancer

  4. QUESTION:
    hepatitis C, progression of disease?
    My husband was diagnosed with dormant hepatitis C about 5 years ago. He also has congestive heart failure in an advanced stage and now his liver is enlarged and he has ascites. He has not yet been able to get an answer as to what has caused the liver enlargement, which can also be caused by the heart disease. What I would like to know is how common or likely it is that dormant hepatitis C breaks out into active disease? And if it does, what is the prognosis? As it is now, he has many of the classic symptoms of liver failure such as itching, ascites, whitening nails, nausea, diarrhea and fatigue, but many of those symptoms can be caused by the heart disease as well. He seems to live in denial and doesn’t want to know anything about his own disease and keeps postponing a visit to the hepatologist, and I am very worried. Can anyone tell me what I should expect in terms of life expectancy if in fact these symptoms are caused by active hepatitis C?

    • ANSWER:
      Hepatitis in any form is a liver disease which is what he has. The congestive heart failure is just a complicating factor. You need to do some research on Hepatitis C and you can go to WebMd.com and MayoClinic.com and type in that term and read up on everything you can get your hands on because this is what you are dealing with and you need to know about any possible treatments that might be recommended so that you can help your husband make decisions about this. With ascites, he is already in the advanced stage of liver disease but there is no way of knowing if his Hep C is now active without being tested for this. And, no one can tell you how long anyone can live with his condition because every person is different but he sounds as if he is in an advanced stage and doesn’t have many months/years left. You need to get his will, your family finances in order and you designated as a Health Care Power of Attorney to carry out his wishes for health care when he is no longer able to make his own decisions. And, you might consider enlisting the help of hospice care. You need to be working with your doctor closely on his condition.

  5. QUESTION:
    Is this a good Personal Narrative?
    Here is a Personal Narrative I wrote Its suppose to be 1/12 – 2 pages but I wrote more. Also Can I have a title idea?
    =========================

    It all started out a hot summer day. I was lying on the bed with my mom and my baby sister Krystal eagerly waiting for my food to digest so I could go swimming. Out of the blue I received a call from my dad which was always rare because I’m usually the one to call first. As I looked for my phone I thought of the reasons he might be calling maybe barbeque, six flags, or a trip to the beach? I quickly answered the phone & knew by the tremble in my father’s voice that something was wrong. He uttered the words “Grandpa died today” as my heart sank all I could say was “What” & “How” as the feeling of guilt overcame me.

    My Grandpa was sick for a while and I remembered the progression of his illness through the years. My cousin Jovon and I would always stay the night at his apartment when we were younger which was around 2002. One memory I had with him was when he made me one of my favorite Top Ramen soups. Even though there was nothing significant about it the memory means so much more to me now. Another memory I had was when we would take trips to visit my aunt Karen in Virginia during the summer. Again nothing significant but being able to remember those moments in time always makes me feel a little better. I remember staying at his apartment one night as we slept on the floor he started talking in his sleep. It would start off as mumbles then turn into scream and sometimes even curses.
    I never really knew what was wrong with him & was too afraid to ask. It was difficult to see someone who was such a major part of my life and family go from driving and being free to becoming restricted to a bed within a 5 year period. It was hard to see his legs and overall health slowly deteriorate right before my eyes and knowing I couldn’t do anything to stop it.

    After I hung up the phone I stayed under the covers as tears rolled down my eyes. I didn’t want anybody to see me crying and I didn’t even tell my mom what happened mainly because I didn’t know how. I quickly rubbed my eyes and made my way towards the backyard to the pool. Even though people would consider this a weird time to go swimming it was the only place I could be alone which is what I wanted. By the time I got out the pool my mother already heard the news and wondered why I didn’t say anything to her and I said “I thought you already knew”.

    About two hours later my dad picked me up and after a couple of silent minutes I finally asked “What happened?” My dad explained how he was watching my Grandpa laying down when he noticed his hands began to swell. This was the first signs of liver failure. He called my Nana into the backroom with him as all my family began to gather in the room where he was sleeping. After numerous trips in & out of nursing homes & a threat of having to stay under permanent hospital care if admitted again, My Grandmother made the crucial decision that it was best not to call the hospital but instead have his final moments with family. At this moment all I could do was picture my family saying how much they loved him and me not getting that chance.

    About a week before he died I remember visiting him at the Hospital with my Aunt, Nana, & cousin. We would stay there & make sure the Nurses were doing their jobs. I remember as we began to leave I trailed behind everybody because I wanted to say Bye alone. Unfortunately that was the last day I got to see him alive & I never got to say what I wanted.
    The funeral made me feel even worst. As I walked into the funeral home I smelt the “death smell” a smell I always have smelt at funerals. When my nose sniffed that infamous scent I felt the chills and knew I wasn’t ready to go inside. It was hard for me to see him in the casket so I mostly diverted my eyes to the flowers. I didn’t feel strong enough to go and see him myself so throughout the viewing I would walk up with my cousin Dania to view my Grandpa one last time. I remember touching his cold hand for the last time as we began to leave.

    I remember feeling guilty for a long time because I never got that last time with him nor did I get to say what I wanted to say. I remember saying to myself after leaving the Hospital I’ll say what I want next time but that time never came for me. From this experience I realized never take anything for granted and always appreciate what you have. I also realized how much I love my parents and how I should treat them better because they wont be around forever.

    • ANSWER:
      I really enjoyed reading this. You had the hook in there; I could tell because I couldn’t stop reading. Your narrative caught my attention. I have no clue what the title should be. The only problem I had while reading this was the mechanics. You have some commas and periods missing. There were times when I would get confused by what you were trying to say. Also, I loved that you went back and forth between the “present” and your experiences/memories of your grandfather. I like that format. Other than that, it was well done. GOOD JOB! (:

  6. QUESTION:
    What diagnostic tests and medications are needed for this patient?
    A 62-year old male(non-smoker, no known allergies) has the following medical conditions:


    Characteristics of angina commonly include a sensation of pressure, heavy weight, burning, or tightness over the sternum or near to it. The pain may radiate to, or occassionally be limited to, the left arm, shoulder, or other areas. The sensation gradually increases in intensity and then gradually disappears with rest. The duration is usually between 30 seconds and 30 minutes.


    Hypertension is defined by persistent elevation of arterial blood pressure.


    Hyperlipidemia is defined as an elevation of one or more of the following: cholesterol, cholesterol esters, phospholipids or triglycerides. Abnormalities of plasma lipids can result in a predisposition to coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular arterial disease.

    He is taking the following medications:

    Irbesartan 300mg mane(what does “mane” mean?)
    Used for treatment of hypertension and prevention of renal disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertention and microalbuminuria.

    Gemfibrozil 600mg bd(twice daily)
    Used in treatment of severe hypertriglyceridaemia, mixed hyperlipidaemia and dyslipidaemia associated with diabetes, and used to reduce risk of coronary heart disease in hypercholesterolaemia.

    Glyceryl Trinitrate Tablets 600mcg; half to one prn(when necessary)
    Used in the prevention and treatment of stable and angina and heart failure associated with acute myocardial infarction. Provides exogenous source of nitric oxide. Predominantly venodilators and reduces venous return and preload to the heart, reducing myocardial oxygen requirement.

    Glyceryl Trinitrate spray 400mcg (1 spray when required); use prn
    Also known as nitroglycerine and GTN. It is used in the treatment of angina by providing an exgenous source of nitric oxide which mediates vasodilator effects.

    His medical test results are:

    -Blood Pressure 140/90

    -Liver Function Test
    Total protein=63g/L(normal 60-80g/L);Albumin 27g/L(normal 35-52g/L);ALT=19U/L(normal 38-126U/L);GGT=154U/L(normal 12-43U/L);ALP=177(normal 38-126U/L)

    Question 1: From the liver function test results, what information can we obtain regarding the patient’s medical condition?

    Question 2: What further diagnostic tests are needed to know more about the patient’s medical condition(including diabetes due to heavy weight)?

    Question 3: What are the appropriate therapies(what medicines, and dosage for each?) for effective treatment, avoidance of side effects, increased compliance, and cost-effectiveness?

    Question 4: Without other symptoms, the patient shows dry cough. What is the cause of this cough?

    • ANSWER:
      Is this a homework question? From what you say this person is on medication and had some testing done already. What does the Doctor say? That is the person you should be asking.

  7. QUESTION:
    What diagnostic tests and medications are needed for this patient?
    A 62-year old male(non-smoker, no known allergies) has the following medical conditions:


    Characteristics of angina commonly include a sensation of pressure, heavy weight, burning, or tightness over the sternum or near to it. The pain may radiate to, or occassionally be limited to, the left arm, shoulder, or other areas. The sensation gradually increases in intensity and then gradually disappears with rest. The duration is usually between 30 seconds and 30 minutes.


    Hypertension is defined by persistent elevation of arterial blood pressure.


    Hyperlipidemia is defined as an elevation of one or more of the following: cholesterol, cholesterol esters, phospholipids or triglycerides. Abnormalities of plasma lipids can result in a predisposition to coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular arterial disease.

    He is taking the following medications:

    Irbesartan 300mg mane(what does “mane” mean?)
    Used for treatment of hypertension and prevention of renal disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertention and microalbuminuria.

    Gemfibrozil 600mg bd(twice daily)
    Used in treatment of severe hypertriglyceridaemia, mixed hyperlipidaemia and dyslipidaemia associated with diabetes, and used to reduce risk of coronary heart disease in hypercholesterolaemia.

    Glyceryl Trinitrate Tablets 600mcg; half to one prn(when necessary)
    Used in the prevention and treatment of stable and angina and heart failure associated with acute myocardial infarction. Provides exogenous source of nitric oxide. Predominantly venodilators and reduces venous return and preload to the heart, reducing myocardial oxygen requirement.

    Glyceryl Trinitrate spray 400mcg (1 spray when required); use prn
    Also known as nitroglycerine and GTN. It is used in the treatment of angina by providing an exgenous source of nitric oxide which mediates vasodilator effects.

    His medical test results are:

    -Blood Pressure 140/90

    -Liver Function Test
    Total protein=63g/L(normal 60-80g/L);Albumin 27g/L(normal 35-52g/L);ALT=19U/L(normal 38-126U/L);GGT=154U/L(normal 12-43U/L);ALP=177(normal 38-126U/L)

    Question 1: From the liver function test results, what information can we obtain regarding the patient’s medical condition?

    Question 2: What further diagnostic tests are needed to know more about the patient’s medical condition(including diabetes due to heavy weight)?

    Question 3: What are the appropriate therapies(what medicines, and dosage for each?) for effective treatment, avoidance of side effects, increased compliance, and cost-effectiveness?

    Question 4: Without other symptoms, the patient shows dry cough. What is the cause of this cough?

    • ANSWER:
      Too big a question. Please split up.


Liver Failure Stages

End stage Renal failure is a final common path way for a number of disease processes and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In modern medicine approach dialysis and kidney transplant but its not rational approach but its temporary phase not complete cure end stage renal failure or crf. In homeopathy medicine develop immunizations in neoprene and maintenance remain neoprene and filtrations his blood, After some time stop increase s.creatinin level and reduced 50% and steady further continue treatment well experience homeopath then again rejoined neoprene.

It is very important to know the high frequency of this disease, the multiple causes, the significant morbidity and a logical clinical approach to renal failure which will help to illuminate the cause and then to proceed to a proper therapy.

A decrease in renal function is sufficient to result in retention in the body of nitrogenous waste such as blood, urea, nitrogen and creatinine. The hall mark of renal failure is progressive azotaemia caused by the accumulation of the nitrogenous end products of metabolism. This accumulation is accompanied by a wide-range of other disturbances depending on the severity and duration of the renal dysfunction. These include metabolic derangements such as metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia, disturbances of body fluid balance and effects on many other organ systems.

Pre renal

It results from a decrease in renal blood flow. The glomerular filtration rate is reduced and the kidney retains water and salt, causing Oliguria, production of concentrated urine and a progressive inability to excrete nitrogenous wastes.

Decreased blood flow is one cause of damage to the kidney. Acute renal failure may occur when there is extremely low blood pressure the patient may suffer from trauma, septic shock, haemorrhage, severe vomiting, diarrhoea, burns and associated dehydration or other severe or complicated illness.

Intra renal

Renal failure usually occurs as the internal structures of the kidney are suddenly or slowly destroyed. It is a complex collection of disease processes with a poorly understood pathophysiology. An inflammatory are probably the most common causes. Most acute renal failure occurs as secondary to bacterial infection particularly with streptococcal such as the impetigo and throat infections. Chronic failure commonly noticed with hypertension and diabetes damage the vascular walls. Smoking causes atherosclerotic changes of the arterial walls.

Nephrotoxic drugs and metals could ruin the cellular complex as in prolonged chemical medication. Disorders in metabolism and immunity is also to be considered.

Post renal

A simple mechanical or functional obstruction to the free flow of urine precludes, its excretion and renal failure occurs. It commonly happens with kidney stones, urethral stricture and prost The symptoms are sudden in acute renal failure and gradual in chronic. The initial symptoms arenoticed with renal physiopathology as reduction in urinary put out and accumulation of fluid.

The accumulation of waste products also produces impairment of mind and skin symptoms.
Frequent thirst and urge to urinate.Passingofverysmallamountofurine, dark in colour. Swellingparticularlyofthehandsandfeet andpuffiness round the eyes.Unpleasanttaste in themouthandurinelike odour to the breath. Persistentfatigueandshortness of breath. Decressofappetiteandunintentionalweight loss. Pale, dry and itchy skin.
Muscular cramps and twitching. Headache, nausea, vomit and hiccups.
Bloodin vomit or stools likely.
.
Hyaline casts are found in glomerular proteinuria. Red cell casts indicate glomerular hematuria, white cell casts imply the presence of renal parenchymal inflammation. Granular casts are composed of cellular remnants and debris. Fatty casts are usually associated with heavy proteinuria..

The usual presentation of C.R.F. in Homeopathic hospital includes:
1. Homeopathy treatment Patients with just diminished renal reserve.
2.Homeopathy manage Patient with End Stage Renal Failure pending Hemodialysis and Renal Transplant.
3. Homeopathy Patient already on long term Dialysis pending Renal Transplant.
4.Homeopathic ManagementComplications in dialysis
5. Homeopathy prevents Post Renal Transplant Patients.

1. Homeopathy treatment Patients with just diminished renal reserve.

This is the best field for us to work but unfortunately, the number of cases presenting at this stage are very few. The individualized homoeopathic treatment does wonders here and has prevented a large number of cases progressing to stage of dialysis or renal transplant.

The usual symptomatic presentation at this stage is vague with patients mostly complaining of nausea, anorexia and progressive weakness. The laboratory renal parameters are also not very seriously disturbed. The evolution of individualized totality comprising of the mental sphere, habits, past and family history require lots of patience and labor but the results are marvelous.

Homoeopathy has already done a yeoman service to the society here as hemodialysis and renal transplant are not within easy reach of majority of population in under- developed countries.

2. Homeopathy manage Patient with End Stage Renal Failure pending

This is the group of cases with maximum presentations in the clinics. Majority of these cases come to homoeopathic rescue as a last resort as they can’t afford long-term dialysis and transplant.
The other small group of patients want to know the benefits of Homoeopathic treatment over dialysis and if Homoeopathic treatment be carried along with Hemodialysis? The clinical judgment is individualized and varies for every patient. Remember the correlation of uremic symptoms with renal functions varies front patient to patient.

3. Homeopathy Patient already on long term Dialysis pending Renal Transplant.

Homeopathy has a great role to play here. Research experiments in various hospitals reveals the following facts :

(a) Indicated homoeopathic remedies reduced the number of dialysis needed over a period of time.
(b) Indicated homoeopathic remedies reduce and overcome the complications associated with chronic dialysis therapy.

4.Homeopathic ManagementComplications in dialysis

Remember a chronic dialysis patient depends on a machine for his life. These patients develop a variety of psychiatric, neurologic and somatic disorders. A neurologic disorder ‘Dialysis dementia’ is a characteristic example.
In the mental sphere, these patients become very depressive, their reduced physical abilities make them sad and depressive
They become very irritable like
They know that they have to depend on others, they tolerate and do not express the frustration like
In the physical sphere infections, thrombosis and aneurysm formation occur in the Arterio-venous fistula. There is a high incidence of septic embolisation in these cases. The homoeopathic remedies Arnica, have immensely helped these cases.
Heparin necessary during the hemodialysis procedures to prevent clotting leads to complications such as subdural hematoma and intracerebral hemorrhage. Arnica and different well-proved snake poisons in our Materia Medica are of great help here. .

5. Homeopathy prevents Post Renal Transplant Patients.

The group of patients coming for homoeopathic advice after Renal Transplant is very limited. Homeopaths have very little experience with these patients and the results are not very encouraging. Most of the symptoms here are marked and distorted by immune-suppressive therapy. Immuno-suppressive therapy suppresses all immune responses and hence Homoeopathic treatment has not much role to play in organ rejection of transplant cases.

.We have observed that those cases with renal failure, being put on Dialysis and if they receive homoeopathy medication simultaneously, they require less frequent dialysis and their quality of life improves.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    How long can someone live on the first stages of kidney and liver failure?
    I just heard my grandmother of 84 years, has just been diagnosed with the first stages of kidney and liver failure.

    I am out of the country until 4 week from today. I am just afraid I won’t get to see her again. I want to know if I will be able to see her again? She’s so old and not young. she is getting more weak and fragile as the days go by. How long does she have ?

    :’(
    I don’t know if this helps but she has also been diagnosed with Alzheimer dementia.

    • ANSWER:

  2. QUESTION:
    Hi, can anyone tell me what the later stages of liver failure are?
    My Mum has been diagnosed with liver cirrhosis and was told if she didn’t stop driving she would have 2 years maximum. She hasn’t stopped drinking and lately she has been sleeping a lot more than usual, she has pains in her stomach and diarrhea. Are these symptoms that her liver is failing, if so how long would she be able to live for if this is the case?

    • ANSWER:
      When someone start to have a problem with
      the liver…it usually means that some cause,
      like alcohol consumption…has caused
      damage to the liver cells. When this takes
      place, the immune system of the body
      responds to this and causes inflammation
      inside the liver. This will cause the liver
      to enlarge in size and the doctors can see
      this on an ultrasound or CT scan.

      If someone stops the alcohol consumption
      and is treated for the inflammation…the
      liver cells may heal. But, it seems that
      your Mother is passed that point if she
      has been diagnosed with cirrhosis.
      Cirrhosis is “death” of the liver cells where
      scar tissue develops inside the liver that
      blocks the flow of blood through the liver
      on its way back to the heart and also blocks
      the flow of blood to the liver cells that are
      still living and they start to die, also.
      It is a progressive disease with no known cure.
      Your Mom can get help by going to a detox
      program at a hospital….or seeing her doctor
      to give her medications to help with the
      symptoms that occur from coming off the
      alcohol. If she can stop drinking for a period
      of 6 months, they may evaluate her to be
      placed on the liver transplant list for an donor
      organ. If she doesn’t stop drinking…she
      will not be placed on that list and will become
      worse.
      Tiredness is common with Cirrhosis of the
      liver. That is because her body is trying
      it’s best to compensate for the functions
      the liver used to do but isn’t able to do now and
      also, because her body is trying to heal.
      She may develop symptoms of confusion
      and disorientations: known as Encephalopathy, because the liver isn’t able to handle ammonia that is now going into her brain. The doctor
      may start her on Lactulose to help with this.
      She may start to gain fluid weight in her abdominal area, known as Ascites. This is because of the liver being unable to make a protein that holds fluids in the vessels and it leaks out and collects here. The doctors can remove this fluid through a procedure known as
      paracentesis. If she throws up any blood at
      any time or there is blood in the toilet from
      the rectal area…it is an emergency. The blood that normally goes to the liver is backing up into
      vessels that are not used to handling this
      and they have weak places that can break
      open and cause her to bleed internally.

      Here are some links to help you understand
      more about the disease your mother has:

      http://www.medicinenet.com/cirrhosis/article.htm

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cirrhosis/DS00373

      The doctors know her past history, they
      have all the tests results that show how far
      advanced she is in this disease…so they
      are giving you their best guess of how long
      she has.

      It would be good, if you could have her
      make out an advance directive or power
      of attorney form, so that you or another
      family members can speak directly with
      her doctors and also handle her affairs for
      her. Privacy laws are terrible…even with
      being part of a family.
      Here is a free site to download advance
      directive by the state you live in:

      http://www.caringinfo.org/stateaddownload

      As soon as the cells of the liver start to die
      off, the functions they do to keep the body
      well start to deteriorate. This is known as
      the starting of liver failure. Failure to function
      efficiently. This is progressive as more and
      more cells of the liver die off…the less the
      liver is able to function. It will progress to
      “complete” liver failure where the liver cells have
      died of,f that the liver is almost gone.
      The inflammation causes the liver to enlarge
      in size…when the cells die off, the liver starts to
      shrink in size and takes on a hard texture…
      it is dying.

      I hope this information has been of some help
      to you. This isn’t only affected your Mom, it
      is affected you, also. It is best to know what
      to expect in the future, if she doesn’t stop
      drinking. Best wishes to you both.

  3. QUESTION:
    Where can I find info about stages of liver failure, my mother is in her last stages of cancer.?
    My mother has colon cancer and has been given a short amount of time left. Her liver has started shutting down and so far she has jaundice, where can I find more information about what to expect as it progresses.

    • ANSWER:
      Following surgical removal of colon cancer, the cancer is classified as stage IV (D) if the final evaluation shows that the cancer has spread to distant locations in the body, which may include the liver, lungs, bones or other sites.

      Patients diagnosed with stage IV colon cancer have been perceived to have few treatment options. Certain patients, however, can still be cured of their cancer, and others derive significant benefit from additional treatment. Patients with stage IV colon cancer can be broadly divided into two groups: those with cancer spread that is localized to a single site and those with more widespread cancer.

      While some progress has been made in the treatment of colon cancer, better treatment strategies are clearly needed, as the majority of patients still succumb to the cancer. Future progress in the treatment of colon cancer will result from continued participation in appropriate clinical trials. There are several areas of active exploration aimed at improving the treatment of colon cancer

      Treatment of stage IV and recurrent colon cancer may include the following:

      Resection/anastomosis (surgery to remove the cancer or bypass the tumor and join the cut ends of the colon).
      Surgery to remove parts of other organs, such as the liver, lungs, and ovaries, where the cancer may have recurred or spread.
      Radiation therapy or chemotherapy may be offered to some patients as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.
      Clinical trials of chemotherapy and/or biologic therapy.
      Treatment of locally recurrent colon cancer may be local excision.

      Special treatments of cancer that has spread to or recurred in the liver may include the following:

      Radiofrequency ablation or cryosurgery.
      Clinical trials of hepatic chemoembolization with radiation therapy.
      Patients whose colon cancer spreads or recurs after initial treatment with chemotherapy may be offered further chemotherapy with a different drug or combination of drugs.

      This summary section refers to specific treatments under study in clinical trials, but it may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

      Changes

      Look on the website http://www.plwc.org for more information on the symptoms of stage 4. Best of luck and you and your mother are in my thoughs.

  4. QUESTION:
    can someone die from pancreatitus with early stage liver failure?
    My mom was taken into the hospital yesterday. She has pancretitus and early stage liver failure. Today when she called she said that they had her sighn a power of attourney and an organ donation paper. She said that if she doesnt get better in 4 to 5 days they will send her home, basically to die. Do you think there is any possability of that happening?

    • ANSWER:
      Severe pancreatitis can be difficult to treat and can have many complications. Liver failure complicates the picture and there really are no good treatments for liver failure. (aside from transplant). You need to speak with the doctors so that you and your family understand the options available. In some cases treatment just prolongs the inevitable and your mom may want to avoid excess procedures and treatments and be made comfortable.

  5. QUESTION:
    How Long To Live After Hit Final Stages Of Liver Failure??
    How long do u have to live if your in the final stages of liver failure, and your passing blood every way possible, and your drinking every day….The reason i ask is because my uncle is the described and he drinks every day all day, severely addicted to alcohol, and he has literelay been drunk since last wed..1 week today…How long does he have to love, he refuses meds, and wont go to the doctor, I got 1 answer before that said less than a year and i believed it, i was just trying to get alittle more specific, if possible.

    • ANSWER:
      This is a sad situation. You can not possibly live without your liver. Typically, liver failure is alcohol related. Cirrhosis (hardening of the liver) is caused by drinking alcohol. His abdomen is probably swollen which is called “ascites”. He will also have mental confusion along with it called “hepatic encephalopathy”. It sounds as if your uncle has a death wish. When your liver is failing you are unable to make clotting factors for your blood, you don’t have long to live. He will literally bleed to death, or his kidneys will fail. I’m sure he is in pain from all the bleeding going on. It sounds like he is trying to deal with the pain by drinking more alcohol. His only chance for survival is a liver transplant. However, it doesn’t sound like he would stop drinking after that either, so that’s not even an option. He will be lucky to live another 3 months from the sound of it, maybe sooner.

  6. QUESTION:
    How long can someone last in End Stage Liver Failure?
    My mum is in hospital and her liver is failing… She has very swollen legs and abdomen, she is jaudiced and has been bleeding internally. She is in a lot of pain with the swelling and also has mulitiple infections. The doctors are not really saying very much and I just wanted to know if anyone else has been through this and how long they had to watch the person they love suffer like this. She is also very sleepy and at times very confused…

    I live 3 hours away and visit when I can but its very hard mostly on my sister who is watching this everyday.

    How much longer will we have to watch her suffer?

    • ANSWER:
      I’m sorry to hear this. How upsetting for you all.

      Sadly, your mum has not got long – maybe just a few days or a couple of weeks.

      If she is in pain still, then your sister can ask on her behalf for her pain meds to be changed or increased.

  7. QUESTION:
    How many stages is there in liver failure? My fiance’s father is in the 3rd stage.?

    • ANSWER:
      Chronic or acute?

      Anyway, I believe that there are 4 stages.

  8. QUESTION:
    What is fourth stage of liver failure?
    We went to the liver transplant doctor in Denver and were told that my sister is in the fourth stage of liver failure. What does that mean?

    • ANSWER:
      The fourth stage of cancer simply means that the cancer has spread to the pancreas and linf note and the doctors will probably try gemcitabine and oxaliplatin on him. Here is a site that offers a free subscription to Cancer-Free newsletter. It offers support on handling cancer gently. http://www.beating-cancer-gently.com/cancer-treatment.html

  9. QUESTION:
    Hypoglycemia and liver failure – what IS the relation?
    I’ve read about how Hypo can develop in the late stages of liver failure, does this mean that there would be other symptoms present? If so, what would be the ones that could be expected at a stage where Hypo is present?
    I am near sure I have reactive Hypoglycemia (dr appointment is tomorrow) but I am wondering – would I see more indications of liver failure at the stage of hypo being highly present?

    • ANSWER:
      Hypoglycemia occurs in liver failure due to the lack of glycogen stores (these are your sugar reserves).
      Other symptoms of liver failure include engorged veins in the esophagus (esophageal varices) which can cause severe bleeding, coagulopathy due to inability of the liver to produce clotting factors, encephalopathy due to inability to filter toxins and more.

      Here is some more info:

      http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/429652

  10. QUESTION:
    when the last stage of liver failure comes such as yellowing of the eyes,confusion, etc how long, will this la?
    How long will the body survive the last stages of liver failure when a person drinks every day?

    • ANSWER:
      It’s hard to say since everyone progresses at their own pace. A lot of factors come into play such as how much scar tissue is present in the liver, how much they drink, what they drink, how often, genetics, medical history, underlying medical conditions, and general health other than liver disease. All this comes into play as to how fast their disease will progress to total failure.

      Once they get to being confused a lot, get very weak and can no longer care for themselves and need help with activities of daily living, sleep most of the time, and fluid retention can no longer be controlled with medications and they need tapped from time to time to make them comfortable, then that is getting pretty close to the end. Complications from liver disease can also take their life such as all that fluid they accumulate can get infected or they can bleed to death internally if they have an extra large varice that forms and bursts. The best person to ask would be their doctor who knows all the test results, their history, and is able to examine them and see their latest blood work. It will get to the point of them being too sick to drink.

  11. QUESTION:
    If a doctor said someone was in end stage liver failure and he had one year to live,What will happen to him?
    What is going to happen to him during his remaining time alive and could he die alot sooner and what can I do to help him through this time ?

    • ANSWER:
      have him seen at MCV (medical college of Virginia). Phone# (804) 827-1236 that’s the liver and kidney transplant clinic. the specialist there are among the best in the US. Dr. Stravitz is my liver Dr. he saved my life! and maybe he can offer some hope for you as well.
      yes, unfortunately he can die sooner. but than again nobody can be guaranteed tomorrow. Be there for him. but try not to dwell on liver failure.
      write to me if you need more information. email- stenforce@yahoo.com

  12. QUESTION:
    What stages and symptoms of liver failure are there?
    based upon my wife who is incredibly secretive (perhaps not to worry me) about her HCV, she is 38 genotype 3a and has had chronic HCV for over 16 years, she refuses treatment of any kind and she drinks alcohol on a nightly basis, her decision making recently have been incredibly selfish and more so swayed away from the family and enjoying herself by going out during the week nights coming home at all hours (except when it suits her – if that makes sense).

    So I was wondering and fearing the worst, what the stages are for liver failure and what symptoms it can have on a persons mind and body, and why she continues to drink, I tell her like a broken record not to.. but she ignores all the advice…

    or can someone drink for years and be fine with HCV?
    I know I have asked related questions before but all im after is advise and opinions.

    • ANSWER:
      Inflammation (something such as alcohol and HCV actively bothering the liver) can lead to fibrosis (abnormal fibrous bands in the liver). As time goes by and the inflammation continues, more and more fibrosis forms. As even more time goes by, liver cells may begin to die and scar tissue begins to form. Scar tissue replaces healthy tissue in the liver which is called cirrhosis. When a biopsy is done, they use a staging system that goes from 0-4. Here’s how the stages go.

      Stage 0- no fibrosis present
      1- small amount of fibrosis present
      2- a little more fibrosis present
      3- even more fibrosis present (bridging fibrosis)
      4- cirrhosis is present

      So that’s why people with even a small amount of cirrhosis is called end stage liver disease. But cirrhosis itself has 3 stages of A, B, and C.

      Stage A- compensated cirrhosis- asymptomatic,
      B- beginning of decompensation- needs
      medications and treatments to control
      symptoms of cirrhosis
      C- decompensated cirrhosis- medications no
      longer very effective and total failure is near

      Your wife is playing with fire with having both hep C plus drinking on top of it. The two of them together can be lethal. I don’t know a whole lot about hep C other than it is most important to keep the viral load preferably to be undetectable. Even then, it can still do liver damage in some people. Does your wife ever get checked for her hep C viral counts? Hep C is a slow liver killer, but it is a liver killer all the same. It just takes a lot of time to do it. Her bubble is going to burst one day and she will probably need a transplant in the future. Right now she is either in denial or just ignoring it because it is not a health problem right now. It sounds like she has an attitude of “live for today” and don’t worry about tomorrow. I doubt anything is going to change her mind. A trip to a transplant center clinic might do it if she is able to talk to a room full of people waiting on transplants who have hep C and drink. But it sounds like she is not ready for anything like that.

      The only suggestion I have is that she at least go to hepatologist or gastroenterologist and get some blood work done to find out about her viral load and see what her liver function number are right now. Maybe a good doctor could change her mind.

  13. QUESTION:
    My dad has End-stage Liver disease/ liver failure (Cirrhosis) How long does he have?
    My family seems to be keeping a lot of information from me about his illness. I went to the hospital a few days ago and I really didn’t find out much. We are working really hard to get him a transplant and I just moved out of state to be with him during this ordeal.

    I may not want to know..but, how long do people normally live when they have Cirrhosis/Liver failure?

    • ANSWER:
      The timing can be tricky. It depends on how bad he is or how bad he is treated in the hospital. I would fight and fight for the transplant before he is no longer allowed one. When they get too sick they normally think the patient can’t survive and they don’t want to waste a liver on them. Sucks, that happen to my dad after his newer liver started failing. To learn more, I would search it online on Wikipedia.com. When everything was happening to my dad no one would tell us details about his illness and that totally sucked. I only learned once I was in Sonography College in great detail. Good luck it can be a long bumpy ride.

  14. QUESTION:
    My dad has End-stage liver failure (Cirrhosis) and is on Hospice. What can I expect?
    He’s on morphine and his mind is definitely not like it used to be. A social-worker is even suppose to be coming to talk to my brother and I.

    Should I give up hope that my dad is going to make it?
    We are telling him he’s going to be okay :) That we are working on the transplant..and it should be hopefully be soon. Even though we know that there is no liver that is going to come for him.

    • ANSWER:
      It’s going to be a very hard road for you. I just went through this one month ago with my mom. She was also on a morphine pump and her mind was not quite right. Hospice is a wonderful program. The people are excellent-nurses, social workers, volunteers everyone.
      The best advice I can tell you is to listen to your dad’s doctors. If he’s in hospice, he’s probably pretty close to the end, but not always. Hospice is a place for creating peace and allowing the person to live out their last days pain free. Some people go into a hospice house for a little bit and then go home. My mom went back and forth a few times. When it was getting close to the end, they gave us a pamphlet called “Gone from my sight.” I highly suggest that you get a copy of this as it was very accurate. It was very hard to read, hard to think about, hard to function. Everything. Don’t give up hope, but listen with open ears and an open heart and be prepared for whatever will happen, although I know it’s difficult. Losing my mom at 26 has been the hardest thing I’ve ever had to go through. I cried for weeks before she died and for weeks after. Lean on your brother and let him lean on you. You can be support for each other. Without my sister right now, this would be 100% harder. My thoughts are with you and please send me an email if you need help or would like someone to talk to.

  15. QUESTION:
    end stage liver failure?
    my daughter of 38 is dying of end stage liver failure. i feel so guilty that i could have done more for her..whatever we tried she just carried on..i cannot sleep just seeing images of her when she was so beautiful and now reduced to 3 stone.. i do not know how i am gonna cope when she finally dies…how do other people cope.

    • ANSWER:
      Coping with the death of a loved one is always hard. Often you are left with feelings of guilt and anger. This is actually normal. I would recommend you try to get some bereavement counselling for yourself. You cannot fee guilty for still being alive.We alway hope we never die before our children but sometimes fate steps in cruely.
      Just do all that you are doing now which is loving your daughter and being there for her as much as you can.
      Seek comfort and help from your family and friends as i am sure they will want to help and support you too.
      I am sure your daughter knows how much you love her.
      Don’t beat yourself up by thinking you should have done more else that will eat you up and make you ill. Your daughter would not want that for you.

  16. QUESTION:
    end stage liver failure..poss. time frame?
    I know its all in God’s hands yet I’d like an idea of what to expect. After searching the web I have not been able to find enough info.
    My dad I BELIEVE is in end stage liver failure based on his symptoms. I finally got him to go to dr this past wed. but we have to wait 2 weeks for blood results to know for sure we he stands. Anyway he’s an alcoholic with hep c..was diagnosed many years ago w/ cirrohsis. A yr ago he was told only about 2-5% of liver was working(hope I have #’s right) His health has been failing at a rapid pace within the past month, he has pain in abd where liver is, is extremely tired sleeping 15 hrs a day, feet swelling, horrible lower leg cramps and pins/needle feeling in them and hands. HE can barely walk now and has thousands of spider veins on chest, upper back, shoulders, neck and face. No obvious yellowing or ascites. He also is having sporadic sharp pains under left rib/chest and sharp pain in creases of legs by groin. I’ve tried to find stories of ppl that are similar so i know what to expect or look for..I’m so afraid he will slip into a coma before he can see hema dr on july 27th…I NEED SOMEONE TO BE BLUNTLY HONEST WITH ME, only if you have had any kind of experience with someone dying from liver failure, I don’t need someone guessing. So please tell me if based on past experiences, is he close to dying, and if so is it soon or will he make it to see dr on 7/27….Telling him to stop drinking will not work he is at the point that he needs it to function, he shakes so bad, he knows he caused this but now he is scared along with us. Thanks so much in advance if you are able to give me real knowledge on how long he got. i don’t need web links telling me the symptoms of liver disease, I know all that. Basically if you are a DR or lost someone to this disease…Please help!

    • ANSWER:
      I’m sorry that your dad is so sick. I had cirrhosis from an autoimmune disease and had to get a transplant. I’m also a nurse. The blood work is going to tell you that his liver is quite bad, but it’s not going to give you an answer to your question. Since he does not have fluid retention and jaundice, it’s nearly impossible to say how long he will last. Those two symptoms are usually always present at the end, especially the fluid retention. He might stay the way he is now for months, or he could go much quicker if he continues to drink. Anyone that gives you an answer would be guessing, even any doctor who examines him and knows his case. There is no telling exactly how long it could be.

      I know he is very near the end, but it could go on for months, weeks, or he could suddenly get worse and be tomorrow. They usually get so weak they can no longer stand or care for themselves. They often go into a coma. When that happens, it’s just usually a matter of a few days unless they are being tube fed and have IV fluids. It’s not uncommon for them to die of infection when the abdominal fluid can become infected, but your dad has no ascites right now. I would say it is too late for him to stop drinking and try to get a transplant. He is beyond that point now. The symptoms he is having is both from his liver disease along with his alcoholism. Each has their own problems. You got your percentages right about his liver function. I got my transplant when I had 10% function left. I have heard of people still getting along at 5%, but probably not doing too well. As you know, 2% is really serious and the body is just not going to last all that long with so low of function. I don’t know how long, but I doubt it would be more than a few months at best keeping in mind that this is just a guess on my part from my experiences with this disease. He just has so much against him to make his disease progress quicker than most. He is an alcoholic who continues to drink plus has hep C on top of it. Together they make a lethal combination.

  17. QUESTION:
    What is the most common thing for someone with end stage liver disease to die from?
    My father has been diagnosed with end stage liver failure since September 25, 2006 and just yesterday his doctor called me saying that i needed to bring him to the hospital his kidneys are failing and then today he had a heart-attack, his potassium levels are really high too, anyone have any idea how long i have left with my dad?

    • ANSWER:
      You need to speak with his doctors.
      They have all his medical records and also
      his test results. They can give you an
      estimate, based on all this, of how long your
      Dad may have.

      Let me explain what takes place in liver failure.
      There are many different causes of liver
      problems. These causes can damage the
      liver cells. When this happens, the immune
      system of the body responds to this damage and
      can cause inflammation to develop inside the
      liver which will cause the liver to enlarge in
      size. If the cause of the problem can be
      removed, and the inflammation treated…then
      the cells may heal. If this doesn’t take place…
      it can progress to death of the liver cells and
      scar tissue forming inside the liver that blocks
      the flow of blood to any healthy cells that are
      left and also block the flow of blood through
      the liver on its way back to the heart. This disease is then known as cirrhosis of the liver.
      It is progressive and there is no cure.

      The liver handles toxins that come into the
      body, to convert them to a non toxic form.
      The liver is no longer able to do this efficiently and the toxins build up in the blood. The
      kidneys then try to remove these toxins on
      top of the job they normally do. This puts
      added stress on the kidneys and they are next
      in line to go into failure after the liver does.

      With having end stage liver failure, the kidneys
      not functioning well, and the fact of having
      a heart attack…the prognosis is not very good.
      They can try to stablize him…putting him on
      a dialysis machine to help the kidneys function
      better…to bring the electrolytes into balance.
      It will depend on how far advanced he is in
      the end stage liver failure, kidney problems, and how his heart responds to therapy.

      Wish I could be more uplifting…

  18. QUESTION:
    need answers about the final stage of liver failure.?
    We have been told that my father is in the final stage of liver failure. Does anyone know the systoms to look for and about how long he may have to live. His sugar is off the charts and goes in and out of comas and knows him one min and doesnt know where he is the next. He is about 477 lbs and lost 70lbs in the last week. He can’t walk, we think that he has had a mild stroke and his speech is slow. The doctors say that he has less than 2 months to live. Hospice is now taking care of him.
    They put him on Morphine and said that he was in the modeling stage and it would be anytime soon. I stopped the Morphine and then he woke up and is now able to eat but still cant walk. I would like more information about the final stages and what else to look for. Any answers would be welcomed!!! Thank You!!

    • ANSWER:
      The final stages of cirrhosis of the liver
      are very complexed.
      The symptoms you may encounter in
      the last stages are as follows:
      Ascites: this is the build up of fluid in the
      abdominal area. It is caused because
      the liver can no longer accurately make
      a protein known as Albumin which keeps
      the fluid inside our vessels. This fluid
      now seeps out and collects in the abdomen.
      This fluid can be drained by a procedure
      known as paracentesis. It will make the
      patient more comfortable and will be easier
      for them to breathe. However, this fluid
      will return because of this lack of this
      special protein.

      Edema: this is fluid that collects in the legs,
      feet and arms and other areas. It is caused
      because people who have cirrhosis, tend
      to retain lots of sodium. The doctor may
      start them on a lower sodium diet and
      give them diuretics to try to flush out
      the sodium and the benefit of the fluid leaving with it. Because sodium is very
      important in the heart keeping rhythm…the
      doctor has to adjust the level of sodium the
      patient is allowed to take in and also the
      amount of fluid. Do not massage the
      areas that have edema. If a blood clot
      has formed in theses areas, it could
      break off and go into the brain or lung.
      Elevating the legs and feet just slightly
      above heart level is good to do. A
      reclining chair may be the only chair that
      will give some relief to the patient.

      Mal nutrition: Patients who are having problems with the liver, tend to stop eatting.
      This is not good…if the patient cannot eat
      or doesn’t feel like eatting …ask the doctor
      what supplement they may be able to use.
      It is important to see that they are given
      food and the doctor can watch what
      vitamins they should be given.

      Portal Hypertension: The vein that leads
      to the liver from other areas in the abdomen
      and intestines can become blocked or
      the liver will prevent the blood flow through
      the liver now that it is damaged. This
      caused the back up of blood flowing into
      vessels that do not normally carry this
      amount of blood…..therefore as the
      pressure builds up and there may be
      weak spots in these vessels, it is easy to
      bleed internally. If the patient every throws
      up blood or anything that may look like
      coffee grounds…this is a definite emergency.

      Encephalopathy: This is a problem with
      the memory. The toxins that the liver
      can no longer handle, go into the blood.
      They can also pass the blood brain
      barrier and enter into the brain. This
      causes confusion, mental changes,
      attitude changes and may other things.
      It would be best if someone has a power
      of attorney form filled out by the patient
      ahead of time or at least an advanced
      directive. One of the toxins in the brain
      is ammonia that comes from the breakdown
      of proteins our body uses. The liver normally changes this to urea…but since
      these is damage, they may not be able
      to do this. You should ask the doctor
      about what his restrictions are and if
      he should be allowed to drive. If the
      ammonia levels are not treated, it can
      build up until the patient ends up in a
      coma. To help remove this toxin….the
      doctor sometimes prescribes
      Lactalose.

      Anyone who is sick tend to have a higher
      sugar level. However, some drugs…
      like prednisone, can cause a higher level.
      Be sure to tell the doctor all medications
      he is on: over the counter, herbs, herbal
      teas, vitamins, minerals, supplements,
      and medications prescribed by other
      doctors. The reason for this is that
      someone who has liver damage, can
      do more harm by trying to treat themselves.
      Medications go through the liver first to
      be processed before going to the rest of
      the body. This medication now has to
      be adjusted since the body isn’t able
      to handle the drugs the way they used
      to and also to be sure it doesn’t go into
      the toxic range.

      Here are very good links on cirrhosis of
      the liver:

      http://www.emedicinehealth.com/cirrhosis/article_em.htm

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cirrhosis/DS00373

      I hope this information helps you.
      Here is a link to a transplant site that
      is very good to inform the patient

      http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/hep/patientguide/index.html

      We have a support group that can answer
      questions you may have….there are
      people here with the disease, some who
      have lost loved ones to this disease and
      others who have had transplants. You
      are welcome to join…
      The group is free and this is a very friendly
      place.

      http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/livercirrhosissupport/?tab=s

  19. QUESTION:
    Does anyone have any experience with liver transplants when the patient has lupus?
    A friend of mine is in end-stage liver failure due to cirrhosis. He is on a liver transplant list. He has lupus. How effective would a liver transplant actually be with the presence of lupus?

    • ANSWER:
      The doctors would not have put him on the list if there was no hope that it would work.

      Lupus patients do get transplants sometimes, and do well.

      The medication that prevents rejection also calms the lupus. I have not had a transplant but I take Cellcept, an anti rejection med, for lupus kidney disease. The Cellcept has not only allowed me to keep my kidneys, but reduced most of the other manifestations of lupus.

      The point is, no one can predict the success of a transplant, with or without lupus. But the alternative is certain and that is death. With that knowledge, I would take the chance on the transplant.

      Best wishes.

  20. QUESTION:
    If someone has de compensating cirrhosis, about how long do they have to live without a liver transplant?
    My husband has cirrhosis. His abdomen is distended, he has jaundice, pain in the abdomen, and most of the other symptoms of end stage liver failure. No one has given us an idea of how much longer he will be with us. We have no insurance, and he only quit drinking 2 months ago, so even if we had money they would not give him a transplant.

    • ANSWER:
      If you are low income, you might qualify for state aid regarding insurance. It would be a guess at best as to how long your husband might have left. A hepatologist or gastroenterologist would be able to give you a somewhat accurate prognosis as to how long. Sometimes people with cirrhosis can go a long time with getting tapped (fluid drained) and treating the symptoms as they appear.

      The pain is probably due to all the fluid retention. If he gets to the point of not being able to breathe right, get him to an emergency room right away. That happened to me when I let the fluid accumulate for too long. It starts squeezing the lungs and everything else. If left untreated, it can be fatal. There is also the risk of the fluid becoming infected which also can be fatal. If he needs tapped, take him to a hospital whether or not you have insurance.

      You don’t say how old your husband is or whether or not a transplant might be an option for him if he did have insurance. The transplant centers require 6 months of proven sobriety before they will consider him. There is a procedure called TIPS that is done that can help control fluid accumulation.

      When the liver is near total failure, the person is usually extremely weak and tired. It’s common for them to sleep 16 hours/day or even more. Of course they also have the hard bloated abdomen and jaundice. They usually get to the point of not being able to care for themselves any longer due to weakness. Due to the liver not being able to get rid of ammonia like it should, the levels become high which causes confusion, behavior changes, forgetfulness, and even can cause hallucinations and they can become violent. Lactulose is the med used to help this, but near the end it may not help.

      Your husband is really going to need some kind of insurance more than anything else right now. He is going to need medical care to help him through this. If he had insurance, he could at least be evaluated for a transplant. The husband of a friend of mine was an alcoholic who recently had a transplant and he is doing good today. We thought he was going to die. He got through the 6 months of waiting and got listed. Of course, he cannot drink any alcohol for the rest of his life and he understands that. Some people just can’t or won’t give it up long term.

  21. QUESTION:
    What are the final symptoms in end stage liver failure?
    My father was diagnosed with Hep-C which has caused severe cirrhosis. He is not a candidate for a transplant because of pulmonary hypertension (most likely caused by the sanding of toxic woods – he was a cabinet maker). He is on oxygen, has acites, takes lactulose and lasix/diuretics, sleeps for about 15-18 hrs a day, can hardly walk, trembles and is in pain. He was diagnosed about 1 month ago (because he was too stubborn to go to the hospital) and has rapidly been declining since. I am very sad for my mother, she feeds him all the right foods and takes care of him according to his GI/cardiologist/pulmonologist. Does anyone have experience with a loved one who has died from liver failure? Any experiences with respect to a time frame and the final symptoms before death?

    • ANSWER:
      You wrote, “Does anyone have experience with a loved one who has died from liver failure?”

      Sadly, yes, my Mom. She was diagnosed with some liver disease or other and lived for many years after that, but then, at the end, she just started failing rather quickly.

      It started with her being very weak and confused, which was followed by a swollen, distended stomach, called “ascites” and more confusion as she lost her faculties, kind of like Alzheimer’s but on fast-forward, and she finally lapsed into a coma and passed away a few weeks later, coincidentally on the exact same day that my Dad had died, only ten years earlier! We think that she must have known somehow and was waiting for that day so that she could go on the same day he did.

      I’m very sorry for your troubles, I went through it with my Mom and wouldn’t wish it on anyone, to see your loved one slipping away like that, it was just heart-wrenching.

      Good luck!… ☺

  22. QUESTION:
    I have mild cirrhosis of the liver, What is my prognosis?
    I was admitted to hospital with a gastric bleed in January this year, they were not sure where the bleed was. I had two esophageal varices banded and are now gone.I also suffered hepatic encephalopathy, ascites and oedema which have all cleared up now. An ultrasound test showed some liver scarring and liver function tests were still abnormal after 8 months. I am not in end stage liver failure but what is the prognosis?

    • ANSWER:
      You don’t say what has caused your cirrhosis which is very important for me to answer your question correctly. I don’t believe you have mild cirrhosis from what you say about your symptoms. My liver was 90% destroyed with cirrhosis and I didn’t have all your symptoms so I think your liver disease is more advanced than you think. This is my own personal opinion, but I would say your prognosis wasn’t good and you will eventually need to get a transplant. When you have mild cirrhosis, it is asymptomatic which means you have no symptoms that anything is wrong. Since you were able to get your symptoms under control with treatment and meds, that means your cirrhosis is “compensated” which is stage B of cirrhosis. When the treatments and meds start to not work so well at controlling symptoms, that means it is “decompensated” and total liver failure is near.

      I had cirrhosis and even with my liver being 90% destroyed with scar tissue, I still was able to control my symptoms all the way up till my transplant. I had primary biliary cirrhosis which means my autoimmune system attacks the bile ducts inside my liver. I had varices banded too and got them checked every 3-6 months. I never had enceph. By the time any symptoms appear physically with cirrhosis, the disease is usually pretty far advanced.

      If your cirrhosis is caused by alcohol abuse, then you need to stop drinking ALL alcohol. If you don’t, drinking on top of having cirrhosis no matter how mild it might be is like adding gasoline to a fire. It only gets worse much quicker.

  23. QUESTION:
    Stage 4 liver failure, high ammonia levels, cirrhosis, death?
    A 59 year-old alcoholic/drug addict (recovering) is in the ICU with stage 4 liver failure and high ammonia levels, the toxins in his bloods are starting to poison him and he is confused. This is one of multiple hospitalizations due to cirrhosis/liver issues.

    …What does this mean? Is there a chance this man will live?
    It’s my Uncle. He has been drinking for nearly 40 years and smoking dope for almost 30. When he found out he had Hep C a few years ago, he tried to get sober, but um, it hasn’t been going real well, he just earned his one month sobriety medallion in AA.

    • ANSWER:

  24. QUESTION:
    How will I know when its the last 6 months of his life left because of liver failure?
    My brother has been diagnosed with end stage liver failure. Hes had esophageal varicese, TIPS procedure, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites, every symptoms I read he has it. He has stopped drinking for over three months now. Hes been on lactolose and he forgets to take it at times. Recently hes more confused, sleeps more can’t wake up, disoriented, confused, personality and behavioral changes. Hes been in ER numerous times. For the sake of sanity and finding peace and comfort for my family. How much time does he have left?

    • ANSWER:
      You need to ask his liver doctor this question or the doctor that is treating his cirrhosis. It does sound like he is very close to it being total liver failure, but it’s anyones guess as to how much time he has left. It could be weeks, months, or even a year. I doubt that it will be more than a year from what you say. It’s so sad for your family that your brother could not stop drinking and now it will be fatal for him.

      I know at the very end they sleep most of the time, are very confused, yellow skin and eyes, bloated hard abdomen (TIPS might alleviate this problem some), easily bruises and usually has mutiple hospital visits with one crisis or another before it finally comes to the end. Taking the lactulose and making sure he takes it should help the confusion some, but having the TIPS procedure done will contribute to him having encephalopathy which causes the confusion. It just goes in circles sometimes. They also become very weak and unable to care for themselves. I know this has to be rough on his family. He should qualify for hospice care which can help a lot if he stays at home. If this might be an option for him, I think it might help your family to check into it. My heart goes out to you.

  25. QUESTION:
    Hi folks. I have a question concerning end stage liver failure.?
    would anyone who’s had any experience wih this disease please tell me what to expect?
    I’m very scared and concerned.
    It’s my husband who’s at home..(we only got married in March) and the doctors wanted him to go to palliative(sp)? care.
    He…we felt that being home is the most benificial to our wants and happiness.
    I’d want that for myself if I were in the same situation.
    Anyway…could someone tell me what to expect?
    The hospital people didn’t tellme much other than bleeding.
    I’d rather have someone in the world who’s had experience with another human with the same disease tell me their experience.
    Much appreciation in advance for any help.
    Thank you Baa Baa.
    i’m happy to know you are alive and well!’
    My husband has liver cirrossis and we’ve been told that he has a 75% chance of dying in the next three months.
    He’s been out of the hospital for 10 days now.
    We live in Toronto , Canada, and there’s no option to have a transplant here and no money to get one in the states.
    Drugs and booze over 30 years, (he’s 49…50 on May 23!) and it seems very bleak.

    He’s very weak and sleeps so much!
    I just wanted to ask another human about their experiences and I thank you so very much for responding and for your kind words.
    the docs say…”You’ve a fatal disease”.
    He’s also had encefalopathy…(sp)? due to an infection of the stomach which has cleared.
    Keep on keeping on dear!
    You’ve made my day!

    And all the meds you’ve mentioned, he’s taken for about 6 months now.
    In Canada, a nurse will show up through the government for free, and all that’s ok.
    I thank you again for all of your information and care.
    Bless you and be well.
    Lea Rosier.

    • ANSWER:
      I wish you would have given a little more detail so I could possibly help you more. I need to know what is causing his liver failure in the first place. I had end stage liver disease and a liver transplant. I’m going to assume the failure is due to something like cirrhosis and not cancer. Email me if it is different. End stage liver failure is really not a disease, but a condition. There has to be a reason what led up to this condition.

      The most common symptoms of liver failure are fluid retention especially in the abdomen, yellow skin and whites of the eyes called jaundice which occurs due to high biliruben levels, internal bleeding is always a risk since unwanted veins called varices form which can leak and burst when they become weak and large, extreme fatigue, confusion, behavior changes, and even hallucinations when ammonia levels get high. Easy to bruise along with blood not clotting well is also a problem. Physical symptoms of liver failure do not show up most of the time until the disease is far advanced. I had no clue anything was wrong with me until I suddenly swelled up with fluid in my abdomen and found out 90% of my liver was already destroyed by cirrhosis. I have an autoimmune disease which caused mine.

      There are treatments and medications that can help control the symptoms. Diuretics such as Lasix and Spironolactone are commonly used diuretics to control fluid retention. There is a procedure done with an endoscope called “banding” which can greatly reduce the risk of bleeding internally. I used to have an endoscopy done every 3-6 months. Lactulose is used to keep the ammonia levels down. It is used for constipation, but will cause loose stools bordering on diarrhea which gets rid of ammonia. Not pleasant, but it does help with high ammonia levels that can lead to a condition called encephalopathy.

      As the liver failure gets worse, so do the symptoms. Eventually the medications and treatments no longer work and total liver failure is close. The person typically becomes weaker and unable to care for themselves along with all the symptoms I described. I’m sorry to hear your husband is so sick. I assume he is not a candidate to receive a transplant for some reason. I was fortunate enough to get a transplant myself which saved my life 5 years ago. You have a tough road ahead of you and my heart goes out to you. You don’t say what symptoms he already has regarding his liver failure, so I don’t know if he is close to total failure or not. End stage liver failure sounds very bad, but the term is used pretty loosely in describing liver failure. It the person has at least some cirrhosis, it is called “end stage liver disease.” If it is just a small amount of cirrhosis that is present, the person could live quite a while before total failure occurs. Hope this helps you some. You can also email me through yahoo answers if you have any other questions.

  26. QUESTION:
    What is the average life expectancy for someone with liver failure?
    Someone I know who recovered from stage 3 breast cancer, and has naropothy, type 2 diabetes, and an unhealthy diet was called by her doctor at 8:30 sat morning to be told that she would need to get dialysis because her liver is failing.
    Can you donate half your liver to someone? I would give her mine if I were a match. I just don’t know if it would save her or just prolong the inevitable.

    • ANSWER:
      Your friend will need to get an evaluation done at a transplant center to find out if she would qualify to receive a transplant and whether or not it might be an option for her. They will not accept her for transplant unless they feel the surgery would greatly benefit her and save her life. If she was accepted, you could then discuss with her doctors and transplant coordinator your offer to donate to her. Before making your offer, I suggest you educate yourself as to what is involved in donating a part of your liver to her. It’s a very serious surgery that needs serious consideration. You have to be in excellent health, have a compatible blood type, and be similar in body size plus pass an evaluation in order to donate to anyone.

      I think it’s very giving of you to even consider doing such a wonderful thing. Take it a step at a time and first find out where she stands on getting a transplant at all first, then take it from there. She may need both a liver and kidney transplant from what information you have given.

  27. QUESTION:
    Does a dogs liver regenerate like a human liver does?
    thanks,
    my dog has a very early stage of liver failure.

    Breed: Jack russel Terrier
    Age: 11yrs 5 months
    vet suggested we see a dog specialist about this, she also has anemia, we are trying to find out why she still has this, she also has an auto immune disease. she is reproducing red blood cells, bone marrow is good, what could be causing this?

    • ANSWER:
      YES!!!

      The liver has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury and to adjust its size to match its host. Within a week after partial hepatectomy, which, in typical experimental settings entails surgical removal of two-thirds of the liver, hepatic mass is back essentially to what it was prior to surgery.

      When the liver from a large dog is transplanted into a small dog, it loses mass until it reaches the size appropriate for a small dog.

      Hepatocytes or fragments of liver transplanted in extrahepatic locations remain quiescent but begin to proliferate after partial hepatectomy of the host.

      These types of observations have prompted considerable research into the mechanisms responsible for hepatic regeneration, because understanding the processes involved will likely assist in treatment of a variety of serious liver diseases and may have important implications for certain types of gene therapy.

      Partial hepatectomy leads to proliferation of all populations of cells within the liver, including hepatocytes, biliary epithelial cells and endothelial cells. DNA synthesis is initiated in these cells within 10 to 12 hours after surgery and essentially ceases in about 3 days. Cellular proliferation begins in the periportal region (i.e. around the portal triads) and proceeds toward the centers of lobules. Proliferating hepatocytes initially form clumps, and clumps are soon transformed into classical plates. Similarly, proliferating endothelial cells develop into the type of fenestrated cells typical of those seen in sinusoids.

  28. QUESTION:
    My friend has been told she has reached the terminal stage of liver failure. wondering how much time?
    she is jaundiced, skin and especially eyes. She looks like a walking skeleten except for her belly which looks about 5 months pregnant. she is tired and weak but so far is able to eat and drink. she has itching and she has periods of confusion and forgetfulness and seems shaky. would like some idea as to how long she may have?? she is in a nursing home after being discharged from the hospital. due to alcoholism she has really no where to go if she ends up being discharged from the nursing home. I am not sure if we are talking weeks or months??? How can you tell. so far all I have been told that all nurses and doctors seem to agree upon is that her liver is shot but noone seems able to tell me where we stand or how much time we are talking about. she has twin 3yr olds and this is a very sad time for all of us.
    Unfortunately she was not able to stop drinking and drank right up to her hospital admission last week. She has known she had cirrhosis for at least 5years and she knew she was progressing towards liver failure for at least a year but she was just not able to stop drinking. We made many attempts to help her and set her up in rehab, but each and every time she returned to drinking rather than stick with any of the programs. Her twins have been with me for the past year and a half and basically consider me their mother as they have had little contact with their birth mother. Obviously she is not eligble for transplant consideration at this time because she does not have the required amount of sobriety. I am very saddened, I tried so hard to get her to realize what she was doing and stop before it was too late but I fear that it is now too late. I have to say she has shown some improvement in strength this week but still is very run down and she forgets things. She has improved in t

    • ANSWER:
      You say this woman is young enough to have twin 3 year olds and did not work towards getting a liver transplant earlier than this which would have saved her life? There are extra requirements for someone who has liver failure from alcoholism, but it is not impossible to do. I know several alcoholics who have had successful transplants and doing fine today. The first requirement is that they detox for 6 months and enter into a rehab or counseling to address their drinking problem. After that, they can get evaluated to receive a transplant. They must have a complete lifestyle change and remain sober the rest of their life. They HAVE to stop drinking all alcohol before and after the transplant. Did she even try to straighten out her life and get one?

      She can die really anytime or it take a lot longer maybe up to a year but highly doubtful it will be that long. Her condition will keep getting increasingly worse until she can no longer do anything for herself. She could have a major infection or even get a massive internal bleeding crisis at anytime that would end her life. My guess would be a few months, but that is just a guess, nothing else. No one knows for sure, but she is rather close with the condition you described she is in. She has all the classic signs of end stage liver failure, but the disease is very slow.

      I do feel sorry for her twins. Such a tragedy that the mother picked alcohol over her children.

  29. QUESTION:
    Liver chirrohsis stage 4, kidney failure, ascites taps every 2 weeks & hep c, how long ?

    • ANSWER:
      GOD HELP YOU you must be at hospital now stick to what your doctors say you may need operation it is save transplantion is the only solution

  30. QUESTION:
    End stage liver/ cyrosis symptons and characteristics?
    Does anyone have any insight or suggestions for dealing with someone in end stage liver failure. My mother is lathargic, memory loss, hallucinating, jumpy, dark circles around eyes, paranoid. She won’t sleep, crying, lauging all over the place. can’t be left alone but we don’t want to put her in a nursing home. has anyone else had a family member like this? if so how do you handle it?

    • ANSWER:
      It is best to try to understand what is happening
      in this disease and why…then it will be easier for
      a caregiver to take care of the patient.

      Encephalopathy is a condition where the patient
      becomes easily confused, disoriented, has sleep
      pattern changes, changes in personality, tremors
      or flapping of hands, and other things. It is caused
      because the liver can no longer convert ammonia
      (which is a by product of the body using proteins)
      into urea anymore. It stays in the blood and passes
      the blood brain barrier and goes into the brain to cause
      this. The doctor can prescribe a drug, like Lactulose
      to help remove some of the ammonia. If this
      is not treated with medications, the patient can end
      up in a coma. This condition is quite common in
      patients who have Cirrhosis of the liver and is
      diagnosed as being in the end stages.

      Another thing to watch for is Portal Hypertension.
      When the cells of the liver start to die off, it forms
      scar tissue inside the liver that blocks the flow
      of blood through the liver on its way back to the
      heart and also blocks the flow of blood to the
      other liver cells…so they continue to die off.
      Since the blood cannot go through the liver,
      it backs up into the Portal vein that normally
      brings the blood to the liver. This is known
      as Portal Hypertension. The pressure of this
      blood in the portal vein, pushes the blood into
      smaller vessels not used to handling this amount
      of blood (known as Varies). These vessels have
      weak spots in them that can balloon outward and
      break open. This is then a medical emergency if
      a patient starts to throw up any kind of blood or
      has blood in the toilet from rectally bleeding.
      Patients with Cirrhosis, the liver doesn’t make
      clotting factors efficiently anymore that helps the
      blood to clot…therefore, they bleed and bruise
      very easily. Any bleeding can cause them to
      bleed out completely or bleed internally.
      Therefore it is an emergency. The doctor can
      then go in and band these vessels to stop the
      bleeding if the patient gets there in time.

      Another thing that occurs with patients with
      Cirrhosis is fluid building up in the abdominal
      area. This is known as Ascites. It is because
      the liver can no longer make a protein that
      holds fluids inside our vessels, known as
      Albumin. This fluid now leaks out and collects
      here. This fluid can cause such pressure in
      the abdominal area that it pushes against other
      organs and also up against the diaphragm
      making it difficult to breathe. She may not
      feel much like eatting and she may have
      difficulty breathing. The doctor can remove
      this fluid by a procedure known as paracentesis.
      If she cannot eat, it is good to ask the doctor
      what supplements she can have.
      Fluid build up can also occur in the legs and
      feet and other places. This is because
      Cirrhosis patients tend to hold onto too much
      sodium. The doctor will place them on a
      “lower” sodium diet (this has to be watched
      closely on her lab blood tests…as sodium
      has to stay in a certain range to help the heart
      beat in rhythm). He may also give her diuretics.
      Never massage the legs when they are swelled…
      it can loosen a blood clot if one has formed there.
      It is best to elevate the legs so this helps relieve
      the pressure there. The doctor should tell you
      how much sodium and Fluids she is allowed to
      have per day.

      You may be able to get in touch with the Area
      of the AGing in your area. They are a big help
      to those who are disabled and the elderly.

      I’m going to give you more links about Cirrhosis,
      so you can learn more about it. I am also giving
      you links about transplantation and advance
      directives. It is very important that a member
      of the family is appointed by her to handle all
      her affairs and also speak directly with her doctors.
      The privacy laws are horrible to deal with even for
      family members. If the doctor has the form given
      to them…then they won’t hold information from the
      family back.

      If she gets to the point that the doctor believes
      she may have only 6 months to live and she isn’t
      evaluated for transplantation…you might want to
      consider Hospice. They will come in and talk
      with the family and see what your needs are
      for her and to help you.

      Here are some links:
      Cirrhosis:

      http://www.medicinenet.com/cirrhosis/article.htm

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cirrhosis/DS00373

      http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/cirrhosis.htm

      http://www.hepctrust.org.uk/The+Liver/End+stage+liver+disease/

      Transplantation:

      http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/hep/patientguide/index.html

      http://www.transplantliving.org/

      Advanced directive:

      http://www.caringinfo.org/stateaddownload

      She should be with either a
      gastroenterologist or hepatologist now.

      I hope this information is of some help to you.
      Best wishes to your Mom and your whole family.
      This disease is hard to deal with…but, it usually
      brings families alot closer together.

  31. QUESTION:
    Why can’t I donate part of my liver to my dad?
    My dad has Cirrhosis of the liver and we will be very lucky to have him around for Christmas. He’s in the End-stage of Liver failure.

    Why can’t I donate some of my liver if I was a match? Why wouldn’t that help him?
    A doctor did say no one could give him part of a liver, but I forget for what reason. My grandmother had told me and but I have so much on me, I forgot :(

    I just don’t understand why it can’t be done.

    • ANSWER:
      have you asked his doctors if you could get tested to see if you are a match and healthy enough to donate?
      if not then ask them. if so and they said you couldn’t what ever reason they gave you is the reason you can’t.

      *EDIT*
      well tomorrow ask someone that knows (such as your grandmother) to re explain it to you.
      then you will understand cuz they will tell you why you can’t.
      then so you don’t forget again right it down.
      and i hope your dad gets a liver somehow. and i’m sure god will take care of him and help all of you recover from this whole situation.
      good luck and god bless i’ll be thinking of your father.

  32. QUESTION:
    Death by alcohol induced liver disease – what happens in the final moments?
    A 38 year old woman I know has just died of alcoholism, after various stays in hospital. Her last stay of 10 weeks ended with the disease getting the better of her. According to mutual friends, she spent her last moments convulsing – and now I am completely haunted by these images. What happens to the body in these final stages of liver and kidney failure?

    • ANSWER:
      actually, in most cases end stage liver disease causes the person to enter into a coma like stage. they usually are not aware of what is happening after this stage is present.

      as for convulsing….sometimes this happens as the body has already died. it is simply the nerves reacting.

      as far as the disease progression -with liver disease is that the toxins the liver is unable to filter will cause kidney failure and in turn the chemical buildup in the blood will cause severe bloating-so much that the skin seeps fluid. this is when the body enters the coma stage. during the release of fluids, the person is alternating between the coma like state and awareness stages.

      your friend did not feel a thing.

      i hope this puts your mind at ease.

  33. QUESTION:
    my father started out with liver cancer, he was given a dye in xray now he has renal failure, did dye cause?
    he has stage 4 liver cancer, and no problem with kidneys. He was taken to xray and given a dye the next day he was going through renal failure, do you think the dye cause this. The Dr. wont give me a straight answer.

    • ANSWER:
      The dye is only used to show a pathway, if you will, or to highlight certain areas they are interested in. No, it’s doubtful that the dye caused renal failure. He is in stage 4 liver cancer, I’m so sorry he’s going through this. I wish him the best. Be blessed, all of you.
      ADD I read Barbara’s answer. I think what happened to the person she is talking about was a severe allergic reaction to the dye which is very possible. A lot of people are allergic to the dye and can have that reaction and there are no test to see if allergies to these dyes exist. I still don’t believe your father’s renal failure is due to the dye.

  34. QUESTION:
    Is there a protocol to be put on a liver transplant list.?
    I have stage 3 level 3 liver failure.

    • ANSWER:
      There is an evaluation process that a person goes through to be placed on the
      list. They will have much testing done and
      be seen by doctors to determine their
      mental and physical conditions according
      to what caused the disease in the first place.
      They take into account how you acquired the disease, your other medical conditions,
      your willingness of being compliant with
      what they tell you to do and the medication
      to be taken after the operation, whether you
      will have family support or someone who
      can help you after the operation, and whether you are truly sincere to do whatever
      it take to go on living and won’t harm the organ given to you in the process.
      Here is a site from one of the transplant centers that will explain the steps and
      process of the transplant much better.

      http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/hep/patientguide/index.html

      This site is especially for those wanting a
      transplant. At the top heading you can choose from the drop down list under each
      heading where you want info. There is a section here about how to go about getting on the list.

      http://www.transplantliving.org/

      This is the main site of transplantation which
      deals directly with those that have control of
      organs going to the patients that need them
      UNOS: or United network of organ sharing

      http://www.unos.org/

      Usually a primary care physician will refer
      you to either an gastroenterologist that
      deals with the whole digestive system or
      a hepatologist that specializes in the liver.
      They will do testing to determine the cause
      of your disease..which usually start with
      the non invasive and moves to the most
      invasive which is a liver biopsy and the
      best test to tell them the most. The main
      thing they look for is how long a patient can
      live without having a transplant and his
      wanting to live and also if they are able physically to withstand a long surgery of anywhere from 6 to 14 hours,without dying on the table.

      It is best to have a doctor who is connected in some way to the transplant team that will do the transplant. You can find one by
      typing the name of your state you live in and
      then the words: Transplant Center. It will
      list those transplant centers that are close
      to you and many of them have web sites
      that tell you their staff there. OR the doctor
      may recommend one that he knows is good.

      Most patients are told, that if they are
      diagnosed with cirrhosis, to stress they
      want placement on the list…even if it means
      being placed near the bottom of the list
      because they are considered to be fairly
      healthy. This is because no one knows for
      sure how fast this disease will progress till
      they actually need a transplant and they
      will have time to become familiar with the
      doctors there, the facilities, work out
      insurance problems, learn more about the
      disease and be treated more efficiently
      for symptoms that may occur. They will
      even be able to have the evaluation process
      of testing done on an outpatient basis, instead of being admitted into the hospital in liver failure and then going through it there.

      I hope this information is of some help to you.
      There is a group of people on the web
      known as the Liver Cirrhosis Support Group
      that are very caring people. There is caregivers here, patients with all different
      reasons they have this disease, and those
      who have lost loved ones to this disease.
      They have links posted and are willing to
      help anyone with questions. If you don’t
      want to post, you don’t have to…just stay
      in the background and read.
      Here is a link to this group…it is free to join:

      http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/livercirrhosissupport/

  35. QUESTION:
    Lowering bilirubin levels w/ liver failure?
    My younger sister, age 32 is suffering from Stage 4 metastatic breast cancer with liver failure. Her bilirubin level is a 9, has been at a 9 for 3 weeks, and has recently gone off taking an antidepressant that we found out was very bad for patients w/ liver failure. She is taking a lot of pain meds, and is being monitored by her onc on the side w/ home hospice care. Is there ANY POSSIBLE WAY to lower a bilirubin level? Herbal or otherwise? I know there is “no scientific evidence” for herbal remedies, but I am open to suggestions because we are running out of time.

    I ask this because if she can get her bili level down to a 3 or less, she will be accepted in Phase 2 of a clinical trial for immunotherapy. She is so young, we are praying for a miracle.

    • ANSWER:
      I am so sorry to hear about this, I really am..

      I wish I knew enough to do some proper research about this.

      The only drug I have found is called “ursodiol” but I am not sure if it applies for this situation. It is indicated for primary biliary cirrhosis.

      By all means though, do ask your doctors about it ASAP, as it may work…

      I do not know about any herbal remedies, but you can ask someone specialised in alternative or chinese herbal medicine. Just make SURE to check with the “real” doctor first- as long as they do not contain substances that may worsen or interfere with her other medications, you should try it..

      I will say prayer for her tonight.

  36. QUESTION:
    liver transpants?
    why would a 39 yr old pt w/end stage liver failure w/a history of alcohol abuse ,hepatitis c,smoker,and no family or friends recieve a liver transplant over a 70 yr old male w/end stage liver failure who also needs a liver transplant and who has a 60 yr old wife 5 children and 8 grandchildren. why would the 39 yr old get the transplant than the other?

    • ANSWER:
      Because he has alot of life left in him, and I’m sure he’s seen his ways.

  37. QUESTION:
    what will happen to my mother who cant do anything and is in a nursing home. I so worried?
    she has had 2 strokes and some amputees on her feet she cant walk or for that matter really stand up unassisted . I am her daughter and i also am terminal i have stage 4 end stage liver failure due to a drug they put me on for my diabetes it killed some people but i fell into the severely damaged category and should have died in 2006.

    • ANSWER:

  38. QUESTION:
    What causes the rotting beer smell on some alcoholics and not others?
    I dated someone who was an alcoholic. They never had a “smell” before, but in the last year of are relationship they started to reek of decomposing beer. (I only know that it was decomposing beer because my ex left a half-empty can at my house and I dumped it on my compost pile and two days later my compost pile smelled like them.) The smell would sometimes be so bad that I would have to turn on a fan after my ex had left to get the smell out of my room. I am just curious, did my ex start metabolizing it differently (switched to a vegetarian diet around last January) or is their body starting to have problems breaking down the alcohol, like the beginning stages of liver failure? I am very curious because I although I have known alcoholics, I have never known one who smelled like rotten beer. My ex had good hygiene, wore deodorant . . .etc, but this smell permeated everything, it was almost as if it were inside them, their breath, their skin, everything.

    • ANSWER:
      It’s the alcohol coming out her pours. I’m going to send you some links so you know more about what is happening to her.

      www.alcoholism.about.com/
      www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/alcoholism.html
      www.mayoclinic.com/health/alcoholism
      www.emedicinehealth.com
      www.niaaa.nih.gov/

      These all have information that you could benefit from. Information, Q & A dealing with it. Good luck.

      I hope this helps you.

  39. QUESTION:
    In Liver Cleansing diets…for Canines?
    In liver Cleanseing/repair diets, One of the ingrediants is Milk thistle.
    Various Recipes use it, My question is if the recipe calls for it. Do i mix it with the main batch of food, or do i give the doses out per feeding or once a day, along with the Multi-vitamin ( infants ) do i put it with each feeding or just in the main batch after the food has been prepared?????
    This is a regiment I am trying for a 7yr old Chiuhauha in mid to late stage Liver Failure, I am trying to extend is quality of life, and hope for some liver healing by lowering the toxins that are present atm.

    • ANSWER:
      Add any supplements just before you are about to give the dog the food.

      Mix it in well and try to feed you dog the very best you can to try and help the quality of life.

      Take a look at the www.barfworld.com website for more information about feeding a naturally healthy raw food diet which is the easiest food for a dog to process. processed dog foods are the cause of a lot of the illnesses found in dogs today and you can help by giving him/her only the best. (always use human grade and not pet food)

      Info on the evils of processed dog food can be found at :

      http://www.thedogbowl.com/PPF/category_ID/37/dogbowl.asp

      I wish you all the best and I hope that your efforts will be rewarded with a happy healthy dog that will continue to bring you love and happiness for many years to come.

      If you have any questions about feedin a BARF diet please message me and I will help you in any way I can.

      ADD:

      A quick comment to the looser below Renz Lopera – You are a twit! Why would you copy my answer and post it Verbatim? Can’t you manage to come up with anything original.. Obviously you have nothing to add so stop being an arse!

  40. QUESTION:
    How does alcoholism physically kill?
    I know this is a very sensitive subject to many, so i apologize if I upset anyone.
    For various reasons, I would really like to know what the final stages of liver failure is like. Pretty much, as when someone is dying from alcoholism (liver failure i believe) what would the last few weeks be like. When does jaundice start, is it painful, are they very conscious and lucid? I apologize for asking such a morbid question.

    • ANSWER:
      The liver quits filtering the toxins out of the blood stream and all these toxins get deposited into the skin which can cause severe itching. The skin often turns green during the end stages of liver failure. The abdomen bloats because of ascites which in turn causes difficulty breathing. This is a long, painful, difficult way to diet. You can go to WebMd.com and type in liver failure for more information on this subject. People can be conscious up until their last few hours but every person is different.

  41. QUESTION:
    my mother went into hospital on 30th dec 2008, 2wks ago we were told she was in the end stage of liver disease?
    she went into hospital as a result of blood loss on 30th dec o8, 1 week later she lost the ability to feed herself, walk unaided, her mobility all went, her legs were badly swollen, her cognitive ability declined, she became weepy and agitated. we were told her liver was badly affected, next came the fluid around her stomach, 2 weeks ago we were told she was in the end stages of liver failure, she is very weepy at times aggressive, some days she is jaundiced, she is now confined to bed in hospital, her breathing is heavy, her eyes sometimes yellow!! she is getting vitamins via iv, now they say they can do no more and take her home, that she will die!! her condition has progressed rapidly since dec!!

    Anyone out there experienced anything like this, or how long she will suffer, each day from 1pm to 5pm she will smile and goes back to her childhood as if it is happening now, she is suffering bot the docs cant say for how long.

    • ANSWER:
      I don’t know anything about that but I would just like to say that I’m sorry. I hope all your affairs are in order and I hope everything is right where your mother wants them to be (the bad relationships have ended, people start talking, etc.). Give her something like a charm bracelet in which all of her children buy a charm for her. The charms should symbolize her children-something personal and cute. Her husband should give her a necklace. You guys need to tell her that she raised you guys well and that you’ve learned so much from her and her parenting. Tell her that she’ll always live in your heart, that pictures of her, your dad, and your family will always exist and be present in your house(s) and office(s), etc…, and if true, that you’ll name your kid after her. Anything that assures her that she might be physically gone but she actually will live forever. If you have a family, tell her about them.

  42. QUESTION:
    What can I expect regarding stage 4 breast cancer that has spread to the liver?
    My friend went to the hospital due to jaundice/liver failure. We thought she had hepatitis but it turns out it was breast cancer. I know her prognosis isn’t good, and that there’s no cure for her situation, but is there a reasonable chance she may overcome the immediate liver failure crisis and live in better health than her current bedridden state for a little while? Or is she going to be terribly ill from now on?

    • ANSWER:
      I’m sorry to hear that, and it sounds bad. A HUGE part of it depends on how long she wants to live. If she doesn’t want to fight, she won’t last long, but she could over come it, not easily, but it’s possible. Find a support book about cancer if you’ve never had to deal with cancer, and attempt to relate. I had to learn the hard way. My mom is healed now but she was diagnosed with Colon cancer, and I – her son was/am her primary care taker. If she decides to fight back you need to make sure that you are with her, and that you also show a great appreciation to the care taker, because it is one of the hardest jobs, and most thankless jobs on the face of the planet.

  43. QUESTION:
    my friend is in ICU with liver failure. Why are they talking rehab,his liver is not functioning. Will he die?
    He is a stage 3 alcoholic with no insurance, swollen abdomen, jaundice, disorientation, all of the major symptoms of liver failure. They are keeping him in ICU due to low sodium, but his enzymes are still off the chart. They are talking rehab, I find this ludicrous…isn’t he in for a very painful death. I need a little help here in understanding how you can function without a liver…you can’t! So why are the Drs not telling us this? Any help would be greatly appreciated…God Bless

    • ANSWER:
      becoz the alcohol rehabilitation is essential ,they are stabilizing his condition means he aint cirrhotic or in liver failure ,he stops alcohol he still has a chance his liver can compensate and whats left undamaged is able of giving yet,his current condition sounds good they mean and his biggest problem is drinking

  44. QUESTION:
    stage 4 liver disease?
    a friend of mine was diagnosed a couple of years ago with cirrhosis of the liver caused by a fatty liver. now she is in stage 4 liver failure. what does this mean?

    • ANSWER:
      It is the “end stage” of liver failure, meaning that a liver transplant may very well be required.

      I’m sorry that happened to your friend. But don’t give up hope.

  45. QUESTION:
    Is Liver healthy for dog liver?
    My dog is at the beginning of liver failure. He is pretty old so liver failure at the beginning stages was actually good news. Better than advanced illness. Anyway, he’s having appetite problems as well -connected to the liver problems. The vet said that he has old teeth and we should stop feeding him hey dry stuff. So, I thought to myself I should cook for him. I’ve heard it’s easier to give balanced and good nutrition to dogs by cooking for the yourself. So, I was thinking liver might be something good for him. Is it?

    • ANSWER:
      It is, and congratulations on being a critical thinker, however you shouldn’t feed it more than once or twice a week if you feed it as food. I have a Chihuahua with liver insufficiency due to poisoning from the melamine from China that was in poor quality dog foods and treats a couple of years ago (he nearly died).

      Between my personal experience with my own liver problems (Hep B 30 years ago) and a vet with some nutrition training, we decided to give him Milk Thistle herb caps and Raw Dessicated Liver available from health food stores or online. I open the caps for him and sprinkle about half on his food a couple of times a week. About once a month, I get a container of chicken livers from the meat case at my local super, cook those lightly and feed them as a treat to my whole pack. We both are still alive and kicking.

      It also might help him if you crushed a papaya enzyme tab and sprinkled that on his food every day. Take it very easy on the fats, too, and be sure if you feed him kibble, it’s the very best quality. I feed mine a combination of Senior and Weight Control Blue Buffalo for several reasons; it has no grains, all ingredients are guaranteed from the US, they do not test on animals, it can be softened with water (not so with others due to salmonella contamination), they do not use slaughterhouse wastes & it’s a reasonably priced dry food.

      BTW, medical doctors (vet or human) in the US are capitalist, and they do not study nutrition extensively unless they specialize in it; they study crisis medicine which is closing the barn door after the horse is long gone, IMHO. I was saved by an old man who owned a health food store and who quit veterinary school in his last semester to apply what he knew to saving humans. He saved my life with “natural” supplements. I apply what I learned to my dogs, and it pays off.

      Edit: Did your vet do a dental on him? If not, have that done. He may have problems chewing because of loose teeth or abscesses. I don’t feed mine raw because they puked it all over my house. If yours can handle it at his age, despite his worn old teeth (which is why canids die young in the wild), great, and I hope your freezer doesn’t fritz out on you during hot weather.

  46. QUESTION:
    Congestive heart failure stage 4 how many years to live?
    My brother was diagnosed with CHF stage 4. The kidney and liver were already affected?

    • ANSWER:
      I have the same thing. 1 question first.. his age? Age is a huge factor.

  47. QUESTION:
    end stage liver disease, being kept alive with lactulose?
    My mom has end stage liver disease from Hep C and drinking. she can not have a transplant she is to weak to undergo surgery. she is kept alive with Lactulose, it is keeping her ammonia levels down, the DR said if it wasnt for Lactulose, she would be gone. BUT, she was SO skinny before she went in, now with the lactulose everything runs right through her, she is now down to 85 LBS. she has her good days and her bad. she has encepholopathy, from the liver failure. any help would be appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      Your mother would benefit from a high-calorie, high-protein diet. Calorically dense liquid nutritional supplements (such as Boost and Ensure) come in high protein formulas. She may also benefit from Benecalorie, a calorically dense food additive and Beneprotein or ProStat, both high protein supplements. And yes, Lactulose is used to treat hepatic encephalopathy does decrease ammonia but also is a laxative. Either you or she should speak to her hepatologist about the supplements I mentioned here and she can omit fiber from her diet. Your mother needs nutritional guidance and help now.

  48. QUESTION:
    Water retaining and liver failure?
    I have stage 3 fibrosis of the liver, (out of 4) and we are getting ready to get evaluation for transplant, I’m 16 years old… I have been underweight for the last several months, due to issues with my stomach, but after i had surgery was able to start eating again..

    I have retained water in my ankles for months, the doctors kinda always figured it was because i was dehydrated, and my body was just trying to store water.. but now my stomach is huge… I havent eaten much, so i know theres no way i have gained that much weight… IS there anyway this is related to my liver? (they recently found a mass on my liver 2..?)

    Please help
    -edit- I have Autoimmune disease, attacking/killing my organs. My liver is just one of many, doctors cant control it.
    … I wrote fibrosis meant Cirrhosis.. my bad :/ to many medical terms

    • ANSWER:
      If you have cirrhosis and are being evaluated for transplant, then yes, most likely your water retention is caused by your liver failure. I also have an autoimmune disease that destroyed the bile ducts in my liver and had to get a transplant. The abdominal fluid retention is pretty normal for anyone with cirrhosis. If you aren’t already on some medications that can help get rid of some of that fluid, they will probably be prescribing something for you soon. If the fluid retention becomes quite severe and the meds won’t work, you will need to get “tapped” in order to get rid of the fluid. It’s called a paracentesis. If you have any difficulty breathing, go to the hospital immediately.

      Write down any questions you have and take them with you to your evaluation. They will explain everything to you there and you will have the opportunity to ask them anything you like. Writing it down makes it so easy since we all tend to forget something when we are face to face with doctors.

      I’m sorry you have this autoimmune problem and wish you the best.

  49. QUESTION:
    Can milk thistle help with liver failure?
    I have a very serious question that I NEED answers to NOW.
    my nana’s liver is failing and she has stage 4 breasts cancer. Her cancer isn’t a prob right now.

    If we give my nana Milk Thistle, will it help her liver? Slow it dow? She’s also a diabetic but isn’t taking any mess for it anymore(docs sent her home to die, my fam is not giving up!)
    So if we give t to her, will it help!? I’ve read a lot that it helps the liver and it improves the liver. I have a lot of faith that this can help her.

    Her home nurse is coming by and we’re going to ask about it but still, I don’t trust that nurse or the docs at our local hospital anymore(I have my very good reasons)
    Anyways, she’s on bed rest and can’t really do much, we have MT here at the house and want to give it to her.
    Can it help?

    • ANSWER:
      Supplementing will Milk Thistle has actually been shown to Rejuvenate a damaged or unhealthy! :) Take a look at this:

      “Research suggests that milk thistle extracts both prevent and repair damage to the liver from toxic chemicals and medications. Workers who had been exposed to vapors from toxic chemicals (toluene and/or xylene) for 5–20 years were given either a standardized milk thistle extract (80% silymarin) or placebo for 30 days.[15] The workers taking the milk thistle extract showed significant improvement in liver function tests (ALT and AST) and platelet counts vs. the placebo group” -My view is it could only do good for her, so why not give it to her?

      ~~ Courtesy of Wikipedia

      I will pray for you. God bless

  50. QUESTION:
    My cat was diagnosed with liver failure today and he requires critical 24/7 care. What is the survival rate?
    Okay two questions here actually. My vet said it would cost at least ,000 to treat him. Does that sound about right, or too much? And another thing, he said there’s not a 100 percent chance he will survive, does anyone know the survival rate? I’m guessing he’s in the advanced stages of the disease because he’s very yellow. Please I need all the info I can get, I don’t want my cat to just die in my house. He still gets up and walks around sometimes and is pretty alert. Opinions?

    • ANSWER:
      I’m not too familiar with liver failure – if it was kidney failure, I could write you a book.

      I tried to see if there was a yahoo group for cats in liver failure for you, as yahoo groups for my cat’s various problems have helped me a ton.

      I did find this:

      http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/congenitaldogs/?v=1&t=search&ch=web&pub=groups&sec=group&slk=1

      Looks like it’s mostly dogs, but someone there might have first hand experience with treating a liver failure cat if you join and post with your situation.

      This is the chronic renal failure group I am in

      http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/Feline-CRF-Support/

      While it’s mostly about kidney failure, I do see posts about liver failure sometimes, and the people here are cat experts – some vets, some people who have just experienced everything. You could also try asking for advice here.

      I got way more information from that yahoo group than I ever got from my vet, so it’s worth a shot.

      Best of luck for your cat :(

      edited to add:
      Found this cat liver group:

      http://pets.groups.yahoo.com/group/Feline_Liver/?v=1&t=search&ch=web&pub=groups&sec=group&slk=3


Liver Failure Mortality

I couldn’t imagine how hard it is for you right now to know that your dog has liver cancer. You’re confused and you don’t know what to do whether to bring your beloved dog back home and wait for his time or spend a substantial amount for his cancer treatment. This is going to be one hellish situation that you got yourself.

Like in humans, liver cancer in dogs begins due to the abnormal growth of mutated cells in the liver. This gives rise to masses or tumors that proliferate unchecked. If the process continues, this will spread to the other organs and will kill your dog.

According to recent statistics, liver cancer in dogs is common among the aging population and that one of every two dogs 10 years old and above will die from it. The death rate is way over the 90% mark.

Most liver cancer in dogs starts not in the liver itself but as a result of metastasis. This means that cancerous cells from the other areas travel towards the liver through the bloodstream. Aside from the liver, secondary liver cancer could spread to the lungs, lymph nodes, abdominal wall to name a few. Some notable cancers that have a higher tendency of spreading to the liver include the pancreatic and mammary cancers.

Most probably, your vet will perform a biopsy to confirm if the tumors are cancerous or benign. After which, a definitive diagnosis can be drawn plus the path to take for your dog’s recovery. Surgery is highly recommended if it involves a single liver lobe.

Multiple tumors are harder to deal with and at this moment, there is no effective treatment available yet. So, if your dog has multiple tumors spanning to multiple liver lobes, there is a very little chance for your dog to survive. Also, we’d like to point out that chemotherapy wouldn’t be effective in this particular case as well.

We do have a good news because down the road, some German doctors are working on a radiation therapy that specifically deals with multiple tumors in multiple locations. The bad news is that this treatment isn’t available yet and still being perfected and tested.

Are There Any Natural Remedies For Liver Cancer In Dogs?

Right now, we could not find any definite conclusions that could tie up natural or homeopathic treatments in curing liver cancer. What we do know is that these supplements can help sustain the general health of your dog and to improve the dog’s energy levels.

These products help by boosting your dog’s immune system and clean or purify the body. Right now, we do not know if these products could really help alleviate the pain of your beloved dog or at the very least treat the disease.

In which case, always take advantage and do anything humanly possible to save the life of your dog. Should you choose to give these supplements, make sure these six ingredients are present: Mistletoe, Echinacea, Huang Qi, Indian ginseng, Cat’s claw and Milk thistle.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    My cat has jaundice, most likely from liver failure?
    We have medications such as IV. But I don’t know the mortality rate is with medications, so there’s one question.
    My other question is why hasn’t she been eating? Is it connected to jaundice? She’ll drink water like normal, but with food, she takes two or three bites and stops.
    She’s a five-and-a-half-year-old “fixed” tabby by the way. Diagnosed Tuesday, October 6th.
    She’s on
    IV
    Stearoids
    (Not sure about the 3rd med)
    She seems to be doing a lot better, she’s eating normally again and she doesn’t cry when picked up. She’s acting like she did before she stopped eating, but her skin is still abnormally colored.

    • ANSWER:
      There are numerous causes of jaundice in cats. Has your vet determined if it is truly from liver disease? If so, has your cat recently lost a lot of weight, and was heavy to begin with? Finding the proper cause of the jaundice, and possible liver disease is paramount to treating it properly.

      That being said, it is very common for cats with liver disease to also have gall bladder and pancreatic disease. This “triad” disease can cause nausea, weight loss, jaundice, and cats can rapidly deteriorate if not supported. The iv fluids really have no bad side effects unless the cat has heart disease or gets too many fluids at one time. This is not common as most clinics use iv pumps that moderate the amount of fluids given. I don’t know what medications your cat has been prescribed, so it is hard to give any advice on side effects.

      All I can say is that you need to keep in contact with your vet, and ask these questions of them. If you are not comfortable with your vet’s treatment, or if your cat is not improving, seek a second opinion.

      Good luck, and I hope your cat gets well soon.

  2. QUESTION:
    Pancreatitis, don’t quite fit into any causitive category, but a bit in some … Any GI’s out there?
    6 weeks ago, I went to my PD with what I thought was severe heartburn. I went to pharm. and he suggested Pepcid. I took it, no luck in an hour (like he said). I called and asked PD how long Pepcid takes to take it away, she said an hour, I said it’s been 4 hours and I was in agony. Severe abdominal pain, some vomiting, low grade fever. I had what I thought was the flu for 3 days prior (no pain, just didn’t feel well, diarr and low grade fever. She said come in. She took a blood test … Highly elevated Amylase and Lipase, somewhat elevated ALT, AST. Had weekly blood tests since then, and it’s been going down. Nearly normal Amylase, still 3 times normal Lipase (which is much lower than it was… nearly 3000).

    I read the following on internet as far as causes: 1) Alcoholism: “Alcohol is the leading culprit. Usually, it takes several years of heavy drinking — such as a 12-pack of beer of every day.” I drink, but not more than 3-4 drinks per night, 3-4 nights per week (if that!) however, I had a life altering even a few weeks before attack and did drink a bit more (nightly, maybe 4 drinks), but no ‘binge drinking’. Rarely drunk more than 4 times in the last year, no hangovers. 2) Gallstones: never had a symptom. 3) heridedary: nope, nobody. 4) Meds: rare cases of Lamictal and Ativan have been reported “after market, and reported on ‘compassionate please’ cases. I am on both. (BTW, Lamictal was raised from 150 mg to 200 mg 1 wk before attack, and due to stress, went from 1 ativan per day to 2-3). 5) no traumas.

    The pain was severe (I have little tolerance for pain), but not enough that I felt ER was necessary. Nor did she. I was still walking around and doing what shopping I had to do, etc. OTC painkillers helped.

    Background: 48 yrs old, F, somewhat healthy diet. I feel fine now. Having another blood test Monday. Also have history of ovarian problems…. recently, cysts, fibroids. Any known relation? Any herbal/alternative cures or remedies? Is this permanent? She says never another drink of alcohol, not even cough syrup. Is that true? Even socially, a couple here and there? Due to my two year history of drugs (antidepressants, Lamictal, Xanax, Ativan … all prescribed by Dr’s), I have also taken Milk Thistle and Alpha Lipoic Acid to counteract the med’s effect on liver.

    Just can’t find enough general information on this on the internet. Just doom, gloom, not so great mortality rates, and a future of horror to live with … kidney dialysis, heart failure, liver failure, extreme pain, narcotic addiction, surgeries.

    Please advise… Thank you and God bless.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, she is absolutely correct. You were drinking a lot of alcohol before your onset of acute pancreatitis. It may not seem like a lot, but you really WERE drinking enough to cause pancreatitis. If you continue to drink and you have recurring episodes of it, you could end up with chronic pancreatitis. Anyway, you were very lucky as it seems like you didnt have a severe case of it. But unfortunately, acute pancreatitis can get very dangerous if you have a bad enough case of it (I interviewed a patient the other day who had it and was just getting discharged from the hospital 2 months later). So yes, stay completely away from any alcohol – its not worth the risk.

  3. QUESTION:
    How can I stop worrying about my health? This is the last straw.?
    I have been suffering from acute hypochondria since I moved to California in October of ’09. I have racked up over 10k in hospital fees (before I received health insurance) . I find my self going to the hospital or making a last min doctors apt at least twice a week.

    This is a living hell

    Every ache, every sudden pain I might I have, I think it is something serious. I went to a doctor because I thought my kidneys were messed up, turns out it was just a pulled muscle. I have been to the hospital twice for panic attacks. I just went to the ER tonight because of an incredible headache/burning, stabbing sensation I have had on and off for a week. It is most likely, according to the doctor, a pinched nerve from when I threw up a week ago. I went for liver tests because I thought my liver was failing. All results came back ok.

    I can not stop looking up researching things that like aneurysm, liver failure, kidney failure, stroke, hemorrhage, edema, and much much more. This has crept into my work and I have begin looking up these things at work. I can’t seem to leave it be.

    The sound of my own heart beat reminds me of my own mortality and it drives me crazy.

    If anyone has any words of wisdom, I’d love to hear it. I just want to live my life. I don’t want to continue thing the worst, most painful physical possibilities will happen to me.

    I don’t want to worry about dying or my body failing me. I don’t want to worry about seeing the family and friends I left in the east.I don’t want to die young. I know that thought is a powerful tool and if I keep worrying, these things will happen to me. This thought just puts me even more on edge.

    Please, any advice you can share is most welcomed.

    Thanks for your time.

    • ANSWER:
      Hey D,

      You’re best bet is to go see a psychologist or psychiatrist. Like any phobia if it get’s in the way of you maintaining a normal life then that is when a professional should be seeked. You can post your story online as much as you can, but talking to a professional one on one will help you much better.

      Anyone online can tell you that you’re crazy or that you’ll be fine, but YOU need to reassure yourself that, not a stranger. A psychologist/GP/psychiatrist/counsellor will help you get through this in the right way and manner.

      =)

  4. QUESTION:
    What causes Septic shock in otherwise healthy 35 yr old?
    Today marks the 15th day that mu 35 yr old cousin Bobby is in ICU with septic shock. I need some kind of help. Here is the story

    On November 19th 2009 we got a phone call from my cousin that his brother was admitted into ST LUKE’S hospital and was unconscious. We rushed down to the hospital right away. Bobby had been found in his room on the floor unresponsive. When the EMT’s got to him, his blood pressure was 60/34. They admitted him into ICU and further tests revealed that he had septic shock. Doctors had a meeting with the entire family that night and told us that his mortality rate was VERY VERY HIGH. They told us that Bobby’s Kidneys and Liver were failing. His bowel system was completely shut down. The only thing Bobby has going for him is his age, and he has a strong heart. They said that had he been a 70 yr old man, they would be advising us to prep for a funeral. They maxed him out on Blood pressure meds, and also gave him dialysis treatments. His WBC were “astronomically high” . He is on a ventilator and oxygen. The next day they flew in platelets from Bergen county NJ. We went through this for a few days and Bobby started to respond to us. He shook his head yes and no, and had hand movement. On Monday 11/30 an Xray, and cat-scan showed that Bobby had an air pocket in his intestine, they were not sure whether he had a hole in his stomach, colon, or intestine. Bobby needed emergency surgery, or he would die. The surgeon advised us all that Bobby’s chances of making it through surgery were very low.. During surgery they removed a 3 ft section of his intestine, and his lower colon. They put him on a colostomy bag. After surgery his BP was 50/27.. They told us if he survived the night, it would be a miracle. So, Bobby made it through. The following day Bobby was bleeding out. His coagulation factor was well above 150 they told us they like to see it below 45. They began blood transfusions. From 1pm on Tuesday 12/1 to Wednesday 12/2 bobby received 15 units of blood (15 separate transfusions). They were changing his bandage every hr. The doctors advised us that it was now hr by hr for Bobby. Finally, yesterday Bobby stopped bleeding. He is no longer maxed out on BP meds and holding pressure on his own 146/80. My sister just called me and let me know that Bobby is receiving another dialysis and they plan on doing it for 3 and half hours. She talked to the Doctors, and they said that it’s pretty much a wait and see thing. His WBC is still in the upper 30,000.. They told her they like to see it below 10,000. My question is what could have caused this? They say they don’t know, and probably never will know. I see the mortality rate for septic shock is high, but even higher with multi-organ failure. What can we expect? I heard it all from DR’s, but sometimes I feel “wait and see” is scary to hear…
    I forgot to add that Bobby was on anti-psychotic medication. He is schitzo-effective. He was getting blood work done every two weeks to check his medication levels. This has been ongoing for the last 10 yrs. He is not a drinker, and he also has OCD. Other than that Bobby was otherwise “healthy”. Another thing… They had said Bobby colon was massively dilated. He did have constipation problems, however the surgeon told us that he does not believe this was cause by constipation because when he opened him up, the stoole was all liquid..I am very thakful for every one of Bobby’s doctors. I understand the communication “barrier” when it comes to “wait and see”. I just read up on septic shock, and it’s scaring me that after all this time, he could still die. . .He has held his own BP last week, however that changed rather quickly. Emotional Rollercoaster!!!

    • ANSWER:
      Not much else you can do except “wait and see.”
      Did you say he is holding pressure on his own? That is a good sign!
      I guess the doctor is very “conservative” and “cautious.” regarding to your loved one’s condition and prognosis. He just does not want to say something to set himself/herself up because ICU patients are walking a thin line when it comes to life and death. And no one can predict what is going to happen for the next 15 minutes.
      I wish him well and I will definitely pray for him.
      Please email me a message regarding to his outcome…if you don’t mind!
      By the way, septic shock caused by widespread infection. It is the most common cause of death in ICU in the U.S. When the EMT got to him, he was in the later phase of the septic shock….characterized by low cardiac output and low blood pressure…no longer produces urine and multiple organ failure may/may not occur.

  5. QUESTION:
    Can someone please read my assignment about ARDS please?
    Hey i need someone to read my paper and correct any grammar mistakes,
    and if there’s anything missing about the disease in general please don’t hesitate to mention them.

    An Acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) is a life threatening illness that damages the lungs over time. The disease has a mortality rate of 65% and it’s more common for men than women to catch ARDS . Pediatrics and infants can be receive with ARDS too. The problem of the disease is caused by the crumpling and the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli sacs. This affect the lungs to deliver poor concentration of oxygen into the blood, which leads to hypoxia. Essentially, ARDS starts to take affect from 24 to 48 hours from the start of incident. As the disease continues to worsen, the lungs will become stiff, heavy and unable to expand properly resulting to pulmonary edema. Eventually, other vital organs will start to malfunction such as the heart, the kidneys and the liver due to the lack of oxygen in the blood. The most common reasons that people get ARDS is caused by any major inflammation or injury to the lungs like aspiration, sepsis, pneumothorax, trauma, massive transfusion of blood products, and drug overdose. Also, Heavy smoking and heavy drinking are other risk factors. Symptoms may include severe difficulty breathing, anxiety, low level blood pressure, agitation, fever and multiple organ failure. Signs of ARDS includes presents of crackle sounds in the lungs, cyanosis, and diaphoresis]. The disease can takes months to cure depending on its severity, however the longer ARDS is delayed for treatment, the more closer it becomes inevitable to cure. Complications. The disease is treated through intensive care unit (ICU) and requires mechanical ventilation support. Patients are given antibiotics, IV fluid, and oxygen for hospital treatment.
    Essentially on scene, a patient with ARDS will be or might be in respiratory distress. Again, signs may includes, cyanosis, dysnea, diaphoretic, wheezing, and excess muscle usage. Symptoms may include rapid breathing, SOB and organ failure. Paramedics should quickly give 100% oxygen by using a mask, a nasal canula or a combitube, then positioning the patient into a comfortable respiratory position. If possible, medication such as salbutamol can be given to treat ARDS to open the pt’s airway, only applicable if the patient fits in the inclusion criteria and has no exclusion concerns. In some cases, patient with severe ARDS will be in grave pain if they move too much. Paramedic may want to check the lungs and any complications that may be present and treat it if they can. These complications may includes multiple organ failure, pneumothorax, and pulmonary fibrosis. A physical examination is necessary to rule out any other problems. Other useful practice are monitoring the patient heart, O2 saturation, and taking vital signs. Patient with ARDS needs hospital care ASAP. Overall when paramedics are dealing with an ARDS call, they must provide breathing support, try to figure out the cause of ARDS and get the patient to the hospital.

    • ANSWER:
      ARDS is a commonly misused term and has specific criteria by definition including the PaO2/FIO2 ratio is less than 200 and bilateral infiltrates on a CXR. Paramedics in the field will not know this nor will they have the appropriate diagnostic equipment. Not that many patients have “ARDS” although they have many of the other signs and symptoms. Some Paramedics will say the patient is in “ARDS” but the patient may just need a couple of nebulizer treatments and corticosteriods with a scrpt and they are back home later that day. Not all respiratory distress patients will be in ARDS. some may just have bilateral pneumonia which might meet a sepsis protocol but may not require intubation.

  6. QUESTION:
    wondering why any doctor would subject anyone to chemo?
    Chemotherapy Quotes
    “Two to 4% of cancers respond to chemotherapy….The bottom line is for a few kinds of cancer chemo is a life extending procedure—Hodgkin’s disease, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), Testicular cancer, and Choriocarcinoma.”—Ralph Moss, Ph.D. 1995 Author of Questioning Chemotherapy.

    “NCI now actually anticipates further increases, and not decreases, in cancer mortality rates, from 171/100,000 in 1984 to 175/100,000 by the year 2000!”–Samuel Epstein.

    “A study of over 10,000 patients shows clearly that chemo’s supposedly strong track record with Hodgkin’s disease (lymphoma) is actually a lie. Patients who underwent chemo were 14 times more likely to develop leukemia and 6 times more likely to develop cancers of the bones, joints, and soft tissues than those patients who did not undergo chemotherapy (NCI Journal 87:10).”—John Diamond

    Children who are successfully treated for Hodgkin’s disease are 18 times more likely later to develop secondary malignant tumours. Girls face a 35 per cent chance of developing breast cancer by the time they are 40—which is 75 times greater than the average. The risk of leukemia increased markedly four years after the ending of successful treatment, and reached a plateau after 14 years, but the risk of developing solid tumours remained high and approached 30 per cent at 30 years (New Eng J Med, March 21, 1996)

    “Success of most chemotherapy is appalling…There is no scientific evidence for its ability to extend in any appreciable way the lives of patients suffering from the most common organic cancer…chemotherapy for malignancies too advanced for surgery which accounts for 80% of all cancers is a scientific wasteland.”—Dr Ulrich Abel. 1990

    The New England Journal of Medicine Reports— War on Cancer Is a Failure: Despite billion spent on research and treatments since 1970, cancer remains “undefeated,” with a death rate not lower but 6% higher in 1997 than 1970, stated John C. Bailar III, M.D., Ph.D., and Heather L. Gornik, M.H.S., both of the Department of Health Studies at the University of Chicago in Illinois. “The war against cancer is far from over,” stated Dr. Bailar. “The effect of new treatments for cancer on mortality has been largely disappointing.”

    “My studies have proved conclusively that untreated cancer victims live up to four times longer than treated individuals. If one has cancer and opts to do nothing at all, he will live longer and feel better than if he undergoes radiation, chemotherapy or surgery, other than when used in immediate life-threatening situations.”—Prof Jones. (1956 Transactions of the N.Y. Academy of Medical Sciences, vol 6. There is a fifty page article by Hardin Jones of National Cancer Institute of Bethesda, Maryland. He surveyed global cancer of all types and compared the untreated and the treated, to conclude that the untreated outlives the treated, both in terms of quality and in terms of quantity. Secondly he said, “Cancer does not cure”. Third he said “There is a physiological mechanism which finishes off an individual”.)

    “With some cancers, notably liver, lung, pancreas, bone and advanced breast, our 5 year survival from traditional therapy alone is virtually the same as it was 30 years ago.”—P Quillin, Ph.D.

    “1.7% increase in terms of success rate a year, its nothing. By the time we get to the 24 century we might have effective treatments, Star Trek will be long gone by that time.” Ralph Moss.

    “….chemotherapy’s success record is dismal. It can achieve remissions in about 7% of all human cancers; for an additional 15% of cases, survival can be “prolonged” beyond the point at which death would be expected without treatment. This type of survival is not the same as a cure or even restored quality of life.”—John Diamond, M.D.

    “Keep in mind that the 5 year mark is still used as the official guideline for “cure” by mainstream oncologists. Statistically, the 5 year cure makes chemotherapy look good for certain kinds of cancer, but when you follow cancer patients beyond 5 years, the reality often shifts in a dramatic way.”—Diamond.

    Studies show that women taking tamoxifen after surviving breast cancer then have a high propensity to develop endometrial cancer. The NCI and Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, which makes the drug, aggressively lobbied State of California regulators to keep them from adding tamoxifen to their list of carcinogens. Zeneca is one of the sponsors of Breast Cancer Awareness Month.

    “Most cancer patients in this country die of chemotherapy…Chemotherapy does not eliminate breast, colon or lung cancers. This fact has been documented for over a decade. Yet doctors still use chemotherapy for these tumours…Women with breast cancer are likely to die faster with chemo than without it.”—Alan Levin, M.D.

    According to the Cancer Statistics for 1995, published by the ACS in their small journal (2), the 5-year survival rate has improved from 50%-56% for whites and 39%-40% for bl
    Gary, did you bother to read? if I’m not mistaken the NEJ of medicine was quoted as well as several md’s which if I’m not mistaken stands for medical doctors, also some with PHD’s. what more do you need?I don’t recall mentioning anything about alt med.
    I watched my mother, my aunt, her husband , a friend die from this treatment, and now my cousin is dying from this junk science, don’t even bother to defend it. it’s monstrous, but you are welcome to believe it if you want, I don’t and I’ll take my chances, as you’ll take your’s. good luck

    • ANSWER:
      “Quotes” ?

      Yep, quote mining is a poor and frequently invalid form of taking a quote out of context and pretending it is a fact on its own.

      Don’t forget: Increases in cancer are due to people living longer so they are more likely to die of cancer (we all have to die of something!). Dying at 85 from cancer, rather than at 35 from scurvy is known as “medical progress”.


Liver Failure Patient

If you or a loved one are one of the millions of children and adults in the United States suffering from congestive heart failure, there is reason now to be hopeful.

An effective treatment may be on the horizon, thanks to stem cell research being done by a company in Florida.

Heart failure doesn’t mean your heart stops working. It means your heart is not working as well as it should. It’s not pumping enough blood, perhaps because your heart doesn’t fill up with enough blood, or it doesn’t pump blood forcefully enough to the rest of your body. The main causes of heart failure are diabetes, high blood pressure, and coronary artery disease.

Coronary artery disease is also one of the leading causes of heart attacks, which happen when plaque blocks the flow of blood (and oxygen) to an area of the heart. This causes damage and even the death of heart tissue.

In adults, it takes time to develop heart failure, sometimes many years, as the pumping action of the heart gradually weakens. Sometimes only the right side of the heart can be affected. But most of the time both sides are affected.

If the right side of your heart has the condition, then your lungs won’t get enough blood. That means your lungs won’t pass along enough oxygen to your blood. You may then notice a build-up of fluid in your feet, ankles, legs, liver, abdomen, and sometimes in the veins in the neck.

If the left side of your heart is affected, then the rest of your body will not get enough oxygen from the blood. In both kinds of heart failure, you can be short of breath and tired all of the time.

Sometimes, heart failure can lead to a heart attack, also known as myocardial infarction

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), as many as five million people in the United States suffer from heart failure, and 300,000 of these die every year.

Although there are different kinds of treatment for heart failure, no one has come up with a cure.

But progress is being made. One company is exploring the use of stem cells in heart failure patients to reverse the damage (scarring) in tissue after a heart attack.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given the go-ahead to Sunrise, Fla.-based Bioheart, Inc., (BHRT) to begin a Phase I clinical trial for the company’s proprietary stem cell mixture to treat congestive heart failure.

Because this is a so-called Phase I trial, it will involve only a small number of patients, in this case 15.

The goal of any Phase I trial is to test both the safety and effectiveness of a new drug or treatment.

Bioheart’s trial will be conducted at different locations and will assess the safety and cardiovascular effects of implanting its stem cell mixture in congestive heart failure patients who have experienced a heart attack.

The mixture consists of stem cells from a patient’s own thigh muscle that have been modified to over-express a certain protein. The stem cells are injected directly into the scar tissue in the heart using a needle-tipped catheter inserted into the groin.

The company hopes to prove that its stem cell mixture can grow new heart muscle within the scar tissue that will in turn be able help the repair process.

Bioheart also hopes the procedure will improve the patient’s heart function, exercise capacity, and quality of life.

When it tested the stem cell mixture in earlier preclinical studies, heart function in the tested animal improved 54 percent compared to 27 percent for an earlier version of the mixture.

Meanwhile, heart function in animals treated with a placebo declined by 10 percent.

According to Bioheart, the preclinical studies also showed that its stem cell product candidate enhanced blood vessel formation in damaged hearts.

The company says its clinical trial will begin sometime this year. So results won’t be available for awhile.

But heart failure patients have at least a ray of hope that stem cell research will someday provide a viable treatment for their debilitating condition.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Chances in Liver Failure patient?
    Ok, so my dad was I guess you can say diagnosed with a failed liver and they are saying his only option is a transplant. He was a drug user in high school but is clean now. He is in his mid 40′s and has Hepatitis. My parents are divorced so I only communicate with him through phone and I am leaving for New York in 3 days to see him thank god just in case it would be my last and all. He says not to worry but he also told me that to get a transplant you need to be like number 30 or 35 or something and that he was number 8 so he isn’t that close. I asked what his chances were if he didn’t get the transplant and he said that they would have to try and neutralize his liver and that if they can’t do that then oh well and there aren’t any other options so far. So I was just wanting other opinions and any facts that can help!!! ANY ADVICE AND FEEDBACK IS GREATLY APPRECIATED!!!

    • ANSWER:
      Your father would have cirrhosis which is when healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue which causes the liver to slowly fail. It’s a slow progressive disease. You say your father has hepatitis, but there are many types. All hepatitis really means is inflammation of the liver. You might mean that he has hepatitis C which is a viral hepatitis is one of the most common reasons for needing a liver transplant in the country today other than alcohol abuse.

      The number 30 or 35 is called a MELD (model for end stage liver disease) score. It goes up to 40 and is based on the results of 4 blood tests that shows how close to total liver failure you are at. The higher the score, the sicker the patient. When people need a transplant, they must go through an evalaution to be accepted and listed to receive one. It includes a lot of medical tests along with a psychiatric evaluation. A board of doctors will go over your case and decide whether or not you can be listed to receive a transplant. Once you are accepted and listed, then you get your MELD score. Being only an 8 is very good. That is very low and this person could be years away from actually needing a transplant. The person with the highest MELD score that is a match to any donated organ coming in will be called to get the transplant. Your father will be very low on the list. He is saying that at his transplant center, the patients usually have to wait until their meld is 30-35 before they typically get their transplant. I was told the same thing for mine, but was actually called when I was only a 15 score and received my transplant then. I waited 18 months. These numbers can change all the time depending on the number of donated organs coming in and the amount of patients needing them. A person only needs to be a compatible blood type and body size to be a match for a liver. I’m not exactly sure what they mean by “neutralizing” the liver since I never heard that term used before. It might be that they want to slow down the disease as much as possible. I just don’t know.

      Your dad is doing all the right things in trying to get well again. I think he will do really well since he is still young which means a lot when such a serious surgery needs to be done. I have seen many successful liver transplants being done that really does save lives. I have an autoimmune disease that caused my cirrhosis and received my transplant 5 years ago. It’s a very tough thing to go through, but it does save your life and I’m doing good today. Your father will most likely get his transplant when he needs one as long as he does what his transplant center tells him to do. Compliance is so very important in getting a transplant. Tell him that because I cannot stress that enough. I hope this helps you some.

  2. QUESTION:
    why do we need to take the createnin of the patient with liver failure?

    • ANSWER:
      Urea is a waste product made when protein is broken down in your body. Urea is made in the liver and passed out of your body in the urine. A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of urea in your blood. Like creatinine, it can help your doctor see how well your kidneys are working

      A blood creatinine level or a creatinine clearance test is done to:

      See if your kidneys are working normally.
      See if your kidney disease is changing.
      See how well the kidneys work in people who take medicines that can cause kidney damage.
      See if severe dehydration is present. Dehydration generally causes BUN levels to rise more than creatinine levels. This causes a high BUN-to-creatinine ratio. Kidney disease or blockage of the flow of urine from your kidney causes both BUN and creatinine levels to rise

      High values
      High creatinine blood levels. High creatinine blood levels can mean serious kidney damage or disease is present. Kidney damage can be caused by a life-threatening infection, shock, cancer, or low blood flow to the kidneys. Other conditions that can cause high blood creatinine levels include blockage of the urinary tract (such as by a kidney stone), heart failure, dehydration, excessive blood loss that causes shock, gout, or muscle conditions (such as rhabdomyolysis, gigantism, acromegaly, myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, and polymyositis). Usually a high blood creatinine level means that the creatinine clearance value is lower than normal.
      High creatinine clearance. High creatinine clearance values can be caused by strenuous exercise, muscle injury (especially crushing injuries), burns, carbon monoxide poisoning, hypothyroidism, and pregnancy.
      High BUN-to-creatinine ratio. High BUN-to-creatinine ratios occur with sudden (acute) kidney failure, which may be caused by shock or severe dehydration. A blockage in the urinary tract (such as a kidney stone) can cause a high BUN-to-creatinine ratio. A very high BUN-to-creatinine ratio may be caused by bleeding in the digestive tract or respiratory tract

      Low values
      Low blood creatinine levels. Low blood creatinine levels can mean lower muscle mass caused by a disease, such as muscular dystrophy, or by aging. Low levels can also mean some types of severe liver disease or a diet very low in protein. Pregnancy can also cause low blood creatinine levels.
      Low creatinine clearance. Low creatinine clearance levels can mean serious kidney damage is present. Kidney damage can be from conditions such as a life-threatening infection, shock, cancer, low blood flow to the kidneys, or urinary tract blockage. Other conditions, such as heart failure, dehydration, and liver disease (cirrhosis), can also cause low creatinine clearance levels.

      Low BUN-to-creatinine ratio A low BUN-to-creatinine ratio may be associated with a diet low in protein, a severe muscle injury called rhabdomyolysis, pregnancy, cirrhosis, or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). SIADH sometimes occurs with lung disease, cancer, diseases of the central nervous system, and the use of certain medications.

      High BUN-to-creatinine ratios occur with sudden (acute) kidney failure, which … can also mean some types of severe liver disease or a diet very low in protein

      Liver Failure and Endstage Liver Disease
      Elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine lev­els. usually indicate biliary cirrhosis and high cholesterol levels. …
      rnbob.tripod.com/liverfailure.htm .

  3. QUESTION:
    why would a patient in complete liver failure have difficulty in clearing chronic infections (eg.colds)?

    • ANSWER:
      Any patient in complete liver failure would not need to worry about any chronic infections because they would be dead within a very short period of time. A human body cannot function without a liver.

      As far as someone who has liver failure clearing a cold, I never had a problem clearing a cold, and I had end stage liver failure. Sometimes when people have liver failure and get ascites (fluid retention) in their abdomen in very large quantities, the fluid can become infected which could be life threatening. But as far as clearing a cold, I don’t see it as being a problem.

      Now after a liver transplant, there might be a problem with clearing a cold or infection because the immune system is depressed due to anti rejection drugs. Even then, they usually will clear OK, but they get colds and infections easier because of their immune system not being able to fight off germs and viruses as well because of the drugs that are necessary to take to keep the liver from rejecting.

  4. QUESTION:
    Liver failure?
    Once the liver completely shuts down and a patient has been taken off of the donor list due to poor health, how much time can we expect the person to live. Also, patient has a DNR in place.

    I ask because I just found out a really good friend of mine is being taken to hospice due to his liver failure.

    • ANSWER:
      Once the liver COMPLETELY shuts down, death will follow in hours.

      But “liver failure” doesn’t always mean total. Even a tiny amount of liver function can keep someone alive (not living well, but alive.)

  5. QUESTION:
    Boyfriends mom has possible liver failure, also a heart patient what next?
    My boyfriends mom is currently going through liver failure, yellow eyes, purple lips, cheeks and eyelids. She also has a defribulator(spelling) we aren’t sure she could survive a transplant because of her heart(that only works a small percent) and her lungs(they are hard as a rock). I can’t find any answers just by doing a search. So please, we are trying to find out the aftermath of a liver failure, and no transplant. what should we be prepared for?? What precautions should we be taking if any?

    • ANSWER:
      Here is an article on acute liver failure:

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/liver-failure/DS00961/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print

  6. QUESTION:
    Cookbooks for patients in Renal Failure and Liver Failure, do you have any suggestions?
    My mother is looking for cookbooks with simple, but good recipes for my dad. They are not the “gourmet” type of food people. She does not want to go to specialty stores for the ingredients, needs to be food that can be purchased at a regular grocery store.

    Thank you for your help!

    • ANSWER:
      The National Kidney Foundation has a list of cookbooks for kidney patients on their website at http://www.kidney.org/professionals/CRN/cookbooks.cfm

      One book in particular, “Eating Well With Kidney Failure”, contains many simple low-protein meals as well as advice on choosing the right foods. You can preview this title on Google Books to see if the recipes would suit your father’s tastes. Go to http://books.google.com.au/books?id=gY6_v_buU_QC to read selected pages from the book (hint: the recipes are towards the end)

  7. QUESTION:
    Does anyone have any experience with liver transplants when the patient has lupus?
    A friend of mine is in end-stage liver failure due to cirrhosis. He is on a liver transplant list. He has lupus. How effective would a liver transplant actually be with the presence of lupus?

    • ANSWER:
      The doctors would not have put him on the list if there was no hope that it would work.

      Lupus patients do get transplants sometimes, and do well.

      The medication that prevents rejection also calms the lupus. I have not had a transplant but I take Cellcept, an anti rejection med, for lupus kidney disease. The Cellcept has not only allowed me to keep my kidneys, but reduced most of the other manifestations of lupus.

      The point is, no one can predict the success of a transplant, with or without lupus. But the alternative is certain and that is death. With that knowledge, I would take the chance on the transplant.

      Best wishes.

  8. QUESTION:
    patients with liver failure often present with diffuse edema explain why?

    • ANSWER:

  9. QUESTION:
    Explain the major causes of oedema. Explain why oedema is common in patients with liver failure, or the kidney?

    • ANSWER:
      Patients in liver failure have Cirrhosis of the liver. These patients tend to hold onto sodium inside their bodies. Therefore, it also holds onto fluids and can cause swelling (edema). This is usually in the legs and feet. These patients are placed on a lower sodium diet and given diuretics in hopes of removing some of the sodium. (The fluids may decrease, also)

      Patient with Cirrhosis also develop a build up of abdominal fluid. This is known as Ascites. This is because the liver cannot make a protein efficiently, known as Albumin, that holds the fluids in our vessels. This fluid leaks out and collects in the abdomen. This can be drained by a procedure known as paracentesis. However, lowering the sodium levels may help to prevent this fluid from building up faster.

      The kidneys regulate the sodium levels in our bodies. If the kidneys are not able to do this efficiently…then this can also cause fluid to buid up inside the body.
      (This is known as fluid and electrolyte balance)

      Fluids usually stays with sodium…if you think of it that way…it will help you to see what may be happening.

  10. QUESTION:
    does methadone dose need adjustment in patients with liver failure?

    • ANSWER:
      yes, is it absorb in your liver and can be harmful you should decrease 10ml every week you my get sick but just sip something hot and handel it. once you only have a chippy its easy going from there

  11. QUESTION:
    complications of a low serum albumin in liver failure?
    the 2 most common in patients with liver failure

    • ANSWER:
      fluid shifting and skin breakdown poor wound healing

  12. QUESTION:
    Lowering bilirubin levels w/ liver failure?
    My younger sister, age 32 is suffering from Stage 4 metastatic breast cancer with liver failure. Her bilirubin level is a 9, has been at a 9 for 3 weeks, and has recently gone off taking an antidepressant that we found out was very bad for patients w/ liver failure. She is taking a lot of pain meds, and is being monitored by her onc on the side w/ home hospice care. Is there ANY POSSIBLE WAY to lower a bilirubin level? Herbal or otherwise? I know there is “no scientific evidence” for herbal remedies, but I am open to suggestions because we are running out of time.

    I ask this because if she can get her bili level down to a 3 or less, she will be accepted in Phase 2 of a clinical trial for immunotherapy. She is so young, we are praying for a miracle.

    • ANSWER:
      I am so sorry to hear about this, I really am..

      I wish I knew enough to do some proper research about this.

      The only drug I have found is called “ursodiol” but I am not sure if it applies for this situation. It is indicated for primary biliary cirrhosis.

      By all means though, do ask your doctors about it ASAP, as it may work…

      I do not know about any herbal remedies, but you can ask someone specialised in alternative or chinese herbal medicine. Just make SURE to check with the “real” doctor first- as long as they do not contain substances that may worsen or interfere with her other medications, you should try it..

      I will say prayer for her tonight.

  13. QUESTION:
    Anyone ever heard of this happening to a liver patient?
    My husband’s liver is damaged..although we don’t know the extent because he doesn’t want to have a biopsy performed. He is a heavy drinker and won’t slow down. I’ve asked a of questions about liver failure already but here is something really interesting about my husband’s case:

    He was diagnosed with fatty liver back in December but since he was an active drinker, the doc suspected the damage could be pretty bad. Anyway…I’ll leave out all the details…but over time, since December, the skin surface around the area where his liver and pancreas are, is covered with bloody lesions that continually scab over and then bleed again. It is as if they cannot heal. Skin biopsies and tests have come back negative. I personally believe that the skin is literally responding to the toxins that have built up in his liver and pancreas and the skin is reacting. But I’ve haven’t been able to find anyone else out there who has heard of this.

    Any thoughts?

    Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      People who have liver cell damaged, the functions
      that the liver cells usually does start to deteriorate.
      One of the functions of the liver is to make clotting
      factors. If the liver cannot make this, the liver
      patient will bleed and bruise very easily. Just a
      minor bump can cause what looks like a major
      bruise just under the layer of skin. If the patient
      is itchy and they scratch, they may also develop
      this problem.
      Some people have spider veins. These look like
      tiny little veins in the shape of a spider. When you
      press on them, the will blanche and then become
      red again when released and the blood flows
      through them. (known as spider angiomas)

      Fat inside the liver can come from alcohol consumption.
      This puts pressure inside the liver that can damage the
      liver cells. When the cells become damaged, the immune
      system of the body responds to this damage and cause
      inflammation inside the liver which will cause the liver
      to enlarge in size. If the alcohol is not stopped and
      the inflammation isn’t treated…it can lead to where the
      liver cells die off and form scar tissue inside the liver
      that blocks the flow of blood…this is then known as
      Cirrhosis of the liver and it cannot be reversed, only slowed
      down in advancement by following doctor treatment.

      Here are some links that may be of help to you, that
      you can click on:

      http://www.aafp.org/afp/20060601/1961.html

      http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/fatty-liver.html

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_liver

      http://www.gastro.com/Gastro/liverdisease/fatty_liver.aspx

      http://www.free-articles-zone.com/article/104226/Angioma%20Treatment%20Tips

  14. QUESTION:
    Is there financial help for pediatric liver transplant patient?
    At the age of 10, my son went into sudden liver failure and required a transplant. I am a single mother, and the father of my 3 children, now 11, 9, and 7, moved to Florida and has been no help at all. My son has had nothing but continuous and life-threatening complications since his transplant. Due to the stress and anxiety, and the amount of care my son has required, I took 12 months off of work, and still couldn’t return to my demanding position as a registered nurse in the OR at a large medical center. According to corporate policy, they had to open my position, thus terminate me after 15 years of being a loyal, caring emplyee. I have lost track of the number of surgeries my son has had now. I have just completed 17 months of not working or having any income, except for the 0/ month child support my ex started paying recently. I have been denied disability for myself and my son, even though I have letters from doctors stating I am unable to work. Anyone have any ideas?

    • ANSWER:
      Talk to the social services person at the hospital where your son has had surgery. Medicaid may be able to help you regarding the bills, but if you’re looking for financial assistance for living expenses, it’s very hard to find anything. Check with the social worker and good luck to you and your son (and entire family).

  15. QUESTION:
    Alcohol dependency and patients rights to liver transplant?
    Liver transplant are an expensive operation for the health car system, and liver failure can result from many causes. Nothetheless, alcohol consumption is a major problem and cause of liver failure and the need for transplant. Conversely if we consume alcohol, it can presumably damage a perfect good liver, should alcoholic have the entitlement to a liver transplant at all? Should a history of alcoholism play a role in allocation of livers?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, a history of alcoholism should and does play a part when it comes to liver transplants. It is very difficult for an alcoholic to get a transplant. Many times the liver is really pretty much shot before they get so sick that dying becomes real to them and they decide to try and get a transplant. Mostly all transplant centers require at least 6 months of proven sobriety before they will even consider you for an evaluation to receive a transplant. Proven sobriety means just that, which is a program or rehab or AA that they must attend and receive proof that they attend ALL meetings. On top of that, they must stop drinking completely and submit to random bloodtests whenever they want to test them for alcohol in their blood. Livers are too precious to waste on anyone that is just going to destroy a new organ. An alcoholic must be committed to changing their lifestyle and never drink again.

      Once they get through the rehab and 6 months, they must pass a very intensive evaluation and go before a board of doctors and other healthcare professionals which will decide whether or not they can be listed to receive a transplant. If they are accepted, they must then wait on a national list to be called when a donor becomes available for them. This waiting can go on for years and they must still be tested randomly for alcohol in their blood. If they test positive at any time, they will immediately be taken off the list and it will be nearly impossible for them to ever get listed again.

      So an alcoholic not only has to contend with their liver failure and all the terrible conditions that happens with cirrhosis, but they must also deal with their alcoholism and do everything the transplant people tell them to do. If they won’t comply, there is no chance of getting a transplant. Many alcoholics are just too sick to do all this and do not have even 6 months left to possibly get listed even if they do quit drinking. Any alcoholic willing to go the distance (and I have talked to many), they really have had a lifestyle change and are committed to getting well again and living an alcohol free life after their transplant. No one would ever want to try to go through with this twice.

      I think this is really a good way to handle alcoholics getting transplants. It’s not perfect, but I think it is pretty fair to people. I had cirrhosis from an autoimmune disease, so this has touched me personally. The night I got the call for my transplant, another man was waiting on the same liver as me. They had to make a choice between the two of us. The man told me his cirrhosis was from alcoholism and he had been called in for transplant 7 times and never got chosen. He had been waiting for over 4 years. I had been waiting 18 months and they chose me. I don’t know why, but that is what happened. Who knows if his alcoholism in the past was the deciding factor in the choice made?

  16. QUESTION:
    What is wrong with this person he is diagnosed with chronic liver failure?
    A sixty-six-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of chronic liver failure. Answer the following questions about the observed intake assessment findings by a nurse.

    •The nurse noted that the man’s skin and eye sclera were yellow.
    ◦What is this condition called?
    ◦Why would this patient be suffering from this condition?
    •The nurse noted that the man’s abdomen was extremely swollen with fluid.
    ◦What is this condition called?
    ◦Why has he developed this condition?
    •The patient complained that he had several unexplained bruises on his arms and legs. Why would this patient be prone to bruising?
    •The man complained that he had been suffering from a chronic infections (e.g. colds). Why might this patient be having difficulty clearing infections?

    • ANSWER:
      Jaundice…yellowing of the skin, whites of the
      eyes, and mucus membrane.
      Bilirubin…a greenish, brownish, yellowish
      substance that is made from the breakdown
      of dead red blood cells. It is in a non soluble
      form and is converted by the liver to a soluble
      form that will flow with the bile to the intestines
      to help in the digestion of fats we eat.

      The liver is no longer able to convert this
      non soluble Bilirubin into a soluble form, so
      it stays in the blood and causes Jaundice.
      ………………………………………..

      Ascite…the build up of fluid in the abdominal
      area.
      Albumin… is a protein made by the
      liver that helps hold the fluids inside our vessels.
      This protein is made by the liver.

      Because the liver isn’t able to produce this
      protein well anymore…the fluid seeps out
      of our vessels and collects in the abdominal
      area. It can be removed by a procedure
      known as paracentesis…but will build up
      again because the albumin is still not being
      made efficiently.
      …………………………………………………

      Clotting factors…these are factors made by
      the liver to help the blood to clot. These are
      not being made now and the patient
      can bleed, bruise, and have difficulty healing
      because of it.
      ……………
      The liver does over 500 functions. The
      body is now trying to compensate for everything
      the liver once did. It is trying to maintain
      homeostasis. Proteins are needed, but because
      of the toxins not being changed to a non toxic
      form in the body (the by product of protein
      use, is ammonia)…these toxins can go pass
      the blood brain barrier and into the brain and
      cause a condition known as Encephalopathy.
      This is very serious as if the ammonia is
      not removed, the patient not only has mental
      problems…he may go into a coma.
      Therefore, the patient is on a low protein diet and
      the lack of protein makes it difficult for new
      cells to be made, causes muscle wasting,
      and make it harder for the body to heal and
      defend itself against infections.

      Hope this has been a help to you.
      Liver failure is known as cirrhosis of the liver.
      Learning more about Cirrhosis, which is
      death of the liver cells and scar tissue forming
      inside the liver…will give you more of a
      good chance in understanding what is happening.
      Here is a link for this:

      http://www.medicinenet.com/cirrhosis/article.htm

  17. QUESTION:
    A sixty-six-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of chronic liver failure.?
    A sixty-six-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of chronic liver failure. Answer the following questions about the observed intake assessment findings by a nurse.

    •The nurse noted that the man’s skin and eye sclera were yellow.
    ◦What is this condition called?
    ◦Why would this patient be suffering from this condition?
    •The nurse noted that the man’s abdomen was extremely swollen with fluid.
    ◦What is this condition called?
    ◦Why has he developed this condition?
    •The patient complained that he had several unexplained bruises on his arms and legs. Why would this patient be prone to bruising?
    •The man complained that he had been suffering from a chronic infections (e.g. colds). Why might this patient be having difficulty clearing infections?

    *PLEASE ADD SOURCES OF WHERE YOU GOT THIS INFORMATION. THIS IS FOR EXTRA CREDIT FOR COLLEGE PLEASE THANK YOU!*

    • ANSWER:
      1. Jaundice

      2. Acute inflammation of the liver – may impair the ability of the liver to conjugate and secrete bilirubin, resulting in a buildup of bilirubin.
      -Inflammation of the bile duct – may prevent the secretion of bile and removal of bilirubin, causing jaundice.
      -Obstruction of the bile duct – prevents the liver from disposing of bilirubin, which results in hyperbilirubinemia.
      -Gilbert’s syndrome – an inherited condition that impairs the ability of enzymes (biomolecules that provoke chemical reactions between substances) to process the excretion of bile.
      -Cholestasis-a condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is interrupted. The bile containing conjugated bilirubin remains in the liver instead of being excreted.
      From : http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/165749.php

      3. Abdominal swelling

      4. Inadequate supply of Juices to stomach which causes a person’s improper digestion and can severly affectt the abdominal area.

      5. The liver is a body organ responsible for numerous functions such as storage and filtering of blood, bile production, metabolism of fat and sugars and making compounds which control blood volumes and clotting and the person had ruptured liver that was acusing bruising.

      6, ???Sorry for this one.

  18. QUESTION:
    Pig liver in House MD?
    In season 1 episode 15 House hooks up a patient via IV line to an anaesthetised pig, in order use the pig’s liver to remove poison from the patient’s blood (since the patient has liver failure). Is this medically possible and has it ever been done? Wouldn’t it lead to an immune response which could kill the patient?

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mob_Rules_%28House%29

    • ANSWER:
      You’d think they’d have done that with Amber…

      With the caveat that you should never take anything you see on “House” as being the actual state of medicine, yes, it would probably be possible. Pigs don’t produce antigens that humans typically reject, which is why we used to use pigs to produce insulin and why we still use their heart valves for some transplants.

      Since they have a lot of medical advisors on that show, I suspect it probably has been done. I doubt it’s done regularly; I’ve never heard of it.

  19. QUESTION:
    liver failure mcq step 1 boards?
    Physical examination of a 45-year-old man with an unclear past medical history reveals an individual who looks much older than his stated age with a swollen abdomen, gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, multiple spider angiomas, caput medusa, and yellow discoloration of sclera. The patient appears to have mild cognitive and short-term memory deficiencies. A biopsy of the liver would most likely reveal which of the following?
    A. Dilated bile ducts with normal hepatocytes
    B. Multiple rests of disorganized hepatic parenchyma containing biliary components
    C. Multiple small nodules with intracellular Russell bodies
    D. Single disorganized collection of atypical hepatocytes with multiple abnormal mitotic figures
    E. Sites of fibrosis, disorganization of hepatic parenchyma

    i thought E since i d guess dude to be in ESLF…hepatic cirrhosis would be indicative of E or so i think

    • ANSWER:
      Thank you for the question.

      Yes, Choice E is correct for the exact reasons.

  20. QUESTION:
    Liver failure and kidney disease?
    I just posted an impossibly long question about liver disease, but even so there was one question I forgot to ask: How likely is it that a person with liver disease develops kidney disease? Are some kinds of liver disease more prone to lead to kidney disease than others? If so, which ones? Is Hepatitis C and scarring of the liver associated with kidney disease? If so, to what degree, is it something that is more or less bound to happen or does it affect only some patients? Any information would be most helpful. Thankyou

    • ANSWER:
      Polycystic kidney disease is associated with liver disease.

      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000502.htm

  21. QUESTION:
    College essay review?
    I am applying for admission to Columbia’s department of Biomedical Engineering because I offer a unique set of skills and knowledge that will set me apart from the rest of the students. I am going to earn Associates of Science degree at Valencia Community College in Electronics Engineering with a specialization in Lasers & Photonics Engineering this semester with an approximate grade point average of 3.7. I feel that my experience with lasers and electronics will complement my Biomedical Engineering education gained at Columbia.
    Columbia is the right choice for me because I need a University that offers state of the art technology to study and perform experiments I have personally researched and designed. For example, I am currently working on two biomedical designs. The first is an acute and chronic leukemia treatment that utilizes a coherent light source to filter, target and vaporize immature white blood cells. This treatment would be intended to kill cancerous white blood cells that have spilled into the blood stream and destroy them before they begin to attack other body organs.
    The second is a generic treatment designed to warm a cancer patient’s blood temperature to 107.6 degrees Fahrenheit (which is the known temperature at which cancerous cells die), and then simultaneously cool the blood down to the normal body temperature using a semi conductive Peltier device. This design will utilize a temporal catheter such as one’s used in kidney/liver failure patients, but instead will filter blood flow out of a cancer infected organ. Induced Hyperthermia is a well known treatment for cancer worldwide, however is generally unpracticed in the United States.
    As you have read, I need to attend a University that can extract my true potential. Columbia’s Biomedical Engineering department is on the cutting edge of scientific research and development in the biomedical field and that is exactly where I need to be.

    • ANSWER:
      The ideas in your essay are good. The fact that you are answering specifically for Columbia is good (I was at a Cornell prospective student overnight for engineering students this past fall, and the woman speaking about engineering admissions said 80% of applicants don’t address the school specifically/answer the question). But the way in which you communicate your ideas needs some work. I’m just going to point out a few things that I noticed in your essay:

      - Unique set of skills/knowledge is really vague, and “set me apart from the rest of the students” is awkward to put in there, unless the question literally was “What sets you apart from out other applicants/students?” The point is to set yourself apart from the other applicants, but you don’t need to explicitly state that in your essay. Let the information in your essay do that for you.

      - They have your transcripts, you don’t need to use their essay to tell them that your GPA is 3.7.

      - Randomly capitalizing university isn’t necessary.

      - You talk vaguely about “state of the art technology”… do you actually know what lab equipment is available at Columbia? Maybe you should look it up, pick something that applies to work you would like to do in the future, and include it in your essay.

      - “would be intended” does not sound like correct grammar, I’d consider revising that sentence.

      - I personally wouldn’t use parenthesis in a formal essay, but that’s just me. Maybe rearrange that sentence and try a semi-colon, or break it up into two sentences.

      - The phrase “as you have read” is not necessary. It comes across as juvenile, and detracts from your overall essay.

      I think your research and experiments are the most interesting part of your essay. I’d really highlight that more, but possibly include more of your personal experiences with that instead of just reiterating what you researched. Then again, I don’t actually know the essay question so that may not be necessary. Good luck getting into Columbia!

  22. QUESTION:
    Do the people who participate in clinical trials for a new drug get compensated for serious side effects?
    i was just watching a commercial for cymbalta and one of the side effects was liver failure…what happens to the patient?

    • ANSWER:
      There is no legal requirement under federal law that an individual be compensated for injuries sustained during a clinical trial. This assumes that informed consent was rightfully obtained.

      Some companies may grant compensation for high risk trials.

  23. QUESTION:
    Acetaminophen [Tylenol] overdose and liver damage.?
    So here’s the deal: yesterday, I was feeling suicidal. I made this cool decision to overdose on extra strength tylenol. I’d done all my research and figured that, for my weight [98 pounds], 32 extra-strength would do the trick. However, stupid me, I didn’t go shopping and I ran out of pills at 20, so that was ten grams, right? Anyways. I was fine for three or four hours, so I took a nap. I woke up two hours later still feeling fine. I stood up, walked around a bit, then collapsed. I was laying on the floor completely unable to move for a good minute or so, convinced I was gonna puke on myself. Basically, then, for the next- well, up until about three hours ago, I puked 5-6 times every half hour [you could have timed it!], pure bile. It smelled like acetaminophen, it was putrid.
    So anyways. Now I’m feeling much better, seeing as I’m not vomiting anymore and I managed to pull myself off the floor. But I figured that that much Tylenol had to have done some kind of damage to my liver, right? So I was browsing around online when I came across this distressing bit in an article:
    •In patients with acetaminophen liver damage, the usual clinical sequence is nausea and vomiting for the first 12-24 hours, then the patient seems well for the next 12-24 hours, after which abnormal liver blood tests develop.

    So I have a few questions now.
    Should I go visit an ER? I can’t really afford it, but is there still a possibility for acute liver failure? And if it turns out that I am all right, do you think there will be permanent damage? If so, what sort of tests can be done to determine the extent of the damage? Is there anything else relevant to my situation that I should be worrying or asking about?

    I’d appreciate it if someone who knew what they were talking about answered my question. I am sort of at a crisis point. =)

    • ANSWER:
      The ER cannot legally turn you down for inability to pay. I promise they have a law suit if they do. They will likely start by treating you for the over dose then they might direct you on where to find help since this was a suicide attempt. Your best bet might be to start by calling the poison control center.
      I wish you best of luck on making decisions to live and not be suicidal.

  24. QUESTION:
    If you have a resp rate of 4 & a pulse ox of 64%, how severe is that in a patient who overdosed on methadone?
    And the patient has cyanosis, and is dianosed w/ respiratory failure w/ respiratory acidosis, has a sinus tachycardia (that will develop shortly into myocardial infarcation), is found to have DVT/peptic ulcer, leukocytosis, renal failure, hypoglycemia, elevated creatinine kinase (in the absence of seisure), elevated transaminases, and hyperkalemia. Is also found to have a thickening of the wall of the gall bladder w/out stones, normal liver, normal pancreas, and aorta in the diaphgram unremarkable, and even though this patient was found in resp. failure situation, they upon administration of narcon 2x (which only brought resp rate ujp to 88% w/ breathing range of 24), the blood pressure was 145/119 w/ pulse of 122, which had to be brought down consequently resulting in low bp which was treated and monitored. This patient was given DVT prophlaxis, intubated, is in renal failure w/ elevation of liver enzymes. The patient goes in and out of unconsciousness waking to trash and grimace and so is put on sedation. Lots more info. Patient in ICU over a week. Impressions by any medically knowledgable????
    (thrash not ‘trash’)
    the patient is kept in the ICU over a week, the above is how the patient is presented to Critical Care. Patient is considered critically ill.

    • ANSWER:
      You answered the question yourself, critical.

      Because of the long half life of methadone, the patient should likely be or a narcan drip. I’d bet that a lot of problems are due to severe, prolonged hypoxia causing multi-organ failure. Prognosis is “grim”.

  25. QUESTION:
    How long would a child live if…?
    He is under 5 years old; a kidney and liver cancer survivor currently battling AML Leukemia, had an unsuccessful bone marrow transplant.The patient has no kidneys and has been receiving dialysis and waiting for kidney transplant. The patient has a central venous catheter and was undergoing chemotherapy, recently developed a bad infection and is in septic shock with liver failure. If all treatments were stopped aside from pain management, how long would it take for said patient to die?

    • ANSWER:
      Depends on diet and exercise I know its sounds funny or odd. But diet and exercise can improve health. Keep you child on a vegetable diet. Cut out the meats ASAP. The less filtering the body has to do the easier it works. With weak to dead kidneys you need to give him plenty of water. Keep sugars/caffeine and sodium out of his diet. Keep him away from slats of all kinds. Keep him away from bread or anything that has to do with yeast. Keep in mind that less body activity can cause fat to collect. Thus making the body organs to work harder. Keep your child away from smoke. Yet again the body actually is being killed when it has to work harder to digest/filter. Keep your child out of very negative stressful situations. stress can increase blood pressure and cause other health factors that can shorten your child’s life. But given your child’s issues I would have to guess between 3 hours to 6months if you do not control his diet and exercise. I am no doctor and I do not have any type of medical history I am just using common knowledge to help you lengthen your child’s life.

  26. QUESTION:
    Re kidney failure?
    Any doctors or nurses out there?
    I am a renal patient and have always wondered how far up or down is a person with kidney failure if on the critical illness list, thats what I call it cos I dont know what else to call it.

    If u know what I am asking can u please tell me hows ill a patient with renal failure is categorised.ie liver cancer critical.

    I do know that there r many causes etc of kidney failure, like cancer etc.

    Thanking u.
    Just read my question to check it on Q+A. Now I know what to ask,

    Is renal failure classed as a critical illness if not what class does it come under.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi I am a renal patient too. I have just looked on the Yorkshire Banks list of critical illnesses and kidney failure is on there as kidney failure requiring dialysis, or Major Organ Transplant. So I think the answer to your question is kidney failure needing dialysis, or after transplant – major organ transplant. Where it is classed in reference to the critical illness list I don’t know.

      For some people there is no option of having a transplant and dialysis is required for the rest of their lives.

      Also just because a person has had a transplant does not mean that the transplanted kidney will not fail or the body will reject it. It is a life time illness that there is no cure for, as a transplant is not a cure but another form of treatment to dialysis.

      Hope your are doing ok.

  27. QUESTION:
    Psychologist or psychiatrist? Please help clinical case scenario?
    I am doint this assessment on interdisciplinary health care on a patient who has acute liver failure, secondary to sepsis coming from her breast implants. She stated many times that she wants to be dead. Refuses liver transplantation or the removal of her breast implants. She rather be dead instead of removing these implants. As a interdisciplinary health care approach, in relation to her mental health who would be best to refer this patient to and why? Thanks alot in adavanced :)

    • ANSWER:
      Start where she is, see what she wants. Without this, you will get no where in assisting her.

      If she wants to be dead see if you can explore this wish with her. Does she really want to be dead, is she depressed, is she overwhelmed, is she socially isolated? She does have the right to refuse treatment, even though it can be difficult for people in the field to manage our own feelings surrounding this choice.

      If she is open to exploring her feelings, you could refer her for a mental health assessment with a social worker, psychologist, or psychiatrist. Your team should have someone on staff to provide this service or information on where to refer her to. She might benefit from therapy or a support group to explore her medical issues and to make the right informed decision for her life.

  28. QUESTION:
    Psychology Help !?
    15. Because of the various side effects associated with the first (or typical) antipsychotic medications:

    a – the number of people hospitalized for schizophrenia and other serious mental disorders increased dramatically.

    b- patients were required to undergo daily blood tests to monitor liver function and prevent liver failure.

    c- patients who had been discharged from mental hospitals often quit taking the medication and had to be rehospitalized.

    d- use of the first (or typical) antipsychotic medications was discontinued in the early 1960s.
    17. In client-centered therapy, the therapist usually strives to be:

    a .confrontational, forceful, and blunt.

    b – nondirective, genuine, and accepting.

    c -neutral and aloof.

    d -very directive and demanding.

    • ANSWER:
      15-c 17 -b just guessing here

  29. QUESTION:
    Liver cirrhosis and liver cancer?
    Is anyone able to tell me how likely it is that a patient suffering from cirrhosis of the liver (caused by congestive heart failure) will develop liver cancer? Also, what is the outlook/life span for a patient with cirrhosis of the liver? My husband has a very enlarged liver and ascites, and shows several symptoms such as fatigue, occasional nosebleeds, nausea and fatigue, but has not shown any sign of jaundice (although he is hispanic with slighter darker complexion, which possibly cold mean it is harder to detect). Does anyone have any information? Any facts would be most welcome. Thankyou.

    • ANSWER:

  30. QUESTION:
    Can a lawsuit be filed for feeding a patient food outside their prescribed diet in a nursing home?
    I have a friend and we have been visiting her elderly mother in the past few weeks in her nursing home. She had just gotten out of the hospital for her liver failure and all of the components related to it. She just got admitted back to the hospital with worse health problems because a nursing home fed her the wrong foods. Her doctor said she could only eat certain types of foods and the nursing home had got that message. She also suffers from memory problems and is not always alert all the time and was too weak to fight what was being given to her.
    Can her family sue for this since I’m thinking her problems were made worse by this nursing home. If so, would it be an injury lawyer? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      You can try. Thou remember it is not that easy. Statistically only 3% of medical mistakes are picked by lawyers. Meaning that 97% of legit people who has suffered from medical malpractice will never file a law suite. For variety of reason. The main one – financial. In majority of cases lawyers simply don’t see a substantial financial reward at the end.
      Good luck.

  31. QUESTION:
    what’s the downside of using benzos for the rest of your life?
    since generalized anxiety disorder or panic attacks are genetic condition just like diabetis, there is no cure. so benzos is like insuline for diabetic patient. so what is the downside of using benzo for decades?

    liver failure, jaundice, diminished intelligence, dementia, diabetis due to lack of exercise because you feel dull and sleepy, more likelihood of motor accident because you’re drowsy, diminished professional performance because you’re half asleep and less careful, etc.

    • ANSWER:
      you’ll be a junkie. you might as well be a crackhead.

  32. QUESTION:
    Could Aids be Used as a weapon?
    i would like to start off this question by saying their are two types of people in this world.
    The person who accept the wrong answer and
    The person that knows the real answer.

    because i didn’t buy in to a monkey man lie, i found some truth
    the truth about aids is all signs point to it being MAN MADE!
    Scientist using sheep Visna virus and Ebola virus to construct a single HIV protein.

    The Treatment For HIV and AIDS, is a Failed cancer drug, known as AZT. The drug was created in 1964 and ban in, i believe 1968 after the Drug was known to be to toxic for human consumption.
    Later on the drug was to be marketed as a cure for aids, but to worsen people and never to cure a single soul.

    do you know, what the leading cause of death in AIDS patients is?
    Liver failure. immune deficiency and Liver failure, the answer to explain that wouldn’t make since, the answer would be that AZT is a drug that will shut down the Body in about 8 years of use.

    their is anther major blow against aids. considering the first cases of aids was reported in the USA(Manhattan and San Fransisco) and not Africa

    now that you know some of what i know! you can answer this.

    If HIV was made in a lab could it be used as a biological weapon on the undesirables of earth if the earths populations was to great.

    P.S. Never Accept the FIRST ANSWER IN LIFE! because the first answer is usually wrong.

    • ANSWER:
      To support your argument, I’d just like to say that the Bayer corporation in, 1978 I think but not sure, disseminated the AIDS virus to the American population contained in vaccines. Additionally, 6,000 gallons of the virus was in the mass-produced ‘medicine.’ After people became sick with AIDS, the company was told to knock it off… so they took it to Europe and infected the populous overseas. After they were discovered there, the people responsible were imprisoned. Not ONE SINGLE PERSON was even INVESTIGATED stateside for the intentional distribution of the AIDS virus. This is obvious in the company reports that were released decades later in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act. The AIDS virus was intentionally put into the vaccinations, they murdered lots of people and got paid for it by the people they killed, never to be punished for it and taking their bloody money to the bank. There is also evidence to support the notion that the AIDS virus was intentionally distributed amongst natives in Africa as well as the homosexual population in San Fransisco. And, really, how naive are people to believe that someone had sex with a monkey in Africa, anyway? Are you serious? And then OTHER people had SEX with the MONKEY-lover? Pull your head out if you believe that kind of crap, it’s nonsense.

  33. QUESTION:
    what type of hypoxia is this?
    a patient with congestive heart failure has cyanosis coupled with liver and kidney failure. what type of hypoxia is this?

    • ANSWER:

  34. QUESTION:
    What are the rules for getting a liver transplant in the state of New York?
    My friend’s relative has chirrosis of the liver due to alcoholism. The doctor’s ran tests on him and said yeah that his liver was fried and he his only hope is a transplant. They gave him approximately five more years till his liver goes into complete failure. But can he get a transplant? He says he is not drinking anymore and never will. However yesterday I found him hiding out in the basement with a bottle of Vodka in his hand. I told him he promised not to drink anymore. He said it was his last time. What are the rules of liver transplantation in New York? I know other’s have told me if the disease was caused by alcohol addiction then the patient has to stay sober for at least 6 months before they consider putting them on the list. And then it’s a long waiting period till they find a proper organ for him/her. And that sometimes they don’t find an organ on time. But I assume these transplant centers were not in New York. Recently I heard on the news about an alcoholic who got a transplant . I don’t know how since people have told me they don’t get them unless 6 months of sobriety has been proved. But he got one. He is now drinking again with the new liver. It was on the news. If he got one then what are the chances my friend’s relative will?
    P.S. the guy who got the transplant despite being a severe alcoholic lives in New York. He is now back to drinking again. He was recently arrested for drunk driving. According to the cops his BAC was 12 times higher then what is allowed for driving.

    • ANSWER:
      So your friend is also a relative, as I think the person with liver damage is yourself (but you don’t have the guts to admit it).

      As for the answer, I would guess that seeing as they give convicted killers preferential treatment an alcoholic would have no problems.

      Myself I would put anyone with self inflicted (alcohol/drugs) damage to any organ right at the bottom of any transplant list.

  35. QUESTION:
    how long can you live with hep c?
    how long can a person live with hep c untreated and what does a liver failure death look like and what if you drink while having hep c ….consideridering the patient is 32 and a male 200 pounds..and is it worse for a woman

    • ANSWER:
      Some people clear the virus on their own and never have to worry about it again. With others, it can lead to liver failure even when treated since the treatment does not work on some people. Those people will need a liver transplant. If you are one of the unfortunate ones in which the disease does lead to cirrhosis of the liver, it can take 20-30 years before any real liver damage shows up. It’s very slow in destroying the liver.

      What does a liver failure death look like? Massive fluid retention especially in the abdomen, yellow skin and whites of eyes called jaundice, easy bruising, blood does not clot well,extreme fatigue, and internal bleeding becomes a big risk are just some of the symptoms. At the end, the symptoms get worse and worse as time goes on until the person becomes increasingly weak until they can no longer take care of themselves. At any time, they can have a crisis such as a major infection or internal bleeding that can take their life. If that doesn’t happen, they just slowly waste away until they eventually go into a coma and die.

      A liver transplant can save their life. Having hep C is one of the top two reasons for needing a liver transplant in the U.S. today. I have seen them save many lives including myself. I had liver failure from an autoimmune disease that led to my cirrhosis and am doing well today thanks to a transplant. Having hep C does not mean an automatic death sentence by any means. Find a good doctor and do what he/she tells you to do.

  36. QUESTION:
    Why do we punish society for a handful of fu*k-ups?
    Medications:
    TENS OF THOUSANDS of people take a medication. MILLIONS of pills swallowed. The medication helps TENS OF THOUSANDS of people.

    4 people die in a 10 year period and the public demands that the medication be taken off the market.

    Serzone is an example of this: “Cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE. The reported rate in the United States is about 1 case of liver failure resulting in death or transplant per 250,000- 300,000 patient-years of SERZONE treatment. The total patient-years is a summation of each patients duration of exposure expressed in years. For example, 1 patient-year is equal to 2 patients each treated for 6 months, 3 patients each treated for 4 months, etc.”

    Events:
    ONE retard throws a beer bottle on to the field of a sporting event and now everyone has to drink out of styrofoam cups.

    The Street:
    A handful of people get drunk and stupid and now it is against the law to walk down the street and finish a beer after a late lunch.

    Smoking at the beach… OUT DOORS… The world’s largest ashtray!

    It is claimed that the United States is “The Land Of The Free” yet we have some of the most intrusive, restrictive laws on the books! Yes, China and the Islamic Theocracies are more oppressive than the US, but in the rest of the civilized world, you are expected to act like an adult so they don’t have to put laws on the books simply because of the potential liability of some fu*ktard doing something stupid.

    Why do we make our laws to fit the lowest common denominator instead of making the stupid act like “Grown Ups” and be responsible?

    Aren’t we infantising our populous with laws that turn the police in to Mommy and Daddy when we should be cracking the whip and telling people to grow up and act as if they have a brain?

    • ANSWER:

  37. QUESTION:
    Liver scarring and Hepatitis C?
    My husband has “slight scarring” but his doctor says there is “no sign of cirrhosis”. I don’t quite understand this, I though scarring of the liver IS cirrhosis, although it might be at a very early stage. He also has end-stage heart failure (severe dilated cardiomyopathy) and COPD. He was told some years ago that he has Hepatitis C but it has been confirmed twice to be in a dormant state. Could his Hepatitis C have caused the scarring over time even though it is dormant? Which is more likely to have caused the scarring, dormant Hepatitis C or alcohol consumption (regular ant at times large amounts over many years). Also, when the scarring has started, is it bound continue (I know it cannot be reversed)? His doctor says that his liver is “working”, although I’m not sure whether she meant that it is working without any problems or working at a diminished capacity. How dangerous is scarring on the liver it and what is the outlook for a patient who continues to drink 3-4 beers plus 1-2 shots of hard liquor per day (believe me, I am struggling to make him stop, without result)? Is it a matter of decades or years/months before his liver gives in completely (if it will)? Any information at all would be most welcome.

    • ANSWER:

  38. QUESTION:
    Liver scarring and cirrhosis?
    My husband has “slight scarring” but his doctor says there is “no sign of cirrhosis”. I don’t quite understand this, I though scarring of the liver IS cirrhosis, although it might be at a very early stage. He also has end-stage heart failure (severe dilated cardiomyopathy) and COPD. He was told some years ago that he has Hepatitis C but it has been confirmed twice to be in a dormant state. Could his Hepatitis C have caused the scarring over time even though it is dormant? Which is more likely to have caused the scarring, dormant Hepatitis C or alcohol consumption (regular ant at times large amounts over many years). Also, when the scarring has started, is it bound continue (I know it cannot be reversed)? His doctor says that his liver is “working”, although I’m not sure whether she meant that it is working without any problems or working at a diminished capacity. How dangerous is scarring on the liver it and what is the outlook for a patient who continues to drink 3-4 beers plus 1-2 shots of hard liquor per day (believe me, I am struggling to make him stop, without result)? Is it a matter of decades or years/months before his liver gives in completely (if it will)? Any information at all would be most welcome.

    • ANSWER:

  39. QUESTION:
    What diagnostic tests and medications are needed for this patient?
    A 62-year old male(non-smoker, no known allergies) has the following medical conditions:


    Characteristics of angina commonly include a sensation of pressure, heavy weight, burning, or tightness over the sternum or near to it. The pain may radiate to, or occassionally be limited to, the left arm, shoulder, or other areas. The sensation gradually increases in intensity and then gradually disappears with rest. The duration is usually between 30 seconds and 30 minutes.


    Hypertension is defined by persistent elevation of arterial blood pressure.


    Hyperlipidemia is defined as an elevation of one or more of the following: cholesterol, cholesterol esters, phospholipids or triglycerides. Abnormalities of plasma lipids can result in a predisposition to coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular arterial disease.

    He is taking the following medications:

    Irbesartan 300mg mane(what does “mane” mean?)
    Used for treatment of hypertension and prevention of renal disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertention and microalbuminuria.

    Gemfibrozil 600mg bd(twice daily)
    Used in treatment of severe hypertriglyceridaemia, mixed hyperlipidaemia and dyslipidaemia associated with diabetes, and used to reduce risk of coronary heart disease in hypercholesterolaemia.

    Glyceryl Trinitrate Tablets 600mcg; half to one prn(when necessary)
    Used in the prevention and treatment of stable and angina and heart failure associated with acute myocardial infarction. Provides exogenous source of nitric oxide. Predominantly venodilators and reduces venous return and preload to the heart, reducing myocardial oxygen requirement.

    Glyceryl Trinitrate spray 400mcg (1 spray when required); use prn
    Also known as nitroglycerine and GTN. It is used in the treatment of angina by providing an exgenous source of nitric oxide which mediates vasodilator effects.

    His medical test results are:

    -Blood Pressure 140/90

    -Liver Function Test
    Total protein=63g/L(normal 60-80g/L);Albumin 27g/L(normal 35-52g/L);ALT=19U/L(normal 38-126U/L);GGT=154U/L(normal 12-43U/L);ALP=177(normal 38-126U/L)

    Question 1: From the liver function test results, what information can we obtain regarding the patient’s medical condition?

    Question 2: What further diagnostic tests are needed to know more about the patient’s medical condition(including diabetes due to heavy weight)?

    Question 3: What are the appropriate therapies(what medicines, and dosage for each?) for effective treatment, avoidance of side effects, increased compliance, and cost-effectiveness?

    Question 4: Without other symptoms, the patient shows dry cough. What is the cause of this cough?

    • ANSWER:
      Is this a homework question? From what you say this person is on medication and had some testing done already. What does the Doctor say? That is the person you should be asking.

  40. QUESTION:
    What other pharmacologic options are available if this patient’s disease remains stable?
    A 50 year old male has developed shortness of breath with exertion several weeks after
    experiencing a viral illness
    This is accompanied by swelling of the feet and ankles and some increasing fatigue
    On physical examination, he is found to be mildly dyspneic lying down, but feels better
    sitting upright
    His pulse is 105, regular; BP is 90/60 mmHg.
    His lungs are remarkable for inspiratory crackles at both bases; his jugular venous pressure
    is elevated
    A 3rd heart sound is present, but no murmurs are heard on auscultation of the heart
    His liver is enlarged, and there is 3+ edema of the ankles and feet
    An echocardiogram (heart sonar) shows a dilated, poorly contracting heart with a left
    ventricular ejection fraction of 20% (normal = 60%)
    He undergoes a coronary angiogram (his ECG was abnormal), and he had normal coronaries
    The presumptive diagnosis is dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to a viral infection with stage C heart failure.

    He is placed on a low-sodium diet and treated with a diuretic (furosemide 40 mg twice a
    day) and digoxin 0.25 mg daily.
    On this therapy he is less dyspneic on exertion and can also lie flat without dyspnea
    An ACE inhibitor (ACE-I) is added (enalapril 20mg twice daily), and over the next few weeks
    he continues to feel better
    Three months after the first visit, the patient is asymptomatic at rest and with mild exercise His heart rate is 80bpm, regular and his BP is 110/70mmHg
    A repeat echocardiogram shows that his heart is smaller (though not back to normal) and
    his left ventricular ejection fraction has improved to 40%
    a) What other pharmacologic options are available if this patient’s disease remains stable?
    b) What treatments are available if his heart failure suddenly becomes worse?

    • ANSWER:
      Both answers will depend on a lot of different factors so you really need to wait for him to stabilise before deciding on which drugs.
      If the heart failure becomes worse it depends on how bad it is and why it occurred.

  41. QUESTION:
    Need advice on what to do with X girlfriend coming back to me.?
    Me and my x girlfriend went out for about 2 months. We fell in love and etc etc and promised each other forever and how we would never leave each other. I became really attached to her and etc. But one day, stressed from debate (on speech/debate team) and me, she broke up with me, a week before our 2 month, which happened to be the day before valentines day, which I had all planned out to be amazing.

    Now after she broke up with me I was freaking out and sad and that night I took a bunch of pills and o.d.’d, apparently I was a few short from liver failure so they put me in an out patient thing which helped alot. All since the break up, I have had a great friend (who is a girl) who I have been talking to non stop, she helped with influencing me getting the help I did, and telling someone about the o.d. I talked to my x girlfriend a few days after the break up, said she wanted time to be friends and etc and talk to me more so she can get to know me again. Well, what happened was that she apparently meant time apart, of not talking? Which wasn’t being friends. So I went with what she said, trying to talk to her and be friends like she said she wanted. But I got ignored and ignored and rejected. Everyone told me she didn’t love me. I was hurt, but I didn’t want to stay there, so I moved on.

    Then Valentines Day came, I went to the movies with my awesome friend, the girl who helped me through all of this, and some other friends. This was just all as friends, not a date. But during the movie me and my friend held hands. She had butterflies in her stomach and i kinda did too. I am one of the 1st guys she liked and apparently she really likes me. Later that night after the movie, the friend i held hands with told my x girlfriend about it because they are friends. Later that night I got texts from her saying that I didn’t want her anymore, or I got a new girl. Which wasn’t 100% true. I thought she didn’t want me. I was completely assured. (Also in no way is this girl I like a rebound)

    Then my x ranted about how she still loves me and how it wasn’t suppose to be the end and how I was still suppose to love her. But she ignored me, i was hurt. I o.d.’d because of her. She lied. But then again, I hurt her too in the relationship, emotionally with getting jealous alot and other things (I am really shy and insecure at points).

    I originally thought, just to move on with the girl I really really like. But after my X-girlfriend told me all this stuff about how she loved me and etc, I thought I loved her so I went back to her and talked to her (not official), she promised me and said that we could continue our relationship and end this ‘break’ thru the texts she sent on valentines day. But now she wants to take it slow and is going against that.

    I am a Junior.
    X girlfriend is a sophomore.
    And the girl who is friend who I really really like is a freshman.

    My X said she contacted me because she thought everything through that night and wanted me. But I am afraid it is because of the girl I like, because it was the 1st thing she texted. I don’t want her to just do this to make sure I can’t love or be with anyone else. Or controlling me i guess.

    I talked to my X last night, all night and I wasn’t that happy. She barely talks back and doesn’t seem interested until the end of the night on webcam, but it is still a boring everything we talk about, until she brings up debate or her guy friends. Nothing makes me smile that much. (I should also add that a large majority of my X’s friends hate me)

    But the girl I like is different, we have a lot more in common, I can open up to her more then anyone I have ever met. She knows more about me then my X or anyone.

    And last night, when me and my X were talking thru webcam (we live 20 minutes away from each other) everytime I smiled was because of texts from the other girl I like. But I think I still love my X, but I am just so confused. Also I would like to add to this thing that me and my X did have sex and I took her virginity. I don’t want to make her feel used though. I loved her alot then, and I think I love her now, but it hurts to do so.

    What do you think I should do??

    Move on with someone else, start fresh?
    or attempt to continue this old bumpy relationship.

    • ANSWER:
      wow i am in a similar situation except im definitely in love with my ex still and i know deep down that the new guy who is AMAZING and miles better than my ex is just a rebound because my heart still belong s to the ex.
      Listen to this song:

      One Eighty By Summer – Taking Back Sunday

  42. QUESTION:
    Difficult Blood Draw Got me in Trouble?
    I was doing a blood draw on a person in end stage liver failure. I was the only person on duty. My patients veins calapsed twice. I told the doctor. Doctor tryed twice with the same results. There was one more test to do and the doctor said to do the best I can. The patient gave me permission to continue. Once more it calapsed. The veins felt soft and spongy. The doctor said to try one more time and it calapsed again. (six times) Now the patient filed a complaint. I am in trouble at work with dramatic results. The doctor couldn’t get it either. The doctor asked me to be removed from patient care. Some how this doesn’t seem right

    • ANSWER:
      First, you should type up how this happened and document everything for the records (and make sure you spell correctly as this could be a legal record: collapsed, tried, etc) and be sure you are clear that the patient gave you permission to continue (and keep a copy for yourself as well).. Then, is it the doc that also tried to draw the patient the one that is asking you to be removed from patient care? If not, get him to help you with this with a statement as well. Your clinic needs a written policy for difficult draws: ie how many attempts are OK and then what to do. This will help for the future situations. Sometimes, life is not fair; and this is the problem with patients: things change at a whim (malpractice suits are often like this). Good luck.

  43. QUESTION:
    Can I make specifications on an organ donor form?
    Can i specify that my organs can only be used for seniors or my heart could only go to a congestive heart failure patient? If i cant i just wont be an organ donor. I dont like the idea in the first place but if i could specify they must be used for seniors, my liver must be available to alcohol-related cirrosis patients, , my heart must go to a congestive heart failure patient, and my lungs must be available to smoking related lung disease patients I would. I dont think people should not get the organs they need just because they drink or smoke, and I think seniors should get highest priority on the donor list since they’ve already contributed to society

    • ANSWER:
      Not that am aware of. It is not only because they are ‘older’ that they wont get the organ. It is of course a factor but also they would probaly not survive the surgury and the ‘after care’. One has to be on immunosuprresents, which means that they can get a cold and have nothing to fight it. Then also it is what they have to contruibet to the world. Meaning that if there is a 67year old person and a 30 year old person, it is mmore likely that the younger person may have more to contruibet. I belive that everyone should be donars regardless, since so many people die every day just because a lack of organs to use.

  44. QUESTION:
    Vicodin; Percocet… Let me enlighten you…?
    Both are basically the same. The acetaminophen in each is toxic and can cause liver failure with doses higher than 5000mg per day (That’s why most of the higher codone dosages come with lower acetaminophen levels). Both are a synthetic codeine molecule bonded to either a water molecule, hence HYDROcodone (Vicodin), or an oxygen molecule in the case of OXYcodone (Oxycontin; Percocet). Oxygen is assimilated by the body better than H20 thus making the oxycodone more effective with more intense side effects at the same level of dosage. Keep in mind that it’s the acetaminophen that works directly on the pain by reducing inflamation. The Codone only works on the brain telling it to ignore the pain and does nothing to help reduce it. That’s the science of it. Another notable point is the fact that the effects of these meds on patients seems to fall into three catagories: 1- Patient feels no effect at all; 2- Patient’s pain is relieved and suffers minimal side effects; 3- Patient’s pain may or may not be relieved and patient gets extremely disoriented, nauseated, and anxious. And all three catagories can apply to the same patient depending upon body chemistry levels at any particular time. Also, tolerance for these meds builds quickly.

    • ANSWER:
      ah, i love vicodin.

  45. QUESTION:
    General medical questions thanks for the help?
    In which diseases can we expect the elevation of the serum total bilirubin level?
    Malnutrition & malabsorption
    Instrinsic renal lesions
    Hepatitis b- think its this one
    Vitamin d deficiency
    Nephritic syndrome

    Clubbing of the fingers can be a sign of?
    Cystic fibrosis
    Kidney failure-maybe this one
    Tuberculosis- wrong answer
    Liver failure
    Sleen enlargement

    Second heart sound is produced by ?
    Closure of the pulmonic and mitral valve
    Closure of the aortic and mitral valve
    Closure of the aortic and tricuspid valve
    Closure of the pulmonic and tricuspid valve
    Closure of the aortic and pulmonic valve- think its this one

    Which of the diseases listed below is not a potential cause of dry, hacking cough?
    Allergies
    Viral infections
    Intersticial lung disease
    Tuberculosis
    tumor

    Which group of lymp-nodes located on the head or neck drainage the lymph from the abdomen?
    Supra-clavicular
    Sub-mandibular
    Anterior-cervical
    Sub-mental
    Posterior cervical

    The muscles used as the accessory ones during forced inspiration are?
    Internal intercostais
    Scalenes
    Diaphragm
    External intercostals
    Abdominal muscles

    First sound is produced by?
    Closure of the pulmonic and mitral valves
    Closure of the pulmonic and tricuspid valves
    Closure of the venous valves
    Closure of the aortic and mitral valves
    Closure of the mitral and tripcuspid valves

    Which of the sentences about macrocytic anemia, mentioned below, are true?
    The mcv(mean corpuscular volume) is decreased
    The level of hemoglobin is increased
    The common cause is iron deficiency
    The common cause is b1 deficiency
    The common cause is foliate deficiency

    Chronic suppurative otitis media should be recognized if the drainage from the ear (otorrhea) persists for at least:
    1 month
    3 days
    3 weeks
    6 weeks
    1 week

    The muscles used as the accessory ones during forced expiration are:
    Scalene
    Abdominal muscles
    Diaphragm
    Sternocleidomastoid muscles
    External intercostals

    Which laboratory results should be considered as an indicator of the acute bacterial infections of the respiratory tract?
    Wbc: 5.0X10^9/L
    Esr: 15mm/hr
    Esr: 36mm/hr
    pO2: 95mmHg
    CRP: 3 mg/L

    Make a false sentence about cough typical for vital infections of respiratory tract:
    It usally last 7-10 days
    A non-productive period is often followed by a productive cough, with production of yellowish sputum
    In some patients it can lead to subacute cough
    Loud cough, non-productive or producing small amounts of sputum
    It is often aggravating at night

    Which from the following accessory investigations is not the imaging study:
    Electrocardiography
    Radiography
    Ultrasonography
    Magnetic resonance
    Tomography

    Which of the sentences about the evaluation of the patients reflexes, mentioned below are true?
    When damage occurs the upper motor neurons (cortical and spinal cord injuries) the reflex arc is interrupted
    During the evaluation of reflex, grade 4+ of the knee jerk means that this reflex is not present
    When testing the patient’s reflexes you don’t have to remember that reflexes can be influenced by age, metabolic factors or electrolyte abnormalities
    When damage occurs to lower motor neurons (the peripheral nerve or dorsal roots) the spinal reflex arc in uninhibited
    When damage occurs to lower motor neurons (the peripheral nerve or dorsal roots)the reflexes are decreased

    Associated with dyspnea:
    Pulmonary hypertension
    Mitral stenosis
    All of them can be associated with dyspnea
    Pulmonary embolism
    Anxiety

    • ANSWER:
      1) Hep B
      2) Cystic fibrosis
      3) Aortic and pulmonary
      4) I’d go with tuberculosis, because it would usually be a cough productive of sputum
      5) Supraclavicular
      6) Scalenes
      7) Mitral and tricuspid
      8) Folate deficiency
      9) 6 weeks
      10) Abdominals and intercostals (so I’m not sure which you should put down – maybe abdominals?)
      11) None of them really tell you that, but ESR of 36 is the only unusual one there. Although a PaO2 of 95 could occur as well.
      12) They are all true
      13) Electrocardiograpy
      14) The last one is true
      15) All of them

  46. QUESTION:
    Cat with no bowel control.. uh oh…?
    I recently took a cat in. The previous owners had it for a little over a month (“rescued” it from a farm, according to them…) but were also only feeding it dog food. That’s right- they fed the poor cat dog food for months. Which in very little moderation can be fine but as a staple can cause major problems.. in his case, jaundice linked with probable liver failure. They said he looked better when they “rescued” him. =P Switched him to a very high quality CAT food and along with some TLC he’s put weight back on, coat shiny, acting fine. He was dewormed for tapeworm, roundworms; treated for fleas, vaccinated, etc. When he goes back in for his boosters he will be neutered at that time too.
    Downside is I don’t know if he’s adjusting to his ‘good’ diet in the fact that he has loose stool (not that watery though, just loose) and also can’t control it. Sorry to be graphic but he literally will just be curled up on the couch purring and then… ta-da. Smooshy brown mess. I’m a patient person but this isn’t working out well for our house… he will use the litter box too, and he’s never peed inappropriately.. It’s not a behavior he’s intentionally doing, he just can’t hold it in. Been talking with the vet and will make an appointment if it doesn’t clear up soon. He’s drinking fine and we’re keeping him hydrated.
    Could the simple stress of his new diet be too much? Also with the dewormings, that can all cause diarrhea in a cat with a sensitive stomach. I’m just wondering how long to give it to clear up if these are the issues. If it’s the food I’m not sure how long he’ll need to adjust, I’d hate to try switching him again to another brand or something and cause a more upset stomach if that’s not the reason to begin with. I considered rice/chicken but I wonder with something who’s had so much nutritional ‘challenges’ if it would actually make it any better. Advice?? If it’s just a matter of too much too soon I can be patient with the poor thing; but if there are any tips on just clearing up the diarrhea while he adjusts that would be great.
    Tested Neg for Feline Leukemia.

    Fecal showed tapeworm as the only parasite at the time and was treated for that.

    • ANSWER:
      If the “high quality food” is canned meat, he could be getting too much water in his system…with the water he drinks, etc.

      Put him on a dry food for sensitive stomachs for awhile, and limit the amount of meat that he gets to once a day, as a treat! After a week or so of dry food, his stool should firm up.

      It’s possible that the meat he’s getting has too much fat in it, and is causing what he THINKS is gas, but isn’t, and when he’s completely relaxed, he poops, instead! Ask the vet for a recommendation for a less fatty food……..and see if that helps.

      If all else fails, and he needs to wear a diaper (instead of tossing him outside or euthanizing him), there are a couple of websites that show how to make cat/dog diapers from baby diapers. Really interesting, and you might just want to look at them.

      Hopefully, your vet can discover the cause of this problem, though. The cat may have some paralysis in the nerve endings around his tail/anus, or he may have other “glandular” problems. I’m not a vet, so he’ll have to diagnose this.

      Those websites are…….
      ngothyeaun.blogspot.com/2007/10/m
      thingamababy.com/baby/2008/04/catdogdiaper.html

      Sorry, I haven’t learned how to put these things on any better!! So, I just write them out. Hope this helps……Good luck.

  47. QUESTION:
    Symptoms of encephalitis, but no brain swelling… long..?
    I am asking here as an act of desperation.. my dad is in hospital and the doctors do not know what the problem is with him and we have only been able to talk to them once..

    He is an alcoholic – severely so for the past few months but has been drinking heavily for about 10 years.
    Last week he stopped drinking – cold turkey. The day after he was fine. The next day he was vomiting A LOT. The day after that (last saturday) he was in a confused state. Doctors were called and he was sent to hospital.
    On arrival at hospital he was confused, couldn’t swallow and was getting words mixed up and shaking very bad. He then was sedated but the tremors continued.
    They did bloods which came back clear and a CT scan that also came back clear.
    He was meant to go for an MRI scan on monday but he was moving around too much for this to be done, the people doing the MRI said he will need to be sedated before trying again, which still hasn’t been done.

    He has been having seizures – which we only found out today. He had a serious one early yesterday morning.
    A lumbar puncture was done but as far as i am aware there was nothing significant found or any indication of swelling of the brain.
    He had a high temperature which has come down since he was first admitted.
    Yesterday he woke up a little and is talking although his speech is affected – as if he had a stroke. He is weak and cannot walk but all his limbs are able to move.
    He is hallucinating – thinking people are walking on the walls.
    He is aggressive with my mum, telling her he wants a divorce and talking nonsense.
    He can see fine but his hearing has gotten worse – he was always hard of hearing.
    He knows what you are saying and can respond so he isn’t talking nonsense all the time.
    His personality has changed and he is saying things he wouldn’t normally say.

    It sounds all like he has had a stroke, but they were also investigating brain infections and meningitis.
    I read somewhere that liver failure or damage to the liver could cause bad shaking in the hands… his body isn’t shaking but his hands are when he tries to do something and his co-ordination is off.

    Me, my brother and mum are having a meeting with the doctors tomorrow -hopefully- and i am just wondering what questions to ask to not be fluffed off as i don’t think they have an idea what it is either…

    I think the MRI scan should have been sorted way before now… can an MRI be performed whilst a patient is sedated? It is the only way he will be able to stay still without moving…

    Could these symptoms be the result of the alcohol withdrawal seizures?

    He has high blood pressure and was taken to hospital last November for this as he wasn’t taking his medication when he was supposed to…

    Just any thoughts on this at all, i would be very grateful, ty.

    • ANSWER:
      He is most likely to have the DTs (delerium tremens) caused by withdrawal from alcohol. He may have Wernickers encalpalophy too

  48. QUESTION:
    would you be able to handle a situation of living 4 months with no heart and atach to a machine ?
    This teen live 4 months with no heart. But she survive.
    D’Zhana Simmons says she felt like a “fake person” for 118 days when she had no heart beating in her chest. “But I know that I really was here,” the 14-year-old said, “and I did live without a heart.”

    As she was being released Wednesday from a Miami hospital, the shy teen seemed in awe of what she’s endured. Since July, she’s had two heart transplants and survived with artificial heart pumps — but no heart — for four months between the transplants.

    Last spring D’Zhana and her parents learned she had an enlarged heart that was too weak to sufficiently pump blood. They traveled from their home in Clinton, S.C. to Holtz Children’s Hospital in Miami for a heart transplant.

    But her new heart didn’t work properly and could have ruptured so surgeons removed it two days later.

    And they did something unusual, especially for a young patient: They replaced the heart with a pair of artificial pumping devices that kept blood flowing through her body until she could have a second transplant.

    Dr. Peter Wearden, a cardiothoracic surgeon at Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh who works with the kind of pumps used in this case, said what the Miami medical team managed to do “is a big deal.”

    “For (more than) 100 days, there was no heart in this girl’s body? That is pretty amazing,” Wearden said.

    The pumps, ventricular assist devices, are typically used with a heart still in place to help the chambers circulate blood. With D’Zhana’s heart removed, doctors at Holtz Children’s Hospital crafted substitute heart chambers using a fabric and connected these to the two pumps.

    Although artificial hearts have been approved for adults, none has been federally approved for use in children. In general, there are fewer options for pediatric patients. That’s because it’s rarer for them to have these life-threatening conditions, so companies don’t invest as much into technology that could help them, said Dr. Marco Ricci, director of pediatric cardiac surgery at the University of Miami.

    He said this case demonstrates that doctors now have one more option.

    “In the past, this situation could have been lethal,” Ricci said.

    And it nearly was. During the almost four months between her two transplants, D’Zhana wasn’t able to breathe on her own half the time. She also had kidney and liver failure and gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Taking a short stroll — when she felt up for it — required the help of four people, at least one of whom would steer the photocopier-sized machine that was the external part of the pumping devices.

    When D’Zhana was stable enough for another operation, doctors did the second transplant on Oct. 29.

    “I truly believe it’s a miracle,” said her mother, Twolla Anderson.

    D’Zhana said now she’s grateful for small things: She’ll see her five siblings soon, and she can spend time outdoors.

    “I’m glad I can walk without the machine,” she said, her turquoise princess top covering most of the scars on her chest. After thanking the surgeons for helping her, D’Zhana began weeping.

    Doctors say she’ll be able to do most things that teens do, like attending school and going out with friends. She will be on lifelong medication to keep her body from rejecting the donated heart, and there’s a 50-50 chance she’ll need another transplant before she turns 30.

    For now, though, D’Zhana is looking forward to celebrating another milestone. On Saturday, she turns 15 and plans to spend the day riding in a boat off Miami’s coast.

    • ANSWER:
      This is awesome! Hopefully, she had a lot of encouraging family & friends to help her. I think that this is only something that you could answer if you went through it. I may have given up because as a Christian I know that there is a better life that awaits…

  49. QUESTION:
    jaundice/weightloss/biggallbladder mcq usmle step 1?
    55 years old Hispanic male complaint of progressive weight loss, jaundice, and anorexia over the past 3 month.

    His urine has been dark, and his stools have been pale.

    On physical examination his gallbladder is noted to be enlarged but non-tender.

    Which of the following is the most important risk factor predisposing to this patient condition?
    a) Low fiber diet.
    b) Smoking.
    c) Alcohol consumption.
    d) Viral hepatitis.
    e) H pylori infection.
    f) Coffee consumption.

    i thought answer was alcohol consumption. we know that bile is able to get through bile ducts b/c urobilinogen is present in the urine….and biliverdin is not present in poop….so for some reason bile is not staying in the intestinal tract…i thought this is a hepatic jaundice from liver failure. the amt of bilirubin is slightly elevated (perhaps d/t a b12/folate deficiency…causing anemia). but then i think it may be the alcohol answer choice also i support b/c of the gallbladder being enlarged….if he had gallstones that are 2ndary to the booze consumption that would be further proof as to why bile is not being seen in feces…perhaps he may have pancreatitis too. that would explain the weight loss.

    any help is appreciated…i feel dumb on this q

    • ANSWER:
      I remotely remember this question from somewhere else. The nontender enlargement should make you lean towards a cancer. It sounds like pancreatic carcinoma (PC) blocking the bile duct, since I can’t find any association directly with gallbladder cancers. PC is caused by Chronic pancreatitis which is caused by alcohol abuse. ANSWER (C)
      The bile congestion would cause gallbladder enlargement without tenderness.

      The urine would be brown just from elevated bilirubin due to hepatic congestion. Dark urine does not indicate we have urobilinogen,

      Viral hepatitis wouldn’t cause enlarged gallbladder (d)

      @Molly, I for one don’t wish for anything else but to torture myself like this. I love this torture, I live for this torture.

  50. QUESTION:
    Am I in the wrong, or is she?? (In-law question)?
    Okay, this may be a little long while I give soem back history and try to explain the events that led up to this nasty one unfolding, but please be patient and read all the way through as everything is important.
    My husband and I have been together almost 4 years. Him and his mother do NOT have a very ummm, loving relationship we’ll say…. (long story there and WAYYYY too much for me to go into here) anyway, my husband’s sisters still talk to his mother….well, one of them anyway.
    She’s a complete drunk (always has been), and RARELY calls to check on her grandkids let alone my husband (her son) — BTW when I say rare, I mean once evrry 2 years.
    Anyway, when we recently found-out we were having another baby we asked his sister’s NOT to tell her, and we recently moved and asked that our address or phone # not be given to her either (hence…the reason we are unlisted!!)
    well, apparently when my MIL went wedding dress shopping with my SIL she asked about my husband and all of us and for our number – long story short my SIL gave it to her even though we asked that she wouldn’t…..so my husband’s birthday rolls around and lone behold who calls?? the woman we haven;t heard of in 2 years…yes…2 years!
    My husband was uncomfortable talking to her, esp. since she knew about the pregnancy and was upset one of his sister’s let the cat out of the bag.
    Well, I e-mailed his sister this a.m. just to ask if she had and told her that please in the future to okay it with us before giving out any info.
    she got completely pissed off and started telling me it wasn;t my place to say if their mom could call our home and blah blah blah….
    she told me to lose her number, and that my husband and I needed to get over whatever issues we had with their mom.
    (The only REAL issue my husband has with his mother is that she’s ALWAYS drunk, never calls to ask abotu her grandkids, and when we see her at family events she ignores us, but then gets mad when we don’t clue her in on things). I feel my kids and husband have and never will be good enough, and am just trying to protect my little one’s from her drunken, and hurtful behavior.
    Anyway, my SIL is upset because #1 she says my husband shoud have brought the issue up to her, and #2 we should all try to “get along” now that his mom is on the verge of Liver failure. Unfortunately my husband made a choice that he doesn;t want anything to do with his mother, no matter if she’s ill or not. I cannot change that.
    Anyway, was I wrong to be mad at her for giving out our info. even though we asked them not to?

    as always — no rude answers. anything that qualifies as rude or disrespectful will be reported.
    okay Stormy – that made absolutely no sense. So… we are not going to talk to the rest of the family because one of his sisters can’t keep her mouth shut?
    probably not!! my brother and I have a similar situation with our mother (he doesn;t talk to her) and asked that I not give out his info. to her so guess what I respect my brothers wishes, and don;t – common courtesy. i shoudln;t have to hide my personal life because everybody can’t keep their nose where it belongs.
    Obviously you don;t have in-laws….anyway…as I said rude answers will be reported, so….goodbye!!
    okay Stormy – that made absolutely no sense. So… we are not going to talk to the rest of the family because one of his sisters can’t keep her mouth shut?
    probably not!! my brother and I have a similar situation with our mother (he doesn;t talk to her) and asked that I not give out his info. to her so guess what I respect my brothers wishes, and don;t – common courtesy. i shoudln;t have to hide my personal life because everybody can’t keep their nose where it belongs.
    Obviously you don;t have in-laws….anyway…as I said rude answers will be reported, so….goodbye!!

    • ANSWER:
      Change your number again and this time do not give it out to anyone who is in contact with your mother in law. Sometimes you have to cut off everyone to get a decent life.

      You weren’t wrong but you need to know who is trustworthy and who isnt. She was wrong but it wont do any good to fight over it because some people just never get it.


Liver Failure Animation

Hepatitis C virus
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is shallow, contains the genetic material in the form of RNA-coated. Before the discovery of HCV infection in 1989 called the “hepatitis B neither A nor B”.
The main feature of hepatitis C virus – is its genetic variability, demonstrated ability to mutate. It is known 6 major genotypes of hepatitis C. However, due to mutation of the virus activity in humans may be around four dozen subspecies of HCV, however, within a single genotype. It is one of the important factors determining the persistence of the virus and a high incidence of chronic hepatitis C.
The human immune system is simply unable to control the production of antibodies needed – yet produced antibodies to some viruses – have already formed their descendants with different antigenic properties.
How common is hepatitis C?
The prevalence of hepatitis C in developed countries makes up 2%. The number of people infected with hepatitis C virus, can reach up to 500 million official registration and registration of cases and infected with hepatitis C started much later than in other viral hepatitis. Earlier infection called viral hepatitis B neither A nor B “.
Every year the incidence of hepatitis C in different countries is growing. It is believed that this increase is associated with an increase in drug abuse: 38-40% of young people falling ill with hepatitis C are infected through intravenous drug use.
Chronic hepatitis C is the leader among the reasons for requiring a liver transplant.
The mechanism of infection with hepatitis C
To infection with the hepatitis C virus was realized, it is necessary that the material containing the virus (the blood of an infected person) got into the bloodstream of another person. Since the virus in the bloodstream entered into the liver where they penetrate the liver cells and begin to multiply there.
Liver cell damage can occur either through the activity of viruses themselves, and in the immunological response – the response of the body, sending immune cells-cells to destroy infected liver cells containing foreign genetic material.
Infection with hepatitis C virus
Who is more sick with hepatitis C?
Hepatitis C often suffer from the young people. However, the “age” of infection is gradually increasing.
More than 170 million population afflicted with chronic hepatitis C. Each year 3.4 million people are infected. The disease is prevalent in all countries, but unevenly.
Where do you get hepatitis C?
You can become infected when performing body piercing, tattoos – in their respective showrooms. However, statistics often become infected in areas where there is sharing of injecting drug use. High risk of infection in prisons.
Medical personnel can get to work (in a hospital, clinic) for injury while working with infected blood.
Transfusion (blood transfusion) is now rarely are the cause of infection of patients, their contribution is less than 4%.
Previously, hepatitis C, characterized as “Post-transfusion. Risk of infection during medical manipulations can be maintained in developing countries. If a gross violation of health standards, the site of infection could be any office, where medical manipulations are performed.
Often with hepatitis C to establish the exact source of infection is not possible.
How is the transmission?
The main mechanism of infection – hematogenous, parenteral (through blood). Most often, infection with hepatitis C is the introduction of a sufficient number of infected blood injections, needle-sharing Possible contamination when performing body piercing and tattooing instruments contaminated with blood, the patient or carrier of infection, perhaps – in the sharing of razors, manicure equipment, and even toothbrushes (they got on infected blood can cause infection), when they bite.
Infection with hepatitis C with the introduction of blood during operations and traumas, the introduction of drugs and mass vaccination in dental offices are less likely in developed countries.
Infection with sexually transmitted
Sexual transmission of hepatitis C little relevance. Through unprotected sexual contact with the virus transmission probability is 3-5%.
In the monogamous marriage, the risk of transmission is minimal, but it increased in the presence of a large number of partners, casual relationships.
It is not known how promote the transfer of oral sex.
Persons having sex with patients or carriers of hepatitis C virus, the use of condoms.
In addition, as a rule, you can not tell by appearance person sick if he had hepatitis C, and even more so – whether it is a carrier of the virus.
Transmission of hepatitis C from mother to child
From an infected mother to fetus, hepatitis C virus is rarely transmitted, not more than 5% of cases. Infection is possible only in labor, the passage of the birth canal. Prevent infection is not possible today.
In most cases, children are born healthy. Data on the course of infection in the long run, while insufficient, treatment protocols for infants is also to be developed.
There is no data indicating the possibility of transmission from mother’s milk. Breastfeeding in the presence of hepatitis C in the mother recommends the repeal, if there are violations of the integrity of the skin of the mammary glands, bleeding.
Does transmission of hepatitis C with normal household contacts?
Hepatitis C is transmitted by airborne droplets (when talking, sneezing, saliva), with shaking hands, hugging, using common utensils, food or drinks.
If the domestic transmission has occurred, then it must have hit a particle of blood from a patient or carrier of hepatitis C virus in the blood of infected (in trauma, cuts, abrasions through).
Patients and carriers of hepatitis C virus should not be isolated from family and society, they should not limit or create special conditions for work, study, take care of them (children, elderly persons) only based on the presence of infection.
How do I know if I have a risk of getting hepatitis C?
There are groups of people at higher risk of contracting hepatitis C. Epidemiologists distinguish three degrees of risk.
Most at risk are: those who inject drugs, persons who poured blood clotting factors before 1987
Intermediate (medium-high) risk of infection with hepatitis C are: patients on hemodialysis (apparatus “artificial kidney”), persons who were transplanted organs (transplantation), or that blood transfusion before 1992, and all who were transfused blood from donor, which later turned out with a positive test for hepatitis C, persons with unidentified illnesses (problems) of the liver, babies born to infected mothers.
The next group (the weak increase in risk) include: health workers and sanitary-epidemiological service, persons who have sex with many partners, persons who have sex with an infected partner.
People belonging to groups of high and medium risk should be screened for hepatitis C.
In this case, tests must pass, even in those cases where (say) injecting drug use occurred only once or several times many years ago. Tests for hepatitis C are also collected all persons infected with HIV.
Children born to infected mothers, the analysis is performed at the age of 12-18 months.
Health care workers should undergo examination in all cases of alleged contact with infected blood (for example, if pricked with a needle or blood gets into your eyes).
Individuals from certain groups at risk for hepatitis C should be vaccinated against hepatitis B, because they have the risk of infection and the infection.
What tests will establish the fact of infection?
The first analysis, which usually recommend to do – it’s antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). It is performed in most medical institutions. This analysis establishes only the fact of infection in the present or the past.
In addition, this analysis can give false-positive (the analysis is positive, but the infection is actually not) and false-negative results (analysis is negative, but an infection actually have one), for different reasons.
Therefore, for accurate diagnosis of hepatitis C to perform more complex tests.
Can I get infected with hepatitis C virus and not get sick?
You can get infected and have had hepatitis C, that is, to recover. The probability of this is about 10-20%.
You can get infected and become a carrier of hepatitis C virus replicates in the body carrier, but he himself did not inflict much damage. These people do not show changes in liver-function tests and signs of hepatitis in liver biopsy. However, perhaps hidden progression.
Yet, once infected by the hepatitis C virus, most infected people develop chronic hepatitis C. The probability of this is about 70%. All infected need constant medical supervision, because the risk of activation of the disease they have saved.
Can you get sick with hepatitis C and again?
Yes, you can get infected and fall ill again. Even if the treatment was carried out successfully, immunity to hepatitis C virus is not produced, so re-infection (including – another type of HCV) causes the disease.
What if the family is sick with hepatitis C?
Sick or infected family members must comply with all measures that will prevent transmission of the virus to other family members, including: Do not be a donor of blood or organs for transplants, do not use common household items, which may serve as factors of transmission (razors, and devices, epilators, toothbrushes and thread, manicure sets), with cuts and abrasions to cover them with a bandage or plaster so that the blood did not get out (if it needs to make the dressing, or put a plaster to put on medical gloves).
Established that the hepatitis C virus survives in the environment (eg, dried drops of blood) at room temperature for at least 16 hours, and even up to 4 days.
All the places that accidentally drops of blood infected family members should be treated with a disinfectant solution – for example, chlorine-containing detergents, or bleach solution at a dilution of 1:100. Wash at 60 degrees will inactivate the virus in 30 minutes, boiling – for 2 minutes.


Liver Failure Final Stage

Alcoholism stages can be categorized into three stages of alcoholism – early stage, middle stage and end stage alcoholism or late stage alcoholism. Alcoholism stages generally take years to develop. Alcoholism is a disease where alcoholic beverage consumption is at a level that interferes with physical or mental health, and negatively impacts social, family or occupational responsibilities.

Consuming no more than one or two drinks per day for healthy men and a drink a day for healthy non-pregnant women are generally considered acceptable alcohol consumption without health risks. However, as the amount or frequency of drinking increases, the earliest of the alcoholism stages can develop as a result.

Early Stages of Alcoholism

In the early alcoholism stages, a person begins to depend on alcohol to affect their mood. They drink for relief from problems, and they begin thinking more and more about alcohol. The person and others around them may not recognize that they are in the earliest of the stages of alcoholism. A gradual increase in tolerance happens, meaning, it takes increasing amounts of alcohol to achieve the desired mood-altering effects. Often, the person can consume large amounts of alcohol without appearing impaired.

At the early alcoholism stages, the body has adapted to increasing amounts of alcohol. In fact, how a person functions will likely be improved with drinking as blood alcohol levels rise. For example, they can think and talk normally or walk a straight line with no problem. However, with continued alcohol consumption over time, the body begins to lose its ability to deal with high alcohol levels. As this occurs, when the alcoholic stops drinking and their blood alcohol level decreases, their thinking, talking or walking functions deteriorate, and they are moving into the next of the stages of alcoholism.

Middle Alcoholism Stages

The need and desire to drink gradually becomes more intense. Drinking larger amounts and more often happens as well as drinking earlier in the day. The alcoholic is losing control over drinking, and the body is losing its ability to process alcohol like it did in the early stages of alcoholism. Their tolerance decreases as they become intoxicated more easily. Withdrawal symptoms begin to become more severe if alcohol is reduced.

The person may now secretly recognize there is a drinking problem, and others may begin to notice as well. Unfortunately, the alcoholic no longer can judge how much alcohol their body can handle. Typically, the drinker denies to themselves and others that alcohol is a problem so they won’t have to deal with their inner turmoil. Hangovers, blackouts and stomach problems can now be physical symptoms that occur on a regular basis.

End Stage Alcoholism

As alcoholism progresses, the alcoholic has become obsessed with drinking to the exclusion of nearly everything else. Everyone can tell there’s a major problem. During the late alcoholism stages, the mental and physical health of the alcoholic are seriously deteriorating. Many of the body’s organs have been damaged which lowers resistance to disease. Relationships at home or socially may have been severely damaged, and there can be mounting financial and legal problems due to the alcoholic’s powerlessness over alcohol.

Every alcoholic will suffer from malnutrition. Alcohol in large amounts interferes with the digestion process and the passage of nutrients from the intestines into the bloodstream. Liver function has been damaged, further limiting the conversion of nutrients into a usable form that the body can assimilate. The damaged cells are not receiving the needed nutrients, they cannot repair themselves and the damage continues. Nutritional deficiencies cause a host of related problems to become worse. For example, a vitamin B-1 deficiency common in alcoholics can result in loss of mental alertness and appetite, fatigue, confusion and emotional instability.

And if the alcoholic continues drinking, alcohol will cause the death of the alcoholic in one way or another. From suicide, accidents and related injuries to direct damage to the body’s organs and systems, death will likely be the final outcome of end stage alcoholism.

Are there warning signs of alcoholism? Yes! Understand the signs and symptoms that indicate that alcohol consumption is becoming or is already a problem. There are resources available in a variety of ways to help deal with alcoholism stages and the serious consequences of this disease.

Copyright 2006 InfoSearch Publishing

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    need answers about the final stage of liver failure.?
    We have been told that my father is in the final stage of liver failure. Does anyone know the systoms to look for and about how long he may have to live. His sugar is off the charts and goes in and out of comas and knows him one min and doesnt know where he is the next. He is about 477 lbs and lost 70lbs in the last week. He can’t walk, we think that he has had a mild stroke and his speech is slow. The doctors say that he has less than 2 months to live. Hospice is now taking care of him.
    They put him on Morphine and said that he was in the modeling stage and it would be anytime soon. I stopped the Morphine and then he woke up and is now able to eat but still cant walk. I would like more information about the final stages and what else to look for. Any answers would be welcomed!!! Thank You!!

    • ANSWER:
      The final stages of cirrhosis of the liver
      are very complexed.
      The symptoms you may encounter in
      the last stages are as follows:
      Ascites: this is the build up of fluid in the
      abdominal area. It is caused because
      the liver can no longer accurately make
      a protein known as Albumin which keeps
      the fluid inside our vessels. This fluid
      now seeps out and collects in the abdomen.
      This fluid can be drained by a procedure
      known as paracentesis. It will make the
      patient more comfortable and will be easier
      for them to breathe. However, this fluid
      will return because of this lack of this
      special protein.

      Edema: this is fluid that collects in the legs,
      feet and arms and other areas. It is caused
      because people who have cirrhosis, tend
      to retain lots of sodium. The doctor may
      start them on a lower sodium diet and
      give them diuretics to try to flush out
      the sodium and the benefit of the fluid leaving with it. Because sodium is very
      important in the heart keeping rhythm…the
      doctor has to adjust the level of sodium the
      patient is allowed to take in and also the
      amount of fluid. Do not massage the
      areas that have edema. If a blood clot
      has formed in theses areas, it could
      break off and go into the brain or lung.
      Elevating the legs and feet just slightly
      above heart level is good to do. A
      reclining chair may be the only chair that
      will give some relief to the patient.

      Mal nutrition: Patients who are having problems with the liver, tend to stop eatting.
      This is not good…if the patient cannot eat
      or doesn’t feel like eatting …ask the doctor
      what supplement they may be able to use.
      It is important to see that they are given
      food and the doctor can watch what
      vitamins they should be given.

      Portal Hypertension: The vein that leads
      to the liver from other areas in the abdomen
      and intestines can become blocked or
      the liver will prevent the blood flow through
      the liver now that it is damaged. This
      caused the back up of blood flowing into
      vessels that do not normally carry this
      amount of blood…..therefore as the
      pressure builds up and there may be
      weak spots in these vessels, it is easy to
      bleed internally. If the patient every throws
      up blood or anything that may look like
      coffee grounds…this is a definite emergency.

      Encephalopathy: This is a problem with
      the memory. The toxins that the liver
      can no longer handle, go into the blood.
      They can also pass the blood brain
      barrier and enter into the brain. This
      causes confusion, mental changes,
      attitude changes and may other things.
      It would be best if someone has a power
      of attorney form filled out by the patient
      ahead of time or at least an advanced
      directive. One of the toxins in the brain
      is ammonia that comes from the breakdown
      of proteins our body uses. The liver normally changes this to urea…but since
      these is damage, they may not be able
      to do this. You should ask the doctor
      about what his restrictions are and if
      he should be allowed to drive. If the
      ammonia levels are not treated, it can
      build up until the patient ends up in a
      coma. To help remove this toxin….the
      doctor sometimes prescribes
      Lactalose.

      Anyone who is sick tend to have a higher
      sugar level. However, some drugs…
      like prednisone, can cause a higher level.
      Be sure to tell the doctor all medications
      he is on: over the counter, herbs, herbal
      teas, vitamins, minerals, supplements,
      and medications prescribed by other
      doctors. The reason for this is that
      someone who has liver damage, can
      do more harm by trying to treat themselves.
      Medications go through the liver first to
      be processed before going to the rest of
      the body. This medication now has to
      be adjusted since the body isn’t able
      to handle the drugs the way they used
      to and also to be sure it doesn’t go into
      the toxic range.

      Here are very good links on cirrhosis of
      the liver:

      http://www.emedicinehealth.com/cirrhosis/article_em.htm

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cirrhosis/DS00373

      I hope this information helps you.
      Here is a link to a transplant site that
      is very good to inform the patient

      http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/hep/patientguide/index.html

      We have a support group that can answer
      questions you may have….there are
      people here with the disease, some who
      have lost loved ones to this disease and
      others who have had transplants. You
      are welcome to join…
      The group is free and this is a very friendly
      place.

      http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/livercirrhosissupport/?tab=s

  2. QUESTION:
    What are the final symptoms in end stage liver failure?
    My father was diagnosed with Hep-C which has caused severe cirrhosis. He is not a candidate for a transplant because of pulmonary hypertension (most likely caused by the sanding of toxic woods – he was a cabinet maker). He is on oxygen, has acites, takes lactulose and lasix/diuretics, sleeps for about 15-18 hrs a day, can hardly walk, trembles and is in pain. He was diagnosed about 1 month ago (because he was too stubborn to go to the hospital) and has rapidly been declining since. I am very sad for my mother, she feeds him all the right foods and takes care of him according to his GI/cardiologist/pulmonologist. Does anyone have experience with a loved one who has died from liver failure? Any experiences with respect to a time frame and the final symptoms before death?

    • ANSWER:
      You wrote, “Does anyone have experience with a loved one who has died from liver failure?”

      Sadly, yes, my Mom. She was diagnosed with some liver disease or other and lived for many years after that, but then, at the end, she just started failing rather quickly.

      It started with her being very weak and confused, which was followed by a swollen, distended stomach, called “ascites” and more confusion as she lost her faculties, kind of like Alzheimer’s but on fast-forward, and she finally lapsed into a coma and passed away a few weeks later, coincidentally on the exact same day that my Dad had died, only ten years earlier! We think that she must have known somehow and was waiting for that day so that she could go on the same day he did.

      I’m very sorry for your troubles, I went through it with my Mom and wouldn’t wish it on anyone, to see your loved one slipping away like that, it was just heart-wrenching.

      Good luck!… ☺

  3. QUESTION:
    How Long To Live After Hit Final Stages Of Liver Failure??
    How long do u have to live if your in the final stages of liver failure, and your passing blood every way possible, and your drinking every day….The reason i ask is because my uncle is the described and he drinks every day all day, severely addicted to alcohol, and he has literelay been drunk since last wed..1 week today…How long does he have to love, he refuses meds, and wont go to the doctor, I got 1 answer before that said less than a year and i believed it, i was just trying to get alittle more specific, if possible.

    • ANSWER:
      This is a sad situation. You can not possibly live without your liver. Typically, liver failure is alcohol related. Cirrhosis (hardening of the liver) is caused by drinking alcohol. His abdomen is probably swollen which is called “ascites”. He will also have mental confusion along with it called “hepatic encephalopathy”. It sounds as if your uncle has a death wish. When your liver is failing you are unable to make clotting factors for your blood, you don’t have long to live. He will literally bleed to death, or his kidneys will fail. I’m sure he is in pain from all the bleeding going on. It sounds like he is trying to deal with the pain by drinking more alcohol. His only chance for survival is a liver transplant. However, it doesn’t sound like he would stop drinking after that either, so that’s not even an option. He will be lucky to live another 3 months from the sound of it, maybe sooner.

  4. QUESTION:
    Death by alcohol induced liver disease – what happens in the final moments?
    A 38 year old woman I know has just died of alcoholism, after various stays in hospital. Her last stay of 10 weeks ended with the disease getting the better of her. According to mutual friends, she spent her last moments convulsing – and now I am completely haunted by these images. What happens to the body in these final stages of liver and kidney failure?

    • ANSWER:
      actually, in most cases end stage liver disease causes the person to enter into a coma like stage. they usually are not aware of what is happening after this stage is present.

      as for convulsing….sometimes this happens as the body has already died. it is simply the nerves reacting.

      as far as the disease progression -with liver disease is that the toxins the liver is unable to filter will cause kidney failure and in turn the chemical buildup in the blood will cause severe bloating-so much that the skin seeps fluid. this is when the body enters the coma stage. during the release of fluids, the person is alternating between the coma like state and awareness stages.

      your friend did not feel a thing.

      i hope this puts your mind at ease.

  5. QUESTION:
    Can someone help me find a good liver donor for my dad?
    My dad is at the final stage of liver failure. I am 13 and need a dad. If you can help me find someone to donate a liver FAST that would be great. Cost really is not a matter but we would prefer something that isn’t an unbelievable amount of money. He is on a list right now but I don’t know if he can make it that long and it’s scaring me and all of my family. And remember that being an organ donor after you die can save many lives and make more than just one person happy. Just tell me a doctor, website, whatever may help me that would be wonderful. Thank you,
    Hailee

    • ANSWER:
      in the US–there is nothing we can do–you cannot buy a liver–he would already be on the registry–and that is the only way to find a liver–

      sometimes they can transplant part of a liver–this is often doen for a child who can use a small portion of an adult liver–in that case– a live donor is used

  6. QUESTION:
    How does alcoholism physically kill?
    I know this is a very sensitive subject to many, so i apologize if I upset anyone.
    For various reasons, I would really like to know what the final stages of liver failure is like. Pretty much, as when someone is dying from alcoholism (liver failure i believe) what would the last few weeks be like. When does jaundice start, is it painful, are they very conscious and lucid? I apologize for asking such a morbid question.

    • ANSWER:
      The liver quits filtering the toxins out of the blood stream and all these toxins get deposited into the skin which can cause severe itching. The skin often turns green during the end stages of liver failure. The abdomen bloats because of ascites which in turn causes difficulty breathing. This is a long, painful, difficult way to diet. You can go to WebMd.com and type in liver failure for more information on this subject. People can be conscious up until their last few hours but every person is different.

  7. QUESTION:
    cirhossis and drinking?
    Please do not lecture me about recovery. What I want to know is it OK if I have 1-2 drinks a week. I was diagnosed with final stage end liver disease but have miracle and rebounded with almost normal liver function. Still have cirhossis though. Please and kindly only an objective answer as to whether about 6oz alcohol a week could kick in the end stage liver failure again. Any doctors in the house? Thanks in advance for any answers.

    • ANSWER:

  8. QUESTION:
    I need to know, please read details on important medical question.?
    I have a relative with serious health issue.
    he is in final stages of liver failure and the Dr. has stated there is nothing more they can do for him. he has about 17 out of the 20 or so symptoms. Doctor has set up home care to make him comfortable stating he’ll have good days and bad. my big question is, can anyone say how long he has to live, we can’t ask the Dr. because my relative is always present and don’t want him to hear any finalization talk going on.. thank you for any info, we have to know.
    He is 68 and has other issues so he is not a transplant candidate.

    • ANSWER:
      We’ve recently gone through a similar situation. My aunt was 50 years old with breast cancer. The doctors had told us on four occasions that she would only last for a couple of weeks (one time they had told us a few hours) but she survived for many months afterwards. She finally was sent to a health care facility and past away last week. To answer your question, there is no definite answer a doctor can tell you. They can only estimate and sometimes the estimation is off. Each individual is different and people’s resistance to illnesses is different. I’m sorry you and your family is going through this tough time.

  9. QUESTION:
    do you have any answers for final stages of hep-c symptoms?
    i have had 20 years or more of hep c .the passed 10 weeks i have major problems does anyone have the official list of liver failure

    • ANSWER:
      Please don’t wait and see a gastroenterologist asap. Many people have hep c (HCV) for years and even decades without going into liver failure. However, some do develop cirrhosis. It varies from person to person. Drinking alcohol will speed up the process & the damage to the liver.
      Some signs of end stage liver disease (ESLD- liver failure) are ascites (bloating of the abdomen- looking like your 9 months pregnant), vomiting blood (life threatening- go immediately to the emergency room- can be fixed “banded” usually), greyish looking skin (high bilirubin), mental confusion (called hepatic encephalopathy- caused by when the liver can’t filter out toxins), pain in the right side (although people who are not in ESLD can have pain, too). There are other symptoms, but these are the most common. If in fact you do have ESLD, it’s not too late to do something about it. If you educate yourself about it, you will feel less afraid. I run a liver disease support group and have seen many people who have ESLD. Some have been transplanted, some have had shunts, some have managed symptoms by a complete diet change along with medical care. I have also seen those who don’t do anything and lose their life. If I can help you with any information, please don’t hesitate to contact me. Best wishes.

  10. QUESTION:
    Have Obama’s “death boards” of people getting to decide who lives already been created?
    Big Island resident Kimberly Reyes, who was diagnosed with Hepatitis in March 2008, had been told in July that she had less than 30 days to live. Her family claimed the Waimea resident had followed doctor’s orders, but her insurance carrier, Hawaii Medical Service Association, denied her coverage for a liver transplant she needed to survive because three toxicology tests showed trace amounts of cannabis in her system.

    According to Reyes’ attorney, Ted Herhold, with San Francisco-based Townsend and Townsend, toxicology tests from June 14, July 3 and July 14 were the sole final basis for HMSA’s final denial of coverage for the 51-year-old mother of five.

    Reyes’ mother, Noni Kuhns, and Kimberly’s husband, Robin, acknowledged HMSA’s decision was based upon a failure to comply with the insurer’s policy forbidding drug use. However, both claimed after the claim denial that neither HMSA nor her doctors notified Kimberly or the family of HMSA’s apparent policy on drug use.

    Following at least five separate telephone inquiries from West Hawaii Today made over a one-week period, HMSA public information officer Chuck Marshall replied through an e-mail that HMSA declined to comment. HMSA also declined to provide the insurance carrier’s standard policies in regard to drug use or drug use and transplant approval.

    Kimberly Reyes died July 27 at Hilo Hospital, 16 months after being diagnosed. In the months after her diagnosis, she suffered cirrhosis of the liver, chronic Hepatitis infection, end-stage kidney disease and hepatorenal syndrome, which is caused by low blood flow to the kidneys due to liver deterioration.

    “Just because someone takes a hit off of a joint doesn’t mean that it should be the end of their life — this is not a reason to deny life,” said Kuhns.

    http://www.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/20090809/BREAKING01/308090006/Marijuana+use+may+have+cost+Big+Island+woman+a+life-saving+liver+transplant

    Something doesn’t add up here… Oh wait, it’s a NON-government board of people getting to decide gets to live and who gets to die.

    That makes it OK, right?

    • ANSWER:
      This shows a need for tort reform, not a trillion dollar a year “health care reform”. I would be all for taking the insurance companies to task for this.