Liver Enzymes Elevated Symptoms

Definition

Human aging is a biological process, no one can stop, but delay it. It is possible that one person has a physiological younger than his or her biological if one engages in healthy living life style and eating healthily by increasing the intake of good healthy food such as whole grain, fruits, vegetables, beans and legumes, etc. and reducing the consumption of harmful foods, such as saturated fat, trans fat, artificial ingredients, etc.

Theories of aging
What cause aging? The question that has been asked throughout the human history, but it doesn’t seem to get any answer but raises many more unanswered questions. While many theories try to answer the question by related aging to tear and wear of the body, others deal with how the organs and systems in the body develop and deteriorate overtime, etc.

1. Somatic mutation theory

In this theory, aging is due to our inherited genes that come directly from our parents. Since the conception occurred, our body cells continue to divide and replication themselves. Since the division and replication are a life long precess at some point, for what ever reason, if cells division and replication can process incorrectly, leading to mutation of incorrect copy of DNA. Although the cause of this incorrect process are unknown, but researchers found that exposures to toxins, radiation or ultraviolet light, artificial ingredients, unhealthy life style, etc. can increase the risk of cells mutation and the cells copied incorrectly can mutate themselves, leading to accumulation of incorrect gene cells that trigger a chain reaction of an auto-catalytic nature in producing more and more fincorrect gene cell, until it finally is brought under controlled, this processes can lead to aging. As an organism, the immune system tries to destroy or scavenger these mutated genes but at some points, it is over whelming, leading chronic age related diseases.

2. Error catastrophe theory

The error catastrophe of aging was originally proposed by Leslie Orgel in 1963. Our body immune system helps to maintain the structural integrity of DNA not only for cell survival but also for the transfer of correct genetic information to the daughter cells. Error catastrophe indicated that alterations DNA and the incorrect placement of amino acids in protein synthesis could result in a progressive degradation aging as a result of these abnormal protein are no longer functioning as chemical passengers or signallers.

3. Protein glycosylation
Protein glycosylation is a result of chemical reaction of glucose with varies proteins, including enzyme, elastin and collagen in the blood. The cross linked protein glycosylation leads to cell to cell adhesion causing stiffness and rigidity of individual cells, reducing the cells function in taking nutrients and expelling waste.
If the cross link protein glycosylation occurs in the elastin and collagen, it will cause brittle skin, causing aging, but it happens in the organs it will be more serious and sometimes life threatening.

4. The neuroendocrine theory
First proposed by Professor Vladimir Dilman and Ward Dean MD, this theory postulates on wear and tear of the neuroendocrine system. In neuroendocrine system, the master pituitary gland secrets hormones to direct other glands in secreting their hormones and works conjunction with the hypothalamus glands form a command post in the nervous system in closely direct the function of most of the body functions.
but as we age, the hypothalamus loses its ability as a hormone regulator as its receptors of which uptake other gland hormones become less sensitive to them, including sex hormones, DHEA, serotonin, melatonin, etc.
As for cortisol, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands due to stress, is produced with abundance as we age.

5. Immune system decline theory
As we age, our immune system is weakening that cause us become vulnerable to the dangerous pathogens, including microbial and viral invasion. Within the immune system, the thymus glands which play an important role in helping formation of the immune system scavenger that reduces the function of immune system further that allow irregular cell growth cause of aging spot, tumors, cancer, infection, inflammation and onset of chronic illness.

6. Genetic programming theory
Genetic programming theory proposes that aging is programmed as the cells cycle in our body are also genetic program since their inception. the explanation is that all the cells are undergoing certain time in division over the a said amount of time before dying, leading to conclusion that people with the long live genetic program live longer than others who do not.
The theory also emphasizes the genetic diseases as a result of genetic programming diminished life span, regardless external and internal influence.
Further refinement of the programmed senescence theory was developed by Bernard Strehler, who proposed that as cells are program to perform specific functions within the organism that cause them to lose some of the ability to duplicate their genetic information, leading to aging.

7. Hayflick limit
The Hayflick limit (or Hayflick Phenomena) theory discovered by Leonard Hayflick and a biologist in 1966. In vitro study, the number of times fibroblast diploid cells will divide before it stops. The discover is conferring a major hypothesis if the cell division can prolong in a infinite matter without conditions which cause damage of the cells, then organism can liver forever.
Exceptions:
Stem cells
Since stem cells can continue to regenerate new cells for the entire lifespan of the organism, without limit, thus constituting a notable exception to the Hayflick limit theory.
Cancer cells
Cancer cell in biological aspect, have found a way around the limit by becoming a group of immortalized cells produced from cell division that have no limit as to how many times this immortalized cell division might take place.

8. The telomerase theory
The tolomerrase theory is a continuation of support to the Hayflick limit (or Hayflick Phenomena) theory involved in telomeres and telomerase. Telomeres are the structure at the end of the chromosome. As each time the cell divides, its telomeres is shortened, at certain length, the cell stops division and goes into senescence.
The experiment shows, the cell senescence can be reversed by controlling the genes of telomerase autocatalytic nature, which in turn, promotes the forever cell division capacity

9. The free radical theory
A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and highly reactive to react with other cell, which in turn, causes oxidative damage to the enzymes, other protein, unsaturated fatty acid, phospho-lipids, DNA and RNA, etc., leading to aging of the organisms, as a result of widespread damage due to set of a chain reaction auto-catalytically after attacking the lipid bilayers of the cell walls.

10. Other theories
a. Rate of living and lifespan
Rate of living is defined that a bigger organism, the longer it lives with human is one of the exception due to its slower rate of metabolism and lower rate of free radical activity, leading to low levels of age lipid pigment, resulting in longer life span. Experiment show that there 100,000 free radicals hit everyday in rat, comparing 10, 000 in human.
b. Caloric restriction
Caloric restriction hypothesis suggested in a study of young rat showed that if a rat is put into restricted diet with given of necessary nutrients, it lives longer than those were allowed to eat freely. With the result also the same in the old rat, the theory also suggest eating less may cause less toxins in the body that affects the immune system and reduces the risk of hormone change, leading to free radicals cause of aging.
c. Age spots
Age spots are mainly composed of lipofuscin and lipopigment caused by reaction of free radical and peroxidation, leading to the formation of age spot, as a result of oxygen species interact with autophagocytic degradation occurring inside the lysosomes.
d. Protein oxidation
Protein oxidation cay affect protein function in normal and pathological processes as a result of postranslation protein being alter by reduce oxygen species (ROS) cause of damage to enzyme, leading to dysfunction of its role resulting in aging.
e. Fast track of aging
The theory suggest that there are many of diseases and syndromes of which can contribute to faster track to aging
* Hutchison-Gilford syndrome
It is an extremely rare genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. Those born with progeria typically live to thirteen years, although many have been known to live into their late teens and early twenties and rare individuals may even reach their forties due to genes mutation.
*Werner syndrome
It is Adult progeria, an disorder causes the appearance of premature aging. The syndrome does not develop until they reach puberty is caused by autosomal recessive disorder due to alter gene on chromosome 8.
f. Altered genes
Alter genes are the work of Friedman and Johnson 1988 ” …. the effect of elevated expression of SIR2 in yeast appears to be conserved in C. elegans (Tissenbaum & Guarente 2001) and Drosophila (Rogina & Helfand 2004), and mutations in genes encoding components of the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway also extend the lifespan in all four organisms… ”
“… It was originally suspected that extension of lifespan by reduced IIS might turn out to be a worm peculiarity. This was because mutations in genes in the IIS pathway can also cause the worms to enter a type of developmental arrest (dauer), normally seen only in response to low food or crowding (Riddle & Albert 1997). Dauer larvae are long lived, and the long life of IIS mutant adult worms could therefore have been a result of re-expression in the adult of the genes that make the dauer larva long lived….”
g. Free radical connection
Free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and accumulation of free radical damage over time can cause aging. Theory is first proposed by Denham Harman in the 1950sand in the 1970s extended the idea to implicate mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species into the 1970s. Study showed that mutant strains of the roundworm that are more susceptible to free radicals have shortened life spans, and those with less susceptibility have longer lifespan
If free radical causes damage to the DNA repaired enzymes, it can increase the risk of unrepaired DNA damage, leading protein synthesis incorrectly. In fact, free radicals can inflict damage to all cells in body such as endocrine glands, leading to decreasing of hormone secretion, resulting in aging and Kupffer cell in liver, causing endotoxins accumulated in the blood, leading to more free radicals attacks the immune system, etc.

10. Hormone depletion
The researchers found that if an decrease or absence of the pituitary gland hormones mice is given enough amount of pituitary hormones, it lives longer than a control group of normal mice as it stimulates the production of growth and other hormones such as prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, etc.

11. etc.

Most Common Types of Free Radicals
Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction. They may have positive, negative or zero charge. The unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive in the human body, leading to aging and cancers.
1. Hydroxyl radical (OHa)
The hydroxyl radical, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH-). It is produced from the decomposition of hydroperoxides (ROOH) by the reaction of an elevation in energy level above an arbitrary baseline energy state molecular oxygen with water.
The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a very short in vivo half-life of approx. 10a9 s. This makes it a very dangerous compound to the organism. Hydroxyl radical cannot be eliminated by an enzymatic reaction and can damage virtually all types of macromolecules: carbohydrates, nucleic acids (mutations), lipids (lipid peroxidation) and amino acids, that makes it a very danger compound to shorten the life span of human being.

2. Superoxide anion radical (O2-a)
A superoxide anion is a compound that possesses an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge with the chemical formula O2a with one unpaired electron, leading to the generating of superoxide anion free radical.
Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause immune deficiency chronic granulomatous disease, leading to extreme susceptibility to infection and pathogenesis of many diseases, including aging.

3. Singlet oxygen
Singlet oxygen is the common name used for the diamagnetic form of molecular oxygen (O2), which is less stable than the normal triplet oxygen. In biological study, species, Singlet oxygen causes oxidation of LDL cholesterol and resultant cardiovascular effects.
Since singlet oxygen with activation by light can produce severe photosensitivity of skin, leading to skin defects.

4. Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the simplest peroxide, a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water, that appears colorless in dilute solution. It is considered a highly reactive oxygen species because of its strong oxidizing capacity.
Hydrogen peroxide
A study published in Nature found that hydrogen peroxide plays a role in the immune system by signalling the white blood cells to converge on the site of damage. The process leads to white blood cells did not accumulate at the site of damage, but somewhere else if the gene in production of hydrogen peroxide is altered, causing higher levels of hydrogen peroxide and white blood cells in their lungs accumulation in the lung than healthy people.

5. Lipid peroxyl free radical
Lipid peroxidation is a process in which free radicals steal electrons from the lipids in cell membranes, most often affecting polyunsaturated fatty acids, resulting in damaging to the cell membrane, which consists mainly of lipids, because of chain reaction after initial oxidating by producing even more lipid peroxyl free radicals if not bought under controlled fast enough.

6. Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. Even though, low levels of NO production are important in protecting liver from ischemic damage and contribute to proper smooth muscle contraction and growth, but its free radical and toxic nature can cause DNA damage and inflammation.

7. Alkoxyl radical
Alkoxyl radical which is an alkyl (carbon and hydrogen chain) group singular bonded to oxygen can result in cellular damage caused by oxyfluorfen, a herbicide.

8. Peroxynitrite

Peroxynitrite is the anion with the formula ONOOareacted quikly with carbon dioxide, leading to forming of carbonate and nitrogen dioxide radicals. If the two radicals do not recombine to form carbon dioxide and nitrate, they can cause peroxynitrite-related cellular damage.

9. Etc.

Antioxidants
A. Antioxidant enzymes
Antioxidant enzymes are chemical substances found in plants that can protect the body from damage of free radicals by terminating the chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates and inhibiting other oxidation reactions.
1. Catalase
Catalase is an enzyme, found in most living organisms that are exposed to oxygen helped to converse hydrogen peroxide (free radicals) to water and oxygen as a rate of 40 million molecules of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen each second, using either an iron or manganese cofactor.

2. Glutathione peroxidase
The function of glutathione peroxidase is to protect the organism from oxidative damage by reducing lipid hydroperoxides, an oxidation of lipid cell membranes which can easily break and form free radicals of the form RO and converting free hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.

3. Glutathione reductase
Glutathione reductase, an enzyme reduces pair of sulfur atoms glutathione to the a organosulfur compound form of antioxidant (consisting of three amino acids joined by peptide bonds) which helps to prevent damage of important cellular components caused by free radicals and peroxides.

4. Super oxide dismutase (both Cu-Zn and Mn)
Super oxide dismutase is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide depending on the metal cofactor such as both Cu-Zn and Mn.

B. Metals binding proteins
1. Ceruloplasmin
Ceruloplasmin, the major copper-carrying protein in the blood plays a role in iron metabolism. It prevents the oxidation that leads to the forming of oxidation from Fe2+ (ferrous iron) into Fe3+ (ferric iron) by exhibiting a copper-dependent oxidase activity, causing mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene cause of iron overload in the brain, liver, pancreas, and retina.

2. Ferritin
Ferritin, the protein produced by almost all living organisms, acts as a component to fight against iron deficiency and iron overload, keep in a soluble and non-toxic form and transport it to the body needs, including organs. It enhances the immune system in the presence of an infection or cancer and prevent the infectious agent attempts to bind iron to become free radicals by migrating from the plasma to within cells.

3. Lactoferrin
Lactoferrin, a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family, is one of the components of the immune system of the body by fighting against foreign invasion of bacteria and virus and lipid oxidation by inhibiting oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner even at concentrations beyond its capacity.

4. Metallotheinein
Metallotheinein, a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight proteins helps to bind both physiological heavy metals through the organosulfur compound of its cysteine residues. It also captures harmful superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by liberating the metal ions which were bound to cysteine.

5. Transferrin
Transferrin is a glycoprotein that binds iron very tightly but reversibly. It enhance the immune system in fighting against infection, inflammation by creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacteria survival and cell oxidation.

6. Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that enhances the carrying of oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues and return CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.
During oxidate stress, the cell membrane is protected by intraerythrocytic hemoglobin from the forming of free radical.

7. Myoglobin
Myoglobin is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates. The binding of oxygen by myoglobin is unaffected by the oxidation or chain of oxidative reaction in the surrounding tissue, thus reducing the free radicals damage caused by oxidate stress.

8. Etc.

C. Common antioxidants (scavengers)
1. Bilirubin
Bilirubin is a prosthetic group which helps to break down molecules into smaller units in releasing energy, excreted in bile and urine. It is a cellular antioxidant, by reverting to biliverdin, a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, once again when oxidized that inhibits the effects of mutagens.

2. Carotenoids
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria.
a. Beta-carotene
Beta-Carotene, an organic compound and classified as a terpenoid, a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment in plants and fruits.
a.1. It is not toxic and stored in liver for the production of vitamin A that inhibits cancer cell in experiment. Beta-carotene also neutralize singlet oxygen before giving rise of free radicals which can damage of DNA, leading to improper cell DNA replication, causing cancers.
a.2. Cell communication
Researcher found that beta-carotene enhances the communication between cell can reduce the risk of cancer by making cells division more reliable.
a.3. Immune system
Beta-carotene promotes the immune system in identifying the foreign invasion such as virus and bacteria by increasing the quality of MHC2 protein in maintaining optimal function of white cells.
a.4. Polyunsaturated fat
Researchers found that beta-carotene also inhibits the oxidation of polyunsaturated fat and lipoprotein in the blood that reduce the risk of plaques build up onto the arterial walls, causing heart diseases and stroke.
a.5. There are more benefits of beta-carotene.

b. Alpha-carotene
Alpha-carotene, one of the most abundant carotenoids in the North American diet, is a form of carotene with a I-ring at one end and an I-ring at the other. It is the second most common form of carotene which not only protects cells from the damaging effects of free radicals and enhances the immune system in fighting against bacteria and virus invasion, but also stimulates the communication between cells thus preventing irregular cell growth cause of cancers.

c. Beta-cryptoxanthin
Beta cryptoxanthin is an antioxidant, beside helping to prevent free radical damage to cells and DNA but also stimulates the repair of oxidative damage to DNA. it enhances the immune function infighting against inflammatory cause of polyarthritis, and irregular cell growth cause of cancer due to oxidation.

d. Lutein
Lutein is one of the most popular North American carotenoids. It is found in greens like kale and spinach as well as the yolk of eggs. Lutein is also found in the human eye. Getting enough lutein in your diet may help to fight off age related macular degeneration, an eye condition.
Researcher has shown that people who do not have enough lutein in their diet will not have enough lutein present in the muscular part of the eye. This is what likely leads to age related macular degeneration that can result in blindness.

e. Zeaxanthin
Zeaxanthin, a most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature, is one of the two primary xanthophyll carotenoids contained within the retina of the eye. Intake of foods provide zeaxanthin with lower incidence of age-related macular degeneration as a result of its function of reducing the risk oxidative stress.

f. Lycopene
Lycopene is a red carotene of the carotenoid group that can be found in tomatoes, watermelons, and grapefruits. This powerful antioxidant is believed to be a powerful fighter of prostate cancer. Lycopene has many anti-aging capabilities as well as one of the most powerful antioxidants in the carotenoid group.

3. Flavonoids
Flavonoids also known as Vitamin P and citrinare a yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones occurred in varies plants. it has been in human history for over thousands of years and discovered by A. S. Szent-Gyorgi in 1930. As he used vitamin C and flavonoids to heal the breakage of capillaries, which caused swelling and obstruction of blood flow. Most plants have more than one group or type act as predominate.
Flavonoids process a property as antioxidants. it helps to neutralize many of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals.
Although nitric oxide is considered a free radical produced by immune system to destroy bacteria and cancerous cells, but when it is over produced, it causes the production peroxynitrite which may attack protein, lipid and DNA, Flavonoids inhibit NO production of peroxynitrite due to reduction of enzyme expression.
a. Quercetin
Quercetinis a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains and studies show that quercetin may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties as a antioxidant, quercetin scavenges free radicals, which damage cell membranes, cause mutation of cells with tampering DNA.

b. Rutin
Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat and glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. It inhibits platelet aggregation, decreases the capillary permeability, makes blood thinner and improves circulation. As an antioxidant, it can reduce the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL cholesterol caused by free radical that lowers the risk of heart diseases.

c. Catechin
Catechin is a natural phenol antioxidant plant and natural anti-bacterial substance. Study showed catechin as good free radical scavenging power inhibits ROS production, thus it can be useful to the development of alimentary strategies to prevent OTA-induced cytotoxicity in human.

d. Etc.

4. Uric acids
Uric acids may have a potential therapeutic role as an antioxidant becuase of its function of inducing oxidative stress, either through creating reactive oxygen species or inhibiting antioxidant systems.
High uric acid can cause arthritis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Metabolic syndrome, kidney stones, etc.

5. Thiols (R-SH)
Chemically, thiol, a organosulfur compound has strong odours resembling that of garlic. They are used as odourants to assist in the detection of natural gas. It presents in the amino acid cysseine which helps to the functioning of enzyme regulation, cell signaling, protein trafficking and control of gene expression. As a sulfide residue, thiol plays an important role in cell function of reversal oxidation by interacting with GSSG resulting in formation of intramucolar protein disulfide and GSG.

6. Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 is discovered by Dr. Karl Folfers in 1957, beside promotes the chemical reaction, often by speeding it up or allowing it to proceed under less stringent conditions, it also enhances energy production by promoting the process of the production of ATP then serving as fuel for the cells and acts an antioxidant to prevent the generation of free radicals during this process.

7. Vitamin A, C, E. D.
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurs in the form retinol and is best known for its function in maintaining the health of cell membrane, hair, skin, bone, teeth and eyes. It also plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals in the lining of the mouth and lungs; prevents its depletion in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation; boosts immune system in controlling of free radicals; prevents oxidation of LDL and enhances the productions of insulin pancreas.

b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside plays an important role in formation and maintenance of body tissues, it as an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood, operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, it helps to fight against forming of free radicals. By enhancing the immune system, it promotes against the microbial and viral and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation.
Vitamin C also is a scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation.

c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressue and inducing blood clooting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.

d. Vitamin D
Reseacher found that vitamin D, a group of fat-soluble secosteroids is also a membrane antioxidant, with the ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol.

Others antioxidants
1. Copper
Copper, an essential trace element is essential for the absorption and utilization of iron and distributed widely in the body and occurs in liver, muscle and bone. Deficiency of copper can often cause the anemia-like symptoms. However, ingesting too much of it can lead to generator of free radicals that can damage DNA .

1.1. Antimicrobial and viral Copper enhances the immune function in fighting against foreign invasion, such as bacteria and virus, thus reducing the risk of infection and imflammation by utilizing the absorption of oxygen and production of energy within cells.

1.2. Antioxidant enzyme Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
Copper is vital for the making of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by protecting the cell membranes from free radicals. In fact, it outcompetes damaging reactions of superoxide, thus protecting the cell from superoxide toxicity. Research found in experiment, Mice lacking SOD1(Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]) develop a wide range of pathologies, including hepatocellular carcinoma, an acceleration of age-related muscle mass loss,an earlier incidence of cataracts and a reduced lifespan. Mice lacking SOD3(Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] ) do not show any obvious defects and exhibit a normal lifespan, though they are more sensitive to hyperoxic injury and mice lacking SOD2 (Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial) die before birth. The above result enhances the importance of the presence of copper in improving life span and living health in human as well.

2. glutathione (GSH)
Glutathione (GSH), a polypeptide of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid that occurs widely in plant and animal tissues beside is best known for its role in enhancing the immune system in protect our body from bacteria and virus, it also is an antioxidant that helps to prevent damage caused by oxidation of cellular components such as free radicals and peroxides by converting to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG), leading to generation of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins of which reduces the risk of oxidative DNA damage and subsequently the individual’s risk of cancer susceptibility.

Deficiency of Glutathione (GSH) causes hemolytic anemia, progressive degeneration of the spinal cord, disorders of the peripheral nervous system, diseases of the skeletal muscles, etc.

Intake with vitamin D increases glutathione levels in the brain and appears to be a catalyst for glutathione production.

3. Alpha lipoic acid
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid. It has been used as over-the-counter nutritional supplements to treat a number of diseases and conditions. Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) not only is importance in preventing the symptoms of vitamin C and vitamin E deficiency, but also generates dihydrolipoic acid by reduction of antioxidant radicals.

Recent study showed that Alpha lipoic acid may have a therapeutic and anti-aging effects due to modulation of signal transduction and gene transcription, which improve the antioxidant status of the cell.

4. Manganese

Manganese is an essential trace nutrient in all forms of life. It is well known for its role in helping the body to maintain healthy skin and bone structure, but also acts as cofactors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are essential in detoxification of superoxide (O2a, with one unpaired electron) free radicals.

Although, superoxide is biologically quite toxic and deployed by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms by utilizing the enzyme NADPH oxidase. Any Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidases cause an immunodeficiency syndrome.

Superoxide may contribute to aging via the oxidative damage that it inflicts on cells. In larger amounts, manganese can be poisoning to neurological damage which is sometimes irreversible.

5. Selenium
Selenium , a trace mineral plays an important and indirect role as an antioxidant by fulfilling its function as a necessary constituent of glutathione peroxidase and in production of glutathione, that inhibits the damage caused by oxidation of free radical hydrogen peroxide, leading to aging effects.

5.1. Heart health
Since it works synergism with vitamin E, it promotes heart health. Study showed by increasing the levels of glutathion, selenium decreases the risk of LDL oxidation, thus lowering the risk of plaque building up on the arterial walls, blood pressure and heart diseases.

5.2. Immune system
Selenium enhances the immune function that fighting off the attack of AID virus by promoting the function of interleukin 2 and T-cells.

5.3. Cancer
Study showed that levels pf selenium in blood test is associated with high rate of cancer, including skin cancer.

6. Zinc
Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods. The ability of zinc in inhibiting oxidative processes has been recognized for many years. Chronic effects, zinc enhances the introduction of metallothioneins, which help to capture the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals due to cysteine residues, resulting in lessening the risk of oxidative stress.
Over acute effects, zinc may reduce the postischemic injury to a variety of tissues and organs by involving the antagonism of copper reactivity as a result from its antioxidant functions.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Elevated Liver Enzymes……….?
    Hi all! I gave birth to my daughter on Nov. 15th via c-section. I have a 15 month old son who was born c-section as well. Throughout this pregnancy I had some complications where around my 26th week I could not keep any food down, I had upper, right abdominal pain and I was super sick. When we went in they initially thought that it was my gallbladder and sent me in to do an ultra sound and did blood tests. Everything came back okay but they hospitalized me for ten days and did 2 endoscopys where they found ulcers lining my esophagus and then a biopsy which came up with nothing. They thought about removing my gallbladder but since there were no signs pointing towards it they decided to wait it out due to the risk to myself and my daughter. They decided to manage pain and nausea with Dilauded and promethazine. I was only taking 12 mg. of Dilauded a day and 25 mg. of promethazine once to twice a day. My daughter was born healthy and I was fine so they sent us home five days after she was born. Before I left they gave me my hepatitis and tetanus vaccines. I was fine up until a couple days ago when I started to feel super nauseated and dizzy. I got a migraine and was feeling horrible. I went to my doctor who checked me and said that I looked fine and it did not look like I had an infection or anything that was going on but he wanted to do a blood test to check to make sure everything was okay. Later that night the on-call oncologist called to tell me that my liver enzymes were high and she wanted me to come in to do some more tests first thing in the morning. I went in this morning and they did another blood test to see if my numbers went up, down, or stayed the same. I have not heard back from them yet and I am having major anxiety over the whole situation. I have an appointment with the G.I specialist in two weeks because he did not want to run any gallbladder tests so close to delivery of my baby girl. This morning when I went in for more blood tests my blood pressure was slightly elevated, my heart rate was up, and my doctor told me that my liver enzymes were only slightly elevated. Along with these symptoms I have had a headache that will not go away, My legs swelled up once I got home from the hospital and now they do not swell up as often but if I am on them to much they start to hurt and at night when I am asleep they hurt if I keep them in the same position to long. My left arm where I got the vaccinations is still sore but not as painful as it was the three days after I got the vaccinations. More of an uncomfortable feeling then a pain. I am nauseated but no throwing up. I have pain in my right side of my abdomen and my doctor said that is due to the muscles that are located on that side trying to heal because that was where the majority of my incision was. I have major anxiety when it comes to stuff like this so I am super shaky and I do not know if that is due to the stress of not knowing what is going on with my body or if it has to do with all the other stuff that is going on. I am dizzy, lightheaded and sometimes have muscle spasms. I am super tired but that could be due to the fact that I wake up with my newborn all night to feed her. Over-all I feel like crap and want to try to figure out what could be causing all of this so that I can get some rest and not worry that I am going to die in my sleep/ Has anybody eperienced anything like this? Could all of this be related to the vaccinations that I got? Does anybody know what could be causing all of this? What is the cure to elevated enzymes? What is the relation to the headache and elevated liver enzymes because everyone seems concerned that I have a headache but I have had migraines snce I was seven years old. Please help me calm my nerves! I wrote all of this yesterday and now to add to the fun I have lower left back pain. My doctor called to say that he is not to concerned about the whole thing but to keep my eye on it……..whatever that means. I am not sure I could get any more symptoms at this point and would like to know if anybody knows what this could be, what it could mean, and if I should ignore my doctor and go to the ER and make them run every test under the sun until they figure out what is wrong with me so I can feel better. :(

    • ANSWER:
      Sassy’s information is good. I would like to add to that – since you have nausea, you probably have not been taking in a proper amount of fluids daily which can dause your dizziness and feeling lightheaded. You have promethazine – use it regularly. Dramatically increasing your water intake daily will probably make this go away. As for the back pain – some tylenol or motrin would be appropriate for this. If your enzymes are coming back down, this may be only a temporary condition either related to your pregnancy, medications you have taken, etc. and might resolve itself without further treatment. That is probably why the doctor is taking the “watch and wait” – to see if it resolves on it’s own or if it gets worse and further testing then might be needed. Sometimes, there are not exact answers or diagnoses – you treat the symptoms, see if the treatment works and if not, try another plan of attack which is what your doctor is currently doing. And, since you have been seen recently by your doctor and lots of testing has been done, going to the ER (unless you get dramatically worse during the night) would not be fianancially prudent because your insurance has already paid for testing on your condition and may deny your claim. And, ER’s do not “order every test in the book” because insurance companies will not pay for this. They order tests specific to your complaint and what they believe is going on and you have already probably had a recent CBC and a chemistry with liver enzymes. You are worrying way too much about something that could possibly resolve over the next week or so. And, elevated liver enzymes will not kill you in your sleep. If you get worse, call your doctor back and report your symptoms. Follow your doctor’s advice exactly. Rest as much as possible. Increase your fluid intake and take some pain medication. You need to keep working with one doctor on this, otherwise, fractured care is the end result.

  2. QUESTION:
    low pancreatic enzyme levels and elevated liver enzymes?
    Does anyone know what could possibly cause these two symptoms? Along with a low hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell, and red blood cell count? Thank you!

    • ANSWER:

  3. QUESTION:
    Any ideas about why a 26 year old male would have low testosterone level and elevated liver enzymes?
    Physically active in a construction job, but not the best of diets. Slightly overweight but not obese. Regular health care, non smoker. Primary symptom is fatigue.

    • ANSWER:
      Try testosterone boosters like T Bomb to give you all the stamina that your lacking. This body building supplement somehow retards the lactic acid build up in your muscles. It also makes me feel super human physically.

  4. QUESTION:
    Is it normal to have elevated liver enzyme levels with mononucleosis 8+ weeks after initial symptoms present?
    Long story short, I was diagnosed with mono on January 27. I have had almost every single symptom associated with this illness since then, even the weird ones like vertigo and eyelid puffiness. Both my spleen and liver were very swollen for the first month. My liver enzyme levels were elevated, though not severely, and showed some improvement in the second blood test I had, 2 weeks after diagnosis. After 4 weeks, my abdomen was no longer sensitive and everything felt fine except for the fatigue.

    In the last couple of days, I have been feeling that familiar ache and rumbling in my liver and low grade nausea without the urge to vomit. So my question is, is it normal for the virus to pass in and out of the liver? It’s been about 8 weeks since my initial symptoms subsided, and about 4 weeks since my liver problems (as far as I knew) were resolved. Could it be something more serious?

    • ANSWER:
      Mono usually involve liver and spleen. So hepatitis is associated with mono. therefore enzyme level will also be raised. Unless a complication like cirrhosis is developed test levels should go to normal with recovery from the infection.

  5. QUESTION:
    My dog has elevated liver enzymes?
    My dog’s ALT liver enzyme is quite high. The vet said that their particular lab says it should be between 50 and 107 and my dog’s is 223. The vet is concerned about leptospirosis, but she is now on antibiotics. However, none of her kidney or other liver enzymes were elevated. Her blood counts came back normal as well. She is about 2 years old, and is a yellow labrador retreiver. My main concern is about either liver cancer, or chronic hepatitis. We will continue her course of amoxicillin until she’s finished, and then start a course of doxycycline in case it is leptospirosis. She’s not showing any symptoms except slight fatigue, and disinterest in normal activities. Can someone please put my mind at ease so that I can feel more confident that my baby will be with me for quite some time more?
    She hasn’t been tested for cushing’s, but she isn’t showing any symptoms of that at all. I will have the vet check for that as well as a copper disorder. Also, the vet said she would do an ultra-sound of her liver if after the antibiotics her ALT is still high. Thank you all so much for your comments! It makes me feel much better!

    • ANSWER:
      ALT (alanine aminotransferase) or SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) is a liver specific enzyme. It is concentrated in the cytosol and is released when localized liver cells die from infection or due to the interruption of blood supply. Serum levels increase two to three days after the liver has been affected and return to normal after a couple of weeks of treatment. Generally, two to three times the normal level is considered insignificant and only a persistent increase is considered to be abnormal. ALT levels may go up four to five times the normal level even in non-hepatic disorders like inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, hemolytic anemia, and heart failure. Dogs undergoing treatment with anticonvulsants and glucosteroids, or those that have an inhibited flow of bile may also show a moderate increase in ALT levels.
      Link: http://www.nativeremedies.com/petalive/articles/high-liver-enzymes-dogs.html

  6. QUESTION:
    Elevated Liver enzymes only once. (ALT=63, AST=30)?
    were noticed 2 years ago when i donted blood. after that my doctor repeted several times they come normal. Then later three months from now i started having light fever specially in the evening, i also feel tired and nauscea, which are all symptoms of liver problem, but when i went back to doctor couple days ago all LFT came up normal even ultrasound came up clear. now enen doctor had given up he thinks i am normal just take some pain killers and take some rest. I can’t afford to change doctor plus i don’t know may be my doctor is right as all the tests are clear. Please tell me if you have any idea what could cause that pain and what should i consider next.Thanks in advance.

    • ANSWER:

  7. QUESTION:
    Elevated Liver Enzymes Question. Help is Really, really needed?
    I am a 43 year old man and for the last 3 months I have been feeling fatigued. I have developed these sores on my hands which cause my hands to be very sensitive. I have gone to a few doctors and have taken all types of blood tests and so far all they have found is elevated liver enzymes and low platelets count.
    Here’s the list of my symptoms:
    ~Fatigue
    ~Joint Pains
    ~Sores on hands
    ~A little depressive/sensitive
    ~elevated liver enzymes
    ~low platelet count

    My hands are in horrible pain. I can’t open a water bottle, it hurts to grab a fork or a knife…I feel useless.

    Does anybody have any suggestions, ideas, or comments about what I may be going through?

    Any little help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you in advance.

    • ANSWER:
      I am not a doctor and don’t pretend to be one by diagnosing anything. But I will tell you from my own experience that I had elevated enzymes and a low platelet count and eventually found out I had cirrhosis of the liver. I do know that the enzymes are indicators for a liver problem, but they can be elevated for other reasons also such as medications, gallbladder problems, bile duct problems, excessive exercise, etc. There is quite a list.

      The reason I had low platelets was because when a person has cirrhosis, the spleen becomes enlarged and traps platelets which makes the count low. This can also cause blood clotting problems with having low platelets. Other signs of cirrhosis is clay colored stools, yellowing of the skin/whites of eyes, fatigue, and easy bruising.

      I do not know what could be causing such horrible pain in your hands. You certainly need further testing done to find out what is going on. Blood tests are not the only way to diagnose a problem. Have your doctors ever did a CT scan or ultrasound on your liver? With elevated enzymes and low platelets, I would think they might want that next to see if there is a problem.

  8. QUESTION:
    Elevated Liver Enzymes, Fatigue, Joint Pains? Urgent Help is needed?
    I am a 43 year old man and for the last 4 months I have been feeling fatigued. I have developed these sores on my hands which cause my hands to be very sensitive. I have gone to a few doctors and have taken all types of blood tests and so far all they have found is elevated liver enzymes and low platelets count. I had an ultrasound done and it came out normal.

    Here’s the list of my symptoms:
    ~Fatigue
    ~Joint Pains
    ~Sores on hands
    ~A little depressive/sensitive
    ~elevated liver enzymes
    ~low platelet count
    ~ Vomiting

    My hands are in horrible pain. I can’t open a water bottle, it hurts to grab a fork or a knife…I feel useless.

    Does anybody have any suggestions, ideas, or comments about what I may be going through?

    Any little help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you in advance.
    All this began after I came in touch with a very strong chemical.

    • ANSWER:
      Green tea! (Not just one cup, but 2-3 [no sugar. Sugar bad for you.] every day. You get used to the taste quickly. )
      It’ll assist in all of that.

      Might not completely cure it, but green tea does have a lot of beneficial factors to the human body. There are a lot of videos on youtube you can watch about it.

      This is just a suggestion though. Meditation (If done right) helps too. Beyond this, I have no advice other than to ask a doctor if you’re in that much pain.

      Good luck! Get better~

      —EDIT

      You should see a doctor then and ask what they recommend.

  9. QUESTION:
    Can Gallstones cause your liver function test to be elevated or abnormal?
    Hello.

    I currently have been suffering heaps with pain in my upper-right-quadrant and have found that my liver enzymes are elevated. The symptoms of Gallstones are:

    ~steady, severe pain in the upper right section of your abdomen that may be felt right through to your back between the shoulder blades. The pain increases quickly and may last from 15 minutes to several hours before subsiding;

    ~nausea and vomiting;
    ~indigestion, flatulence or general discomfort in the abdomen; or
    ~intolerance to fatty foods.

    And i have every single one of them, the Dr even said he thinks i have gallstones. I have had lots of different tests and things and don’t have any things horrible like hepatitis or anything, so do you think Or is it possible for (Gallstones) to cause my liver enzymes to raise?

    Thanks a bunch!

    • ANSWER:
      Gallstones can definitely elevate liver function tests. There are other causes for elevated liver tests as you know. Continue working with your doctor to evaluate this. Good luck.

  10. QUESTION:
    Liver enzymes are elevated?
    So I’ve recently got some blood work done for a range of different symptoms. Everything came back normal, but my doctor said my liver enzymes were slightly elevated, she called them mild. I’m calling tomorrow to find out what the exact reading was. She wanted me to stop all alcohol intake for two weeks and repeat the liver panel.

    Is this to make sure the raised levels was because of alcohol?

    I’m 23 and have been drinking lightly since I was about 18. I have also had tests done before and never had this. In the last 2 weeks, I have had very busy, overly fun drinking nights (both weekends Thurs-Sun, NOT my usual habits), could this be why they were raised?

    This is also stupid, but my best friend is getting married this Saturday, do you think I can have a few drinks and stop on Sunday and push my two weeks until two weeks from Monday? Its really not that important that I drink, I am just curious.
    Haha, thank you angiolia, I have asked my doctor and am waiting on her to get back to me. I am impatient and want to know what someone else thinks :)

    • ANSWER:
      Yes,they could be raised because of alcohol intake.
      My levels go up and down randomly and I have a very rare glass of wine. There are many medical reasons for liver enzyme elevations which if you have should be attended to.
      My suggestion is have your wedding drinks in moderation and then go for your blood work in two weeks. A week one way or the other will not matter too much. Be sure not to drink after the wedding and until after the blood work.

  11. QUESTION:
    severe abdominal pain post gallbladder removal + elevated liver enzymes?
    I’m 24 years old, I had my gallbladder removed a year ago because of gallstones and i’m having trouble ever since. I have these episodes/attacks that are in the upper left side of my stomach that are so severe that I went to the e.r. the last time it happened. I usually end up throwing up and it somewhat subsides. It is not related to food but I have noticed that when I take pain killers, the chances of that happening is more severe. It’s the kind of pain that is like a heartburn but 100 times worse. The pain rediates to my back as well, and I can’t find a position to make myself more comfortable. Also my liver enzymes are high, but i’m not having any symptoms of jaundice or anything. My doctor ordered ultrasound- everything is normal. My lypase and amylase levels are normal. I sleep alot and still feel tired. Anyone with the same problem, please come forward and maybe we can share some information in regards to this problem. I just know that I really can’t take it anymore.

    • ANSWER:
      It could be acid reflux(GIRD) or gastritis. I would suggest you see a liver specialist (hepatologist) or GI dr, who can do an endoscopy and will know what the liver enzymes are telling you. Endoscopies are a piece of cake, and nothing to fear. I would rather have that done than go to the dentist, so don’t be afraid of it. It is painless. Good luck, hope you find the source of your problem soon.

  12. QUESTION:
    Elevated liver enzymes?
    I received results from a blood test that show I have a higher than normal level of liver enzymes in my blood. I am a 21 year old male and have no other symptoms and am otherwise healthy. I do not take any medication and I don’t drink excessively. However, I might have had something to drink the night before the blood test (approximately 7-8 hours before). Could this have affected the results? I expressed some concern to the doctor, so he did a physical examination (felt my liver on either side), but couldn’t feel anything. He said that he isn’t worried yet. I am going in for a retest in a few weeks. How concerned should I be?

    • ANSWER:

  13. QUESTION:
    Can gallbladder disease cause liver enzymes to go up?
    I was told my liver enzymes were up but I also have all the symptoms of having gallbladder disease so I’m wondering if that it the cause for my enzymes being elevated?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, gallbladder disease can definitely cause those enzymes to elevate. My mother had gallstones in which they were moving around and causing problems. Her enzymes sky rocketed. I had liver failure and a liver transplant, but her enzyme levels went higher than mine ever did during my illness. Soon as they removed her gallbladder and stones, the enzymes went back to normal.

  14. QUESTION:
    liver enzymes high in my dog?
    We went to the vet the other day, to check on her enlarged heart, and found out with a blood test her liver enzymes and pancreas levels were elevated. The vet said nothing about liver disease, or any other diagnosis. All she did was send us home with clavamox, my dog’s heart pills, and diet dog food (which my dog refuses to eat). This shocking blood work came after my dog ate pieces of hamburger, and new treats the night before. So my question is, if a dog has elevated liver enzymes is it a death sentence? or treatable with a pill or something?
    My dog is 12, but has 0 symptoms of liver disease other then the drinking/urination but she was on a steroid that the vet has now taken her off, and the drinking/peeing has subsided. She also started bloating on the prednisone (spelling?), which also seems to be subsiding since where taking her off slowly. She also doesn’t appear sick at all, even the vet was surprised at her conditioned, compared to when she went in 2 weeks ago with an eye infection (which lead to the xrays saying enlarged heart, long story about a shady vet before and wrong dosages of antbiotics)
    also should I ask about doggy diabetes? she does have a few symptoms that I’ve looked up online for diabetes, but as I said just the urination/drinking (which is less) for liver disease. I know in people untreated diabetes affects the liver, could this be why the liver and pancreas was up?

    • ANSWER:
      prednisone has very distinct and expected side effects. big increase in water consumption, lots of urinating, makes them hungry all the time and causes the belly to lose elasticity which causing the belly to bloat and ‘hang’ lower. all normal and usually doesn’t cause a problem. must be weaned off due to it causing the pituitary being stopped from making cortisol while on pred. These are the same types of symptoms that diabetes has. some heart meds can increase liver values as well.
      prolonged or chronic use of steroids takes a toll on especially the liver and can damage kidneys. when pets are on steroids a lot they should have blood work done to monitor liver and kidney levels. having an increase in liver enzymes isn’t considered a problem until its a high number. slight increase isn’t a problem. Pancreatic enzymes being increased typically is caused by pancreatitis. lots of ways to get it but very painful requiring pain meds and hospitalization.
      weaning off steroids should let the liver values decrease over time. if not, there are many different treatments and help. they do have a supplement for dogs that have been used for decreasing liver. Marin and denosyl are common and work best together. not a death sentence anymore with advances in medicine. All animals on prolonged meds should be watched closely and blood work done frequently. I hope this helps. good luck and hope your girl feels better!

  15. QUESTION:
    Liver symptoms: help?
    I have a nasty reoccurring bile taste in my mouth—I have swollen area in my side. I have had gallbladder removed. Liver enzymes only slightly elevated so dr does not want to persue that direction. Has anyone had these symptoms before? Thanks.
    Gall bladder was removed a couple years ago because of pain and nausea. It did not help—-and it has gotten progessively worse.

    • ANSWER:
      Unfortunately a foul taste and abdominal pain could be a large list of conditions/disease/syndromes, or what-have-you. The fact that you gall bladder was removed (knowing why would help) makes me lean towards a possible infection; but you didn’t mention the typical immune response to infection, fever etc. I would advise to get another blood test, hepatic health can change surprisingly rapidly despite what people have told me.

  16. QUESTION:
    Thirsty all of the time and elevated liver enzymes!!?
    I feel dehydrated and thirsty all of the time, my blood sugars can be perfectly normal but my lips will be dry and cracked and i’ll feel as if i cant get enough water. I swear i carry a bottle of water everywhere i go, if i don’t i usually get dehydrated. does anyone else have this problem and do you think it could be a symptom for another underlying illness??

    I had a repeated blood test a little while ago because my previous blood test showed an alteration in liver enzymes, I dont even drink, do drugs or do anything to put my body at harm. But either way this recent blood test showed they had returned to normal, something to worry about?

    • ANSWER:
      It could be a medication you are taking. I was taking depakote, a seizure med and it always made me terribly thirsty. It also raised my liver enzymes.

  17. QUESTION:
    having liver problems with strange symptoms?
    (20 year old male) last summer i noticed a weird sensation on the tip of my penis after awhile the pain turned into tingling wich lasted for about 3 days then stopped but then the pain seemed to spread to my bladder area causing a lot of pulsating movement which lasted about a month i finally went to the doctor they tested my urine and blood, the urine came out ok but the blood test came back with elevated liver enzymes. they said it might be autoimmune hepatitus but not sure. I went back again and thay said the enzymes had increased I have no symptoms of jaudice. my only symptom i have are mucsle twitching or tics and weird movents in my abdomin, this whole thing has caused me develop extreme anxiety. if any one can help id appreciate it.

    • ANSWER:
      How can anyone on yahoo answers help?!

      Don’t ask people of yahoo answers.

      The vast majority of these people aren’t doctors and even if they were, they cannot tell what is wrong with you based on a few lines of text.

      GO AND SEE A DOCTOR. AGAIN.

  18. QUESTION:
    Having liver problems and strange symptoms?
    (20 year old male) last summer i noticed a weird sensation on the tip of my penis after awhile the pain turned into tingling wich lasted for about 3 days then stopped but then the pain seemed to spread to my bladder area causing a lot of pulsating movement which lasted about a month i finally went to the doctor they tested my urine and blood, the urine came out ok but the blood test came back with elevated liver enzymes. they said it might be autoimmune hepatitus but not sure. I went back again and thay said the enzymes had increased I have no symptoms of jaudice. my only symptom i have are mucsle twitching or tics and weird movents in my abdomin, this whole thing has caused me develop extreme anxiety. if any one can help id appreciate it.
    don’t drink don’t smoke

    • ANSWER:
      Hmmm……. yes, this does sound like some sort of parasitic infection. Eat as much fresh garlic as you can tolerate, take grapefruit seed oil and clove oil (as directed). Make sure you are drinking pure water. Also try drinking pau d’arco tea (at health food stores). Please google parasitic cleansers to get more info.

      I would also suggest posting this question again but file it under alternative medicine. There are a lot of wise and knowlegable people there that have gone through a lot of medical ailments and can share some light. Best of luck to you.

  19. QUESTION:
    Elevated Cholesterol, Hemoglobin, & Liver Enzymes. Can someone help me interpret these lab blood results?
    I’ve been having a few symptoms as of lately that include: lightheadedness, fatigue, & burning sensation in shoulders. I went for a blood test and here are the abnormal/elevated values:

    RBC: Limits are 4.10-5.60, my level is 5.80
    Hemoglobin: Limits are 12.5-17.0, my level is 17.8
    Hematocrit: Limits are 36.0-50.0, my level is 52.3
    ALT (SGPT): Limits are 0-55, my level is 60
    Cholesterol, Total: Limits are 100-199, my level is 218
    LDL Cholesterol Calc: Limits are 0-99, my level is 154

    I am concerned. Can someone provide good info on what could be going on? I am 32 yrs. old, male, 5’8″, weigh 200lbs., don’t smoke, don’t drink, don’t use drugs. I appreciate your help.

    • ANSWER:
      I’m going to explain a few things about these tests:
      first off…no blood test is 100% accurate, doctors usually
      do more than one to confirm the accuracy of them. Also,
      your chemistry is changing constantly in your body.

      I notice that you placed the normal reference range on
      each one of these, this is good cause the reference range
      differs from one lab to another.

      The RBC stands for Red Blood Cells, these cells have
      Hemoglobin (iron)on them which picks up the oxygen molecule we breathe in and transport to all the cells of our body and then return with the carbon dioxide, to the lungs, to be released.
      There are a few things that can occur: if the cells are below
      normal, which yours are not, you could have what is known
      as anemia and be extremely tried because you don’t
      have enough red blood cells that your body needs to
      transport this oxygen. Or you could have an increase in
      RBC, which is what appears to be true in your case. This
      means your body and bone marrow is producing more
      red blood cells. This can be caused if you live in an
      area of high altitude, are smoking, or are having lung problems, like asthma, cause your body needs to produce
      more to carry more oxygen. It can also be high due to
      loss of iron (which doesn’t seem to be the case here since
      your hemoglobin is high), low body fluids, vomiting, diarrhea, or sweating alot without replacements of fluid. But, if you are
      looking for a specific disease of this, it would be
      Polycythemia where they body produces more Red Blood
      cells and it can cause clumping of theses cells together and
      the blood is too thick and only the doctor can give you
      treatment for this.

      Hemoglobin is the iron on which the oxygen molecule
      attaches to on the RBC. If you have more RBC, it would
      be natural to also have more hemoglobin also.

      The blood has different kinds of cells in it: the red blood cells,
      the white blood cells, and the platelets…these are in a fluid
      known as plasma. How can they tell how much of each
      cell you have in your blood? They place your blood sample into a machine that spins it around fast and it separates them. The plasma is usually on the top, then the wbc, then the
      platelets and at the bottom is the RBC. It is measured to
      see the percent of the amount of RBC at the bottom to
      the whole amount of blood taken which would include all
      these. This is known as your Hemocrit…Your is slightly high.

      Having a high amount of RBC isn’t really good…it may seems
      like you should having more oxygen, but this may not be since it can slow the blood flow down since the abundance of these cells can stick together and cause clotting. Your doctor will see this and take into account of your RBC Indices, which you didn’t post here, to be sure what is happening and
      treat you appropriately.
      The Red blood cells indices, known as the MCV, MCH,
      and MCHC :
      The MCV stands for Mean corpuscular volume which
      indicates if the RBC are of normal size.
      The MCH stands for Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin and
      will tell them the weight of the hemoglobin in a RBC.
      And the MCHC which stands for Mean Corpuscular
      Hemoglobin Concentrations will tell them the amount
      of hemoglobin in the an average red blood cell of yours.

      Having an increase in the number of RBC can cause your
      ALT level to rise also. ALT is a liver enzyme and all
      blood flows through the liver and can cause the liver
      to work harder.

      Now for the Cholesterol:
      There are two types of fats in our bodies: cholesterol
      and triglycerides. Cholesterol is needed by our bodies
      to form cell membrances and triglycerides are usually
      used for giving our cells the energy they need to function.
      Both are necessary, but there is good and bad.
      Your cholesterol is slightly high, however, your LDL kind
      is way too high. Let me explain about the LDL versus
      the HDL( you did not post the HDL here). HDL
      is good because it picks up cholesterol from the body and
      takes it to the liver,however, LDL is not good cause it takes
      these fats out to the body and can become deposited in our vessels and cause hardening of the arteries and possible blockages. Therefore, the need to decrease the amount of LDL is important. …if the doctor thinks it is because you take too much in your body, a diet will also be advised…or, if
      he thinks it is definitely hereditary…you will be placed on
      medication to lower it.

      If you get lightheaded, lie down for a few minutes.
      This will cause more oxygen to reach your brain. When
      you rise, sit up first on the end of the bed and wait a
      few minutes and then get up.
      Please be sure to consult with your doctor…there are
      medications out there that can thin your blood and these
      symptoms can go away.

      If you want to learn more about your lab work and what
      each of them mean, here is a site where you can check..

      http://www.labtestsonline.org.

      I am not a professional, so this information is only for
      learning purposes. I wish you the best.

  20. QUESTION:
    Diagnosed Chiari Malformation1 10mm, high liver enzymes and rapid weight gain mid section. Body aches & cramps
    Hit head May 2007, gained 80 lbs in 10 months. Eating and excercise didn’t change. MRI shows CM1. Blood tests keep showing elevated liver enzymes. Tested for Cushings, test came back negative. Belly hurts and is hard to touch. Liver feel like been hit with a bat. Exhausted all the time. Had complete hysterctomy in 2006. Have weird neurological symptoms. parts of head and face go numb. Feel like rubberband around my ribs and sometimes a hat or sunglasses on my head by they aren’t. Can’t lose the weight no matter what. Miserable. Does Chiari cause rapid weight gain. Also, I have a benign tumor on my thryroid measured at 1.4 x 1.8cm but thyroid blood tests are good. Feels like someone standing on my throat. Very hoarse at times. Also, my body temperature is always at least one degree below normal. I don’t have a gallbladder and I have had three sinus surgeries. I am on several meds for nausea and vomiting, I have erosive esophagilia. I also suffer from severe insomnia.

    • ANSWER:
      Sorry, but this is too much for YA. You need a doctor. I hope you feel better soon.

  21. QUESTION:
    Help interpret these lab blood results. Elevated levels of hemoglobin, cholesterol, & liver enzymes?
    I’ve been having a few symptoms as of lately that include: lightheadedness, fatigue, & burning sensation in shoulders. I went for a blood test and here are the abnormal/elevated values:

    RBC: Limits are 4.10-5.60, my level is 5.80
    Hemoglobin: Limits are 12.5-17.0, my level is 17.8
    Hematocrit: Limits are 36.0-50.0, my level is 52.3
    ALT (SGPT): Limits are 0-55, my level is 60
    Cholesterol, Total: Limits are 100-199, my level is 218
    LDL Cholesterol Calc: Limits are 0-99, my level is 154

    I am concerned. Can someone provide good info on what could be going on? I am 32 yrs. old, male, 5’8″, weigh 200lbs., don’t smoke, don’t drink, don’t use drugs. I appreciate your help.

    • ANSWER:
      That is because you are too healthy ! Try to eat less animal fats, change them with vegetable oil such as olive oil in the long term. There are some medication (some of them plant extracts) that decreases cholesterol level you should consider. Practice more sport. Repeat the tests in one month, you might be predisposed to atherosclerosis after the age of 60. Live your life and beware of hypochondria !

  22. QUESTION:
    What could these symptoms mean?
    My boyfriend has been to the er three times and also a gastrologist or something like that with no answers yet. What could these symptoms mean? Throwing up with no pain beforehand and usually in morning, antinausia meds not working for it, and elevated liver enzymes not caused by alcoholism.

    • ANSWER:

  23. QUESTION:
    Liver pain, bile taste in mouth?
    I just need some direction. I have had gall bladder removed for these symptoms 2 years ago and it did not help. Now? Its worse. Liver pain (or pain in liver area), nausea when I have bile taste in mouth (comes and goes) dizziness (seen an ear specialist for but came to no conclusion except excess ear fluid). I also am only 36 but my cycle is getting further apart and less in duration. I googled my symptoms “Liver pain and bile taste in mouth” and found tons of Chinese (I think) herbal sites talking about “Qi” which I do not understand. Does anyone have any recommendations? When I had my gallbladder removed, I was diagnosed with fatty liver disease and my liver enzymes were elevated prior to surgery but that’s about it. I do not drink but do struggle with weight on and off. Any thoughts or helpful advice would be appreciated. I did begin taking Milk Thistle as I read it helps clean the liver out and I also have an appointment with my physician early next week.
    Just looking to see if anyone has had similar symptoms and ahd have received diagnosis or if anyone knows of a way to get rid of bile taste and liver pain (pain meds do not work).

    • ANSWER:
      Ask your doctor for an upper GI
      Sounds like they might have missed
      a stone in the liver ducts.

  24. QUESTION:
    Abdominal pains, itchy hands, high liver enzymes… kind of long.?
    Hi, I just joined to inquire about my condition… In February 2010, I had severe stomach pains and nausea, it was like a stabbing, it got so bad and went on for hours so i went to the hospital. They ran tests and did xrays. Everything looked normal on the xrays and I felt better after they put iv fluids in me. the only thing was that my liver enzymes were extremely elevated. like in the 400′s. So i went to my doctor the next day and she sent me to get tested for hepatitis and it came back negative and the enzymes went down by like 100 points then she referred me to a gastro doctor. I went months later and my insurance was no longer valid so i wiped it off, thinking it was just food poisoning. A few months after that I went on birth control and got the same pain so i stopped it and the pain was gone. I tried nuva ring next and it was a terrible experience, same pains but worse and dizzy too. I Stopped that and the pain was gone. It’s been about two months since the nuva ring thing and last night i felt kind of sick again after my hands were uncontrollably itchy. I got all these ideas in my head which made my stomach feel sick so i was up all night researching what could be wrong and liver disease keeps coming up. I never had any of these problems until i had a baby so I’ve been blaming all this on my body changing. I have an appointment with gastro in three weeks but in the meantime, I’m freaking out. it could be liver disease. i used to drink excessively when i was around 18-21 years old, i even got alcohol poisoning once. I also in high school took tylenol pms all the time because i couldn’t sleep without them.. i know these things could have damaged my liver. I am now 24. I haven’t had a sip of alcohol since September of 2008 when i found out i was pregnant and i very rarely take pain meds so shouldn’t this have gone away unless i have considerable damage? I have every symptom of hemochomatosis with the joint pain and everything but i know that is iron overload and when i was pregnant i was anemic so it doesn’t make sense. When I was 19 my wrists hurt so bad adn the doctor took xrays and told me i have lax tendons or ligaments, can’t remember. Since then, it just gets worse. I don’t know if that has to do with this problem but that has been happening for years. Also, I am 5’2 and weigh 125 so i’m not really overweight. Please help.

    • ANSWER:
      A problem that starts out with itchy hands and then an upset stomach is likely to be an allergic reaction to something – a food allergy is a strong possibility.

      Forget about the liver stuff – liver enzymes can become elevated from a single dose of acetaminophen and some other drugs, and the liver can sustain huge amounts of damage and recover completely. Liver problems typically only develop when a person causes chronic damage over several decades – like drinking alcohol daily or consistently taking certain medications; or from liver disease. The sporadic nature of your symptoms points away from liver problems.

      It might be helpful if you had an appointment with your GP to get a wellness blood panel prior to your Gastro visit. A blood panel would confirm or rule out liver problems and might also show indicators of allergic or autoimmune problems.

  25. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to have cholestasis of pregnancy if you’ve had your gallbladder removed?
    I had to have my gall bladder removed when I was 6 weeks pregnant due to gallstones and elevated liver enzymes. I am now 31 weeks pregnant and having symptoms of cholethasis but was wondering if that was possible seeing I’ve had my gallbladder removed?

    • ANSWER:
      ask your Dr

  26. QUESTION:
    What is a good diet for someone with liver disease?
    This is the third time in a year I have had rapid onset of stomach pain with right upper quadrant tenderness. Happens after drinking coffee and eating late breakfast at about noon. I can feel periodic stomach pain and liver associated pain a leading up to episode. Symptoms last about a week with headache, fatique, extreme right upper quadrant pain that feels like it is in a spasm and real tight right over liver with stomach pain. When I eat it usually gets real bad where I can’t move and is relieved when I drink water. I have had a number of scans from the Doctors and they turn up clear. I have also noticed bitter taste in mouth this last time. I don’t eat very well. Lot’s of coffee, ice cream and fatty, fried food. Need to eat more fruits and vegetables. My blood work usually shows up with elevated liver enzymes.

    • ANSWER:
      Sounds like gall bladder symptoms, or pancreatitis. Low fat, no fried stuff. No alcohol. Elevated liver enzymes are to be taken seriously. Liver disease is an ugly way to die.

  27. QUESTION:
    Can you live a normal life with cirrhosis if detected early and you don’t drink?
    My husband was recently diagnosed with cirrhosis. fIt all start with elevated liver enzymes on a blood test he was taking for insurance. We would have never known something was wrong as he has no symptoms just this elevated number. With some further investigation with his Doc, he concluded Cirrohsis b/c of elevated liver enzymes, enlarged spleen and noticed a lumpy liver. Never had a biopsy. Doc says he would have never known he had it if he wasn’t looking for it. He quit drinking 3 years ago and just quit smoking. He’s 33 and has no symptoms. I’m worried and want him to have a normal life. I’m assuming it’s early stage based on the fact that he has no symptoms.? What are his chances of stopping any more damage and living a normal life? Dr. would like to see him every 6 months to a year.

    • ANSWER:
      I’ve heard that if people with cirrhosis don’t drink, their lives can be prolonged. Also you should watch his diet. My step father was rushed to the hospital by ambulance this morning for his end stage cirrhosis. He found that he had cirrhosis in 2001. Could have had it 10 years or more before finding out. He didn’t quit drinking until 3 months ago. Last week the doc gave him > 6 months to live.

      http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/gi/cirrhosis.html

  28. QUESTION:
    My cousin is very sick- is anyone familiar with these symptoms?
    Here is a list of her symptoms:

    Pain on right side of abdomen, near liver and floating rib
    normal white blood count
    pain with breathing
    lump on the neck
    blood tests show vitamin D deficiency and elevated liver enzymes (she has never drunk alcohol)
    normal bowel movements
    no jaundice
    no pain when putting pressure on floating rib, lump, or abdomen

    She’s been having pains on and off for nearly 6 months now, but for the last few weeks she’s been in terrible pain. Things have been getting worse for some time and were at their worst so far last night. She’s not taking any medications regularly and 800mg of ibuprofen with codeine seemed to offer relief. Aleve and massage sometimes help too.

    ANY IDEAS? I’m desperate for any leads on possibilities.!

    • ANSWER:
      Two studies need to be completed for a diagnosis…Ultrasound, Hepatitis Panel.
      Rule out Gallstones and Hepatitis. In the mean time important tips are:

      Gallstones Avoid high fat in your diet (no milk products, butter, gravy, chicken skin, fatty cuts of meat, burgers,etc) Gallstones cause havoc on the Gallbladder. The Gallbladder is located in the right upper part of your abdomen. It’s function is to store bile made by the liver and transported thru the Common Bile Duct to the Gallbladder. When you eat foods high in fat the Gallbladder contracts to release bile, a digestive enzyme used to break fat down. If there are stones in the Gallbladder this can cause spasms or colic, which can be a severe pain in the pit of your stomach (where rib cage meets belly) radiating to right upper abdominal area and even chest and right shoulder blade. Breathing may feel difficult because of Phrenic Nerve irritation.
      Get a Ultrasound (Sonogram) done to confirm Gallstones. If you develop jaundice, fever, uncontrolled pain, vomiting go to ER.

      Hepatitis can be diagnosed with blood test and a Ultrasound to look at the liver. Avoid alcohol, Many drugs are also hard on the liver…avoid Tylenol until hepatitis ruled out.
      Hepatitis is transmittable, contagious…blood, feces/stool, urine, saliva, semen, tears, vaginal fluids depending on Type, take precautions until cleared.

      Get the other test done, this will help with possibilities.

  29. QUESTION:
    Weird liver? Any ideas?
    I am working with a team of doctors and none of us have any clue what’s going on with me! The symptoms I have had are extreme abdominal pain(in the area around my belly button and up which goes all under my ribs in the front) darkened urine, and today my eyes have turned yellowish. I have never touched alcohol, I’ve never touched any medication not prescribed to me and I only have ever had one sexual partner(my husband). I gave birth in November of 2007 to a healthy baby boy. The only abnormality in ANY of my tests has been slightly elevated liver enzymes. I want to re-emphasize that I have NEVER drunk alcohol… not even a drop! They did a hepatitis panel and I was negative for all of that. When I had the abdominal pain it was incredibly severe(worse than labor could have thought of being!). It doesn’t seem food related. The doctors are at a loss. Nothing else in my history seems related. I am otherwise fairly healthy.

    • ANSWER:
      Levir is one of the vital organs of the body, your levir needs to be puified. a little problem in lever can cause great problems on overall health. have you been tested for jaundice. I felt the same situation in jaundice as well drink more fluids and see a doctor who can check your bile which is assciated with liver. I hope i can help to locate your problem.

  30. QUESTION:
    Can some 1 Help me Diagnose these symptoms?
    Can some 1 Help me Diagnose these symptoms?
    My main Symptoms are feeling tired and a little brain fog . with weird movements or vibration primarily on my lower abdomen. sometimes middle of chest and around stomach. These symptoms seem to come after feeling a sharp pain my penis which then became a tingling sensation. It then seemed to moved upward and effecting my lower abdomen with a fluttering/vibration feeling. I also have this weird feeling of something crawling on my head or my hair is moving it comes and goes. I Also been having low libido. I seen to several doctors. Had a ct scan came out ok an ekg was ok chest x-ray ok been tested for hepatitis negative. And the only thing that were found abnormal were:
    elevated liver enzymes,
    gobulin high,
    total protein high,
    mchc high
    urea nitrogen low
    ultra sound fatty liver.

    • ANSWER:
      Well it definitely appears that there is something wrong with your liver. The enzymes, globulin and fatty liver are all related. It might be a stretch but have you ever heard of hepatic encephalopathy? It occurs when the liver is damaged (from cirrhosis, fatty liver, etc) and it causes the liver to not be able to break things down properly, and this results in the build-up of ammonia in the blood. Depending on how severe it is, ammonia build-up can cause just a little bit of mental changes, or a lot. This is focused on the breakdown of protein and since your protein level is high, it would make since because the liver can’t break it down properly, so it’s still there.. Urea is a product of the breakdown of protein, and if it’s not occuring properly, that would explain while your urea is low since it’s not breaking down.

      Hepatic encephalopathy does cause mental changes or what you describe as “brain fog” and could be the cause of fatigue. The abdominal problems are associated with the fatty liver/cirrhosis. A simple blood test will tell if you have an elevated ammonia level in your blood.

      You should ask about it, it would make sense to me! Hope this helps.

  31. QUESTION:
    What are some signs or symptoms of kidney damage?
    I used to be addicted to narcotic painkillers, many of which contained acetaminophen or ibuprofen along with the narcotic. I was a drinker too. It’s been about 3 years since I stopped. They always check my liver enzymes at the doctor. They were elevated, but came back down to normal shortly after I got clean. I don’t think they ever checked my kidneys though. What would be some signs that I have any kidney damage?

    • ANSWER:
      Hypertension (High Blood Pressure). You should go see a nephrologist to have your blood tested to find out what your kidney function is.

      Unless you are in severe kidney failure, there isn’t going to be much to know. There are no skin rashes or things like that.

      I had a kidney transplant last year in July.

      Toward the end stages of kidney failure you will be tired all of the time, sleeping during the afternoon, your urine will be just about clear comming out, leg cramps, edima, swelleing of the angkles and feet (Water Retention) and so much more.

      Go see a nephrologist to confirm either way this is the best way to find out. You can contact me by clicking on my profile if you would like to ask more questions.

  32. QUESTION:
    Fatty Liver NASH Wilson’s Disease?
    I recently had a liver function test and it came back that my liver enzymes were elevated. About 2 years ago I also had a liver function test that said the same thing and an ultrasound that said both my liver and spleen were enlarged. I was both vaccinated and tested for hepatitis and my tests were negative. My current doc said that I may have a fatty liver and that we will recheck liver function in 4 weeks. My question is can Wilson’s Disease present as Fatty liver or NASH? I understand that Wilson’s is a very rare hereditary disease but I don’t want to assume it’s merely fatty liver if Wilson’s is behind it as that could be fatal. I’ve also heard that fatigue and depression as well as enlarged spleen are symptoms of Wilson’s. Any info would be appreciated.
    Also, I don’t drink, at all. I never have. I’m 23 years old.

    • ANSWER:
      Okay, so I doubt you have Wilsons disease. Wilsons and fatty liver (steotosis) present differently. The classic wilsons picture is elevated liver enzymes, psychosis, and low ceruloplasm. Testing for wilsons is really easy – all your doctor has to do is do a blood test, test for serum copper and ceruloplasm. On physical exam, you would exhibit keiser-fleischer rings (bronze colored rings around your eyes) as well as have psych abnormalities. Wilsons disease is a metabolic abnormality where copper is absorbed in excess. Its easy to test for so you can rule that out with a blood test.
      In terms of steatosis – are you overweight by any chance? Even if you don’t drink, you can develop a fatty liver as a part of metabolic syndrome if a person is overweight.
      Anyway, how elevated are your enzymes? What are the exact numbers? Have you had your alkaline phosphatase measured as well?

  33. QUESTION:
    Fatty Liver/ NASH/ Wilson’s Disease?
    I recently had a liver function test and it came back that my liver enzymes were elevated. About 2 years ago I also had a liver function test that said the same thing and an ultrasound that said both my liver and spleen were enlarged. I was both vaccinated and tested for hepatitis and my tests were negative. My current doc said that I may have a fatty liver and that we will recheck liver function in 4 weeks. My question is can Wilson’s Disease present as Fatty liver or NASH? I understand that Wilson’s is a very rare hereditary disease but I don’t want to assume it’s merely fatty liver if Wilson’s is behind it as that could be fatal. I’ve also heard that fatigue and depression as well as enlarged spleen are symptoms of Wilson’s. Any info would be appreciated.
    Also, I don’t drink, at all. I never have. I’m 23 years old.

    • ANSWER:
      Does anyone in your family have Wilson’s? The best thing to do is either call your doctor and ask or wait until your appointment and ask. Sometimes doing research on your own can relieve anxiety and sometimes it can bring about needless worry. No one here can tell you whether or not you have Wilson’s, but I’ll be thinking about you.

  34. QUESTION:
    What is the outcome after being diadnosed with non alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver?
    After having a routine MRI some abnormalities showed up which led to further testing and a liver biopsy. It appears that at sometime in the past I had auto immune hepatitis that went undiagnosed. I really didn’t have any symptoms other then fatigue but then I was always fatigued for other reasons. As of right now even with the cirrohsis my liver function is normal but my liver enzymes are elevated but not high enough for treatment. I realize the hepatitis could flare up again which would call for aggressive treatment to prevent any further scaring of my liver. I have read all kinds of information on these diseases both very disturbing and some encouraging but I would just like to know if anyone who reads this has been diagnosed with this or knows someone who has and what has been the outcome.

    • ANSWER:
      I have an autoimmune disease in which my autoimmune system attacks the bile ducts in my liver. This is called primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). I am curious to know how the doctors came to the conclusion that you have a problem with your autoimmune system to the point that it has caused cirrhosis. If this is true, then this autoimmune problem has been going on for a very long time to damage your liver to the point of it being cirrhotic. I had no symptoms with my disease until my liver was already 90% destroyed with cirrhosis. I suddenly started to swell up with fluid and had no idea anything was wrong prior to that. It was a shock to me that my liver had so much cirrhosis that I would need a transplant. I had no idea anything was going on inside of me.

      That autoimmune hepatitis is probably still flaring up each and every day since it just doesn’t stop and go away. It takes many years to destroy a liver. There is really nothing much they can do as far as treating it. Sometimes they will give medication to help it, but it really doesn’t stop the disease from progressing, especially when its from your autoimmune system. When symptoms from the cirrhosis appear, they can give medications to control them and lab work is done routinely to ward off problems early. I used to have to get an endoscope done every 3-6 months to get banding done to any varices that form to lower the risk of bleeding problems. Basically, they just let the disease take its course since there is no cure other than a transplant.

      Even when my liver was 90% destroyed, my liver enzymes were just slightly above normal. My transplant doctor told me this can happen with some people, that the enzymes can almost normalize even though the disease is far advanced.

      You said you had a biopsy done. It should show the amount of damage done and how much cirrhosis (scarring) your liver has in it. Figuring out the cause of it when it is not so obvious like alcoholism, can be difficult to diagnose. That’s why I asked how they determined yours was from an autoimmune problem. I didn’t know the real cause of mine until after my transplant. The biopsy also should show whether or not there is active inflammation going on. The elevated enzymes can be an indication that there could be continued inflammation.

      The good thing is that you are still asymptomatic which means your liver is still compensating. It can stay this way for a long time. When I started to swell with fluid, that was my first sign of it starting to decompensate. Even then, I took diuretics that controlled the fluid retention quite well for several years. Once I was diagnosed with cirrhosis, I believe I went and got evaluated for transplant and was placed on the list a year later. I waited 18 months for my transplant and am doing well today. My autoimmune disease still wants to attack my new liver. I do take a medication that works well in keeping my enzymes in normal range which means there most likely will not be any damage as long as they remain that way.

      If you want to ask me anything else, just email me. I will be happy to help you if I can.

  35. QUESTION:
    does my daughter have sickle cell symptoms?
    my 5 year old has been having really high fevers,infections,night sweats,terrible leg pain.her liver enzymes came back elevated,her sed rates were high,she has muscle inflammation all over her body.i have to wait for the sickle cell results so i was wondering if there is anyone who has sickle cell or knows anyone that does and might be able to help me

    • ANSWER:

  36. QUESTION:
    Very early signs & symptoms of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis?
    I’ve been being studied because I have elevated liver enzymes, I’ve had a CT scan and an ultrasound that have come back both normal. So we went to the next step and did a liver biopsy. All that came back on that is it showed a mildly inflamed liver but not signs of fibrosis or cirrhosis and my liver had no scarring what-so-ever. But because of my blood work, they want to treat me for PBC. The doctor wants to put me on a medication “just in case” it is PBC but my husband (and I agree with my husband) wants me to get a 2nd opinion by a homeopathic doctor. I’ve already spoke with one who actually has helped others in my family. My sister-in-law is off all medications she was on and actually lost 23 lbs. by just changing her diet. She, too, had elevated liver enzymes and now they are back to normal. I’m kinda stuck between a rock and a hard place cause I just don’t know if I should take the med or not. I’ve probably had this problem for about 2 to 3 years so I’m thinking what’s another couple month to try to rule it out with natural remedies…..Any suggestions?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi Mina,
      You weren’t specific as to how you were diagnosed, but I can only suspect you had high Alkaline Phos test and a positive AMA or anti-mitochondrial antibody. These are the hallmark blood tests which indicate PBC, along with a high sed rate (ESR) and GGT. It is great that your biopsy is not showing any damage, yet. Keep in mind that a biopsy is a small portion of a particular location of your liver. It is possible that a biopsy of a different location may tell a different story. If you want to talk to some folks that are familiar with the disease, symptoms and diagnosis, you should join the yahoo page on pbc. I have been a member since diagnosed with pbc and they are fabulous. It is true that some do not have symptoms despite advanced liver disease, while some have symptoms before significant damage. Itching, fatigue and other inflammatory symptoms seem to be the most common. I was in the same boat as you and reluctant to take Ursodiol; however, I did a lot of research and joined the yahoo group as well as a facebook group and in the end….decided not taking it was a risk I wasn’t willing to take. It is a personal decision. The yahoo group is at http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/PBC_Digest/ Good Luck!!

  37. QUESTION:
    What is causing my 37 yr. old husband abdomen pain for the last 2 months?
    Started out w/chest pain & then found slightly elevated liver enzymes (normal now though) & slightly higher blood pressure at times. His pain could be on either side of his abdomen-either upper left side under ribs to lower right abdomen. Sometimes blood in stool and urine along w/ diareah at times. By sternum there always feel like a fullness there(trapped gas-I think).Stomach always bloated, heartburn at times & burping. Recently his big toe went numb for quite awhile (poor circulation). They notice in his urine that he was dehydrated a couple of times.His ct scan says gallbladder wall is thickend without gallstones.Therefore soon they are doing a stess test on his gallbladder to see if it needs to be removed or not. If that all it is I would be happy with that but when I try to diagnose this online it seems the symptoms I find seems to be more serious than the gallbladder. Anyways, I would like opinions on what this could be-the sooner the better!! Thank you!!

    • ANSWER:
      He may have irritable bowel, or diverticulitis. Sometimes those disease processes can cause blood in the stool. If he smokes, has a high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or a family history of heart disease, he should see the doctor about this, too. Colon disease dosen’t cause poor circulation in the feet.

  38. QUESTION:
    help me out with these symptoms?
    ten months ago i started to feel wierd. i felt a little dizzy and anxious all the time. I seemed like i couldn’t think straight.
    I also had bout’s of what felt like an adrenalin rush that came out of nowhere. my ears ring alot and i have alot of muscle twitching plus my vision has gotten worse. I also had pain in my penis that went up to my lower abdomin. ever since then i have’t felt the same. I went to the hospital and didn’t find anything but elevated liver enzymes and fatty deposits in my liver. I’ve seeing a doctor about my liver. but im not sure if my liver could be the cause of my mental confusion.
    20 year old male don’t drink don’t smoke

    • ANSWER:
      I am not a medical doctor, but it sounds like your gallbladder may have been infected at one point. That would explain the liver trouble, which may now be affecting your pancreas.
      I had pancreatitis once, during my second pregnancy, and they kept on saying<"When was your last drink of alcohol?"
      They had a hard time believing that I don't drink alcohol.
      You never know what is wreaking havoc on your body until you find a few good doctors.
      Turns out, I have MS. So, my body is always attacking itself.
      Sounds fun, doesn't it?LOL
      Seriously, you need a medical workup. I wish you the best of luck!

  39. QUESTION:
    Elevated ALT, now nausea after eating?
    About 3-4 weeks ago I had a stomach virus which warranted some blood tests from the doctor just to make sure there was nothing else going on… It all came back normal except for and elevated ALT liver enzyme around 125… This seemed normal to me as I had recently had a bit of a binge on ketamine and drank a bit in the previous weeks. As I was getting better I contracted pneumonia and was put on azithromycin to clear it up. I abstained from all drugs and alcohol for a week or so and went back to double check the liver enzymes (also noted I have not taking drugs or drank since). The ALT had risen again to 256! The doctor told me he was still waiting on the hepatitis results and that he would call me when they come back, and he told me to come back if I got any more symptoms. Within several days I noticed some fatigue (unable to stay up passed 11-12 hours in a day and sleeping more than 12 hours) and nausea after eating. I went to the emergency where they did a whole bunch more of blood work and saw my alt rose to 320. Everything else seems fine.

    The doctor there got me to do an ultrasound which turned up fine. They took pictures of my stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, etc. That same day they did another liver enzyme test and the levels dropped to 277. The doctors think I may have got some type of viral disease or form of hepatitis that could be resolving and has asked me to go back in a week to get the levels checked again.

    However, the nausea that I’ve been experiencing after meals is getting worse everyday. At first it was only after big meals but I’m getting to the point where eating almost ANYTHING makes me extremely nauseous for 1-2 hours after every meal. I’m worried because I used to eat 5-6 meals a day and work out regularly but now I can hardly stomach 3-4 small meals or exercise.

    There is a little abdominal tenderness but no notable pain anywhere. I am not suffering from jaundice and my stools are medium brown. My only symptoms are exhaustion and the nausea only after meals. Any idea what could cause this or what steps I should take next?

    • ANSWER:
      azithromycin is known to cause liver problems in some… Doctors hate to admit this and they also aren’t big believers in supplements but there are a couple you might try.

      SAM-e and PPC or even simple Lecithin should help. Ask your doctor if it would be safe to try these.

      Take the SAM-e on an empty stomach with a full glass of water an hour before meals. The 200mg dose is less likely to cause stomach upset.

      Never take a “Z-pac” azithromycin again!

  40. QUESTION:
    what do these symptoms have in common?
    high protein levels detected in urine, elevated liver enzymes by 3 since last hospital visit, h pylori detected in stool, neck burning sensations and pinching sensations throughout the body, bad migraines, throbing head feel the veins poping out, feeling warm throughout the body even though i have a normal temperature, shocks that feel like the sensation that you just saw something scary or heard something scary that lasts every 5-20 seconds randomly at somepoints during the day. what do you think? im supossed to take another urine sample just to make sure and get my blood tests next week.
    i switched from neium to zantac, geodone to abilify, and taking klonopin

    • ANSWER:
      The temperature and shock symptoms all sound like antidepressant side effects. It’s probably the abilify as Zantac wouldn’t and klonopin shouldn’t. Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria that causes stomach ulcers and is pretty common. Liver enzymes can be up from tons of things, especially if you took Tylenol for the migraine. Do you have migraine meds also? Alot of them affect serotonin which could be the shocks. Can’t really say anything about the urine protein without knowing way more.

  41. QUESTION:
    What do these symptoms mean?
    Elevated liver enzymes that have risen over 3 months to ALP444 GGT 504 AST 136 ALT 218 INR 1 bili 9. total protein normal all viral screen normal, C-RP normal ANA 1:160 anti-dsDNA 180 full blood count normal lipids 6.8 electrolytes normal, mild RUQ pain normal ultrasound loose B.M. one per day, AMA, etc and P-ANCA negative. Awaiting biopsy reults. WHat have I got??

    • ANSWER:

  42. QUESTION:
    Fatty Liver on and off for years – ALT Slightly Elevated?
    I was diagnosed with a fatty liver (ultrasound) about 5 or 6 years ago. I had elevated ALT and AST enzymes. I was a bit overweight but not obese (6′ 215) – drank on weekends mostly. I lost the weight and went down to 186. All levels returned to normal but I never had another ultrasound. I have never gotten back up to that weight but on occasion I would get to 200 or 205 (maybe twice to be exact) and enzymes would come back slightly elevated (lose weight and they would go back down). This last time, only the ALT came back high .. (80 on a scale of 10-60). I am in the process of losing weight, I am around 205. I have no symptoms. Should I be concerned that this can evenutally lead to NASH and then Cirrohsis? Or can you have slight elevations and fat in the liver from time to time and have it be harmless?

    • ANSWER:
      In general, fatty liver is a completely reversible process. If you abstain from alcohol and lose weight, your liver should regress to its previous state of health (presuming that there is no damage besides the fatty change). The problem, as you seem to be aware, is that the fatty change can lead to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which can in turn lead to cirrhosis. Most healthy people do not have significant fat accumulations in their livers, nor do they have recurrent elevations of liver enzymes. You should probably go see your physician and ask for a personal evaluation related to your own situation.

  43. QUESTION:
    How premature can a baby be and survive?
    I was reading about Preeclampsia, and the book said that if the symptoms were severe for the mother (ie >160/100, > +4 proteins in urine, low platelets, elevated liver enzymes and signs and symptoms of end organ damage), it is imperative that the baby be delivered to alleviate the condition.

    That’s all good if she is at more than 36-37 weeks, but what if she is only 24 weeks pregnant with severe preeclampsia with a BP and symptoms uncontrolled by medications?

    How premature can a baby be and survive?
    Wow! So many great answers. Thank you all very much.

    • ANSWER:
      Age of viability (the age where a baby can survive) is 24 weeks gestation, and below the 24 week mark the percentage of babies who survive is extremely low. Level 4 NICUs will treat babies born in the 23rd week, but almost no hospital (at least now) will touch a baby born before 23 weeks. That being said, I read somewhere that the youngest baby to ever survive was born at 21 weeks and so many days, but my daughter was born at 22 weeks and she was alive when she was born. The hospital I delivered her at would not touch her, and she passed away after two and a half hours. They told me that her chance of survival at that point was close to zero. And had they tried to do anything to save or prolong her life, she would suffer through pain and she would have permanent brain damage, lung problems, heart problems, the list went on and on. In just a few years I’m sure we will hear stories of babies surviving at 16, 17, and 18 weeks, but currently the cut off is 23 weeks. In the case of a mother with severe pre eclampsia or eclampsia, or in my case with a severe uterine infection, where the mother will die if the baby is not delivered and it is too early to save the baby, doctors will always choose to save the mother.

  44. QUESTION:
    I have a question about allergys and the liver. Can allergy test or allergy shots affect the liver?
    I never had symptoms of allergys until about 2 and a half years ago. My body itches until I bleed from scratching. Some times I get hives too. It can be unbearable at times.I have even been to the ER a few times it was so bad. This summer I had allergy test in June that showed a reaction to about 75% of what they test you for. The allergist prescribed a few different kinds of of medicines and allergy shots. The shots started in late July. The middle of August I got real sick and my family dr. decided to do a scan on my right upper side where pain was. My liver was swollen. My right kidney also had something mildly wrong with the flow or something. Come to find out my liver enzymes were really elevated then too, They have went down and up again since then though. The reason I wanted to know about the allergy test and shots is because I know the liver has something to do with fighting allergys.
    Just incase anyone was wondering, I was checked for hepatitis and it’s negative and I rarely ever drink! I mean rarely.
    I am farely thin also.

    • ANSWER:
      Your main problem is your allergy; also, please be advised that obesity can ruin a liver. Allergies and obesity affect many things. Another thing to check for is, Toxocara Canis. This is a small worm from dogs that can enter your body and mess up your eyes, brain, liver, and kidneys, and they can also grossly affect allergies. It’s gotta be one of these.

  45. QUESTION:
    Do I Have Celiac Disease of Liver Problems?
    My doctor did blood tests and it came out negative for celiac. He referred me to a gasterentrologist. I have all the symptoms of celiac, including a pesky rash. My bowel movements are light colored and fatty. Sometimes constipated and sometimes diareah. I am losing weight, but I do eat right and exercise. My liver enzymes were slightly elevated, however. I have some abdominal pain and bloating after I eat. Anyone have any ideas? What are some other tests for liver disease?

    • ANSWER:
      Hello your story sounds very similar to what i went through just a few months ago, i was experiencing abdominal pain and had many of the symptoms for celiacs, yet my tests came back negative. i was losing weight and my liver enzymes were also slightly elevated. All my tests came back negative for any type of liver problems however. About three weeks into all this testing i had a very bad day where my pain became very bad and i went to the hospital, long story short after many tests i was diagnosed with crohn’s disease. Crohn’s Disease is an auto immune disease that affects the digestive tract. You may want to ask your doctor for a CT scan which would be a good option to rule out crohn’s and it will give a good look at your whole digestive tract to see if anything else is up. To answer your question blood tests, and ultrasounds would be the best tests to check for liver disease, although i don’t think that is your problem… Hope i helped and feel free to email me if you have any questions

      Feel better & Good luck

  46. QUESTION:
    I would like to know if anyone knows what is going on with the following symptoms.?
    I have abdominal pain,excruciating low back pain,chills, fever and tremors sometimes lightheaded.
    It only happens like maybe 4 to eight times a year.
    and it generally only lasts for 20-35 minutes.
    I am in my 40′s.
    I have no other medical problems I used to have acid reflux but no longer have this.
    Had many different tests which all came back normal, liver enzymes were slightly elevated but are normal now.
    I have went to a few doctors and I still have no answers as to what is causing these symptoms.
    I had a ct scan and all the other lovely tests I do not have gallstones or kidney stones either.

    • ANSWER:
      kidney stones?

      f/u
      The reason I said kidney stones is because the symptoms seem similar. However, it seems to me that once a kidney stone passes, the symptoms go away, but I’ve never heard of a kdney stone passing so quickly.

      And the doctors have no clue? If you’ve been seeing one doctor, what about seeking a second opinion? Having someone else eyeball your medical records and many test results might be useful if you have not already done this.

  47. QUESTION:
    with these symptoms what would you think i may have?
    so a few weeks ago i started getting symptoms of gallstones such as:
    -pain in upper right stomach
    -pain worse at night
    -pain in back where right shoulder blade is
    -gasiness

    so i went to my doctor and i got a ultrasound that came back normal
    a urine test that showed traces of blood and a small infection (i would assume kidney infection but knowone actually said where the infection was)
    and a blood test for liver enzymes and it showed the enzymes were elevated.

    i don’t go back to the doctor until wed the 26th (earliest i could get in)

    i still have all of my symptoms and no relief in sight.

    so is there anything besides a gallbladder problem that you could think would be causing my problems?
    i’m going to ask for more gallbladder tests like the HIDA scan but i’d like to get any other ideas of what this could be so i can go in and ask about some other possible answers besides a gallbladder issue.

    so if you know anything about that area of the body i’d appreciate your thoughts.

    -

    • ANSWER:
      You should know better than to ask for what amounts to a diagnosis. Liver enzymes can elevate because of some unimpressive reasons, like eating a big meat meal or heavy exercise. And on the other hand they can also indicate a gallbladder disorder.

      Many of the symptoms you’ve described can be attributed to other disorders so this doesn’t necessarily have to be a gallbladder attack or gallbladder disease. Stomach, appendix and liver disorders should be ruled out and perhaps they already were. I wish you’d described your pain better and in more detail. Quality, frequency, duration and intensity of pain can often give a lot of information. As far as the UTI, I’m surprised that you’d assume pyelonephritis. That’s a little extreme. Even though no one told you where the infection is, you could have asked. You would have been told.

      If you think this might be your gallbladder acting up then you should be eating with that in mind. Jeez, HIDAs are so expensive. Consider an ERCP but go with whatever your doctor recommends.

      Here’s a link to a short gallbladder screening questionnaire. Click on it, complete it and see what your results are. And speak to your doctor to find out what you can do about the pain. You could probably get worked in sooner if you stress the pain. Definitely stick to a gallstone diet just to be on the safe side. A heating pad might help with pain. At this point, without more suggestive symptoms, looks like you’ll have to wait for additional diagnostics.

      http://www.gallbladderattack.com/questionnaire.shtml

      As far as the advice to have liver function tests run, you did that already. That’s what enzymes measure — function.

  48. QUESTION:
    I am a 27 male with elevated ALT (132) and bilirubin (2.1) with no other symptoms, what could be the cause ?
    ( my last year liver enzymes values were perfect – no posible risk of infected blood – no history of surgery within the last 5 years – I completed a 10 days course of Moxifloxacin 3 weeks back – I am taking Singulair/Nasonex/Benadryl for allergy – Sometimes ,I take Advil or Pepsid but not regularly/ my Lipid profile is Good. 2 days prior to the test I started to take Echinacea 3 times daily for my cold. I appreciate your help

    • ANSWER:

  49. QUESTION:
    c reative protein elevated?
    I am still light headed everyday. I feel bouts of fatigue throughout the day, chills, tingleys all over, chest pain, shortness of breath, constipation, and circulation problems that involve my fingertip swelling occasionally and my hand and feet turn purple or sometimes reddish. Some times they are really cold other times they become very hot. I have had numerous tests. A MRI of the head. An abdominal Cat scan. An EKG on my heart not to mention several blood tests. The only thing that has come up is my bilirubin has elevated to 2.7, LIver enzymes are perfect they say. I have had a hepatitis profile done and everything is normal, I am even still immune to Hep B. My doctor seems to think my symptoms have become asymptomatic and that my anxiety is coming out in different ways. Has anyone else felt like this? Today i got the results back from my C Reative Protein test and it was elevated. So now I have to be sent to a blood specialist? What does this mean? What could be wrong?

    • ANSWER:
      Higher-than-normal levels of CRP may indicate inflammation or a bacterial infection, such as rheumatic fever. CRP levels do not always change with a viral infection. However, a CRP test cannot indicate where the inflammation is located or what is causing it. Other tests are needed to determine the cause and location of the inflammation. You should probably just wait until you see the specialist. Also an elevated CRP could indicate heart disease and sometimes it is elevated when you have colon cancer. There are so many things it could mean and I hope you find out what is causing it to be elevated. Good luck.

  50. QUESTION:
    I have alot of different symptoms, yet doctors cannot piece together the puzzle yet.?
    I originally went to my dr for having diabetes like symptoms…irritability, feeling sick when i havent eaten in a few hours, etc. A blood test was performed and it came back that my liver enzyme levels were elevated. I underwent ultrasounds and blood tests for months and its believed that I might have fatty liver infiltration. I do not eat a horrible diet but I cut out all fat and lowered cholesterol. During this time period, my enzyme levels skyrocketed then plunged, but still over the “normal” level. During all of this I noticed a lump under my left armpit that I had noticed with no other symptoms. I switched to natural deoderant, underwent ultrasounds and its believed to be a non-cancerous fatty tumor. Other symtoms i’m having are, male pattern hair growth (im a female), missed periods, increased weight gain (especially in the abdomen), depression (im guessing from my appearance), and i know my male hormone levels were elevated last time my blood was drawn. Any ideas what this might be? Either one condition or multiple? Doctors seem not to know.

    • ANSWER: