Fat In Liver And Pancreas

Pancreatic diseases are the serious alarming bell to change the diet, life style and focus on the liver's health. Why on the liver, "I was told I have problem with my pancreas?"

To understand that, we have to accept the idea that all upper GI tract organs such as stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and duodenum work together as a orchestra and failure in one organ causes the problems in whole system. To understand relation between liver, bile ducts and pancreatic gland one needs to know about structure, function and relationship of these organs.

Liver is our chemical factory with many tasks. Manufacture and release the bile is one of the life important functions of the liver.

Liver removes the toxins from our body by separating them on water-soluble and fat-soluble substances.

First, liver makes water-soluble wastes less toxic; moves them to the blood and then to the kidney for urination them out.

Second, liver move the fat-soluble wastes into the bile and then to the small and large intestines for eliminating them out from body. More toxins are in our body, more toxins go to the bile. The liver is a storage site for carcinogenic chemicals, pesticides, drugs, and other toxins. Inability to remove these toxic substances can lead to decreased bile production and inflammatory changes in the liver and bile ducts. Thus, bile is getting acidic, aggressive and can corrode another tissue and cells. When the bile throws back to the stomach, it causes ulcers.

When the bile throws back to the pancreatic duct it causes blockage of the duct that drains digestive enzymes from the pancreas leading to inflammation of pancreas - pancreatitis.

The main reason to make bile aggressive is deficiency of minerals, microelements and bicarbonates, which cause the acidosis and changing of biochemistry of bile and pancreatic juice. From another hand, our organism is bombarded every day by myriads of harmful chemicals from food, water, air and toxins from inside or outside of our body. The worst enemy for the liver and bile is alcohol, thus, it is not wonder, that alcohol abuse is number one factor leading to pancreatitis. Unfortunately, there are many parasites, especially one cell organisms, which also cause toxicity and inflammation of bile ducts.

All of these above cause difficulties with production and elimination of bile. Toxic, acidic, solid bile with gallbladder stones or sand may obstruct the bile ducts and spasms of valve between the bile and pancreatic ducts and small intestine (duodenum). These stones can be very small like sand or large and can make blockage of moving of bile, increasing the pressure into pancreatic duct and back up the pancreatic juices that doctors call biliary pancreatic reflux.

The pancreatic digestive enzymes, which trapped inside, start to digest their own pancreatic cells causing congestion, inflammation, pain, cysts and finally death of tissue of pancreas gland.

If the doctor diagnoses pancreatitis this is a huge signal to change the life style and focus on liver and bile health.

What can be helpful?

  • Healing Diet.
  • Herbal Medicine.
  • Nutritional Supplementation.
  • Acupuncture.
  • Therapeutic Exercises and Point Massage.
  • Drinking Healing Mineral Water made from the Genuine Karlovy Vary Thermal Spring Salt.

Successful treatment of chronic pancreatitis is generally difficult and without focusing on liver and bile problems almost impossible. Contrary, the improving the biochemistry of bile, enhance the production and promote the elimination of bile are very beneficial for people with pancreatic disorders.

The information on this article is presented for educational, informational purposes only.It is not intended as a substitute for the diagnosis, treatment and advice of a qualified licensed professional.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Can you answer this question?
    Describe the parts played by the liver and the pancreas in the digestion of fats.

    Liver: _____________________________________________________

    Pancreas: _________________________________________________

    • ANSWER:
      1)Like produces bile, which emulsifies fat making it easier to be digested.
      Bile is store in gallbladder.
      2)Pancreas produce pancreatic juice that contains many digestive enzymes such as trypsinogen, amylase, chymotrypsinogen, carboxypeptidase, and pancreatic lipase. Lipase plays role in lipid digestion (lipid is another name for fat).

  2. QUESTION:
    How do the pancreas and liver participate in the chemical digestion of carbs, protein and fat?

    • ANSWER:
      pancrease secretes lipases, proteases and carb digesting enzymes... galactase maltase etc. liver produces bile which emulsifies lipids giving a greater surface are for enzymes to work on

  3. QUESTION:
    How does lowering blood sugar actually effect fat metabolism as on a diet?
    If you're about to tell me that insulin stores glucose in fat and muscle, anything about the Glycemic Index, etc then you're wasting time. I know that already.

    I want an INTENSELY CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY based answer to how specifically lowered blood sugar levels will motivate the body chemically to favor adipose tissue metabolism. Specifically, the question comes from cinnamon - I'd always assumed that since it was an insulin 'substitute' that it would somehow be recognized by the receptors in the GI tract and tell the pancreas to lay off with insulin production, thus less glucose would be stored on a meal without cinnamon, but thinking of it that's really just called insulin insensitivity so that was a retarded idea arising from lack of thought on the matter.

    So if you still have all the insulin the meal would normally give, and you've stored more glucose in muscles and liver and fat, um... how's that help you lose weight? Shit I'm outta room, read extra below....
    Fat weight, of course (not muscle mass!)

    Only thing I can figure is that it makes you store stuff, which burns more calories than you ate after it's broken down again. Like, ok, insulin tells -> store! And the cells are like, ok; and active transports use energy to do the storage and atoms are bound and stuff happens so that while you ate and had in you 100 calories here, you really only end up storing a net of 85 in the end. Then your body says crap, low blood sugar - has to break down with glucogen taking more energy and tadah, you've burned more.

    But usually since insulin is there it acts antagonistically with burning fat so lean muscle would be catabolized a lot then. SO that sounds bad for anyone who wants to be muscle large - this would only be good for women wanting to be stick thin.

    Plus, while we're at it, we get tired when blood sugar's low yes? Why SPECIFICALLY? Are there receptors say in our pinkey toes that say to conserve energy, sugar's low? DETAILS!?

    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      I came across this great product for weight loss and it was excellent for me. Together with a good diet and exercise I am finally happy with my body and the way I look. You should check this product at
      http://www.best-free-thin-diet.us , they have a free trial and you only pay .95 shipping and handling. A must!

  4. QUESTION:
    some biology multiple choices...need help with these couldn't find them in text book !?
    1. Which of these enzymes begins the breakdown of starch?

    a)bile
    b)disaccharidases
    c)lipase
    d)amylase
    e)nucleases

    2. Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____.
    a) lactose
    b) sucrose
    c) fructose
    d) maltose

    3. What is the main component of gastric juice?
    a) amylase
    b) water
    c) bile

    4. What acid is responsible for stomach acidity?

    a)HCl acid
    b)carbonic acid
    c)sulfuric acid
    d)acetic acid
    e)sodium hydroxide

    hard one *******

    5. _____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____.

    a)Lipase ... small intestine ... fats ... small intestine
    b)Trypsin ... pancreas ... fats ... small intestine
    c)Nucleases ... pancreas ... nucleic acids ... stomach
    d)Amylase ... salivary glands ... starch ... stomach
    e)Bile ... liver ... fats ... small intestine

    • ANSWER:
      1. d
      2. d
      3. b
      4. a
      5. e

      Did I win a prize?

  5. QUESTION:
    are there any foods u can eat to help your liver or pancreas?
    im on the waiting list for a liver and pancreas.. but in the meanwhile i want to try and be as healthy as possible. Besides taking pills or hard core diets and liver cleanse diet type things..are theyre any foods that could help me feel better i have cirrosis of the liver due to all the medicines i take for my cystic fibrosis..which also ruined my pancreas and now i have diabetes.. but yea im on a high fat diet soo any answers would help even if your not sure i can atleast try somthing =P thanks! :) )

    • ANSWER:

  6. QUESTION:
    Interesting article "Thin people might be fat on the inside" no question here...?
    Internal fat around organs can increase diabetes and heart risks
    The Associated Press
    Updated: 12:03 p.m. PT May 11, 2007
    LONDON - If it really is what’s on the inside that counts, then a lot of thin people might be in trouble.

    Some doctors now think that the internal fat surrounding vital organs like the heart, liver or pancreas — invisible to the naked eye — could be as dangerous as the more obvious external fat that bulges underneath the skin.

    “Being thin doesn’t automatically mean you’re not fat,” said Dr. Jimmy Bell, a professor of molecular imaging at Imperial College, London. Since 1994, Bell and his team have scanned nearly 800 people with MRI machines to create “fat maps” showing where people store fat.

    According to the data, people who maintain their weight through diet rather than exercise are likely to have major deposits of internal fat, even if they are otherwise slim. “The whole concept of being fat needs to be redefined,” said Bell, whose research is funded by Britain’s Medical Research Council.

    Without a clear warning signal — like a rounder middle — doctors worry that thin people may be lulled into falsely assuming that because they’re not overweight, they’re healthy.

    “Just because someone is lean doesn’t make them immune to diabetes or other risk factors for heart disease,” said Dr. Louis Teichholz, chief of cardiology at Hackensack University Medical Center in New Jersey, who was not involved in Bell’s research.

    Even people with normal Body Mass Index scores — a standard obesity measure that divides your weight by the square of your height — can have surprising levels of fat deposits inside.

    Of the women scanned by Bell and his colleagues, as many as 45 percent of those with normal BMI scores (20 to 25) actually had excessive levels of internal fat. Among men, the percentage was nearly 60 percent.

    Relating the news to what Bell calls “TOFIs” — people who are “thin outside, fat inside” — is rarely uneventful. “The thinner people are, the bigger the surprise,” he said, adding the researchers even found TOFIs among people who are professional models.

    According to Bell, people who are fat on the inside are essentially on the threshold of being obese. They eat too many fatty, sugary foods — and exercise too little to work it off — but they are not eating enough to actually be fat. Scientists believe we naturally accumulate fat around the belly first, but at some point, the body may start storing it elsewhere.

    Still, most experts believe that being of normal weight is an indicator of good health, and that BMI is a reliable measurement.

    “BMI won’t give you the exact indication of where fat is, but it’s a useful clinical tool,” said Dr. Toni Steer, a nutritionist at Britain’s Medical Research Council.

    Unhealthy skinny people
    Doctors are unsure about the exact dangers of internal fat, but some suspect it contributes to the risk of heart disease and diabetes. They theorize that internal fat disrupts the body’s communication systems. The fat enveloping internal organs might be sending the body mistaken chemical signals to store fat inside organs like the liver or pancreas. This could ultimately lead to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, or heart disease.

    Experts have long known that fat, active people can be healthier than their skinny, inactive counterparts. “Normal-weight persons who are sedentary and unfit are at much higher risk for mortality than obese persons who are active and fit,” said Dr. Steven Blair, an obesity expert at the University of South Carolina.

    For example, despite their ripples of fat, super-sized Sumo wrestlers probably have a better metabolic profile than some of their slim, sedentary spectators, Bell said. That’s because the wrestlers’ fat is primarily stored under the skin, not streaking throughout their vital organs and muscles.

    The good news is that internal fat can be easily burned off through exercise or even by improving your diet. “Even if you don’t see it on your bathroom scale, caloric restriction and physical exercise have an aggressive effect on visceral fat,” said Dr. Bob Ross, an obesity expert at Queen’s University in Canada.

    Because many factors contribute to heart disease, Teichholz says it’s difficult to determine the precise danger of internal fat — though it certainly doesn’t help.

    “Obesity is a risk factor, but it’s lower down on the totem pole of risk factors,” he said, explaining that whether or not people smoke, their family histories and blood pressure and cholesterol rates are more important determinants than both external and internal fat.

    When it comes to being fit, experts say there is no short-cut. “If you just want to look thin, then maybe dieting is enough,” Bell said. “But if you want to actually be healthy, then exercise has to be an important component of your lifestyle.”

    • ANSWER:
      For those like me, a man of very large size, I don't have health issues other than my 550 plus pounds. For a man of my weight, I would say I am sort of active. I do walk, albeit slowly and with a careful waddle to make sure I keep my balance, and I do like to swim. I also like to eat and I do eat a lot. That comes with the size. Good article.

  7. QUESTION:
    What is the Digestive system in order?
    I have to do an Essay for class and need everything in order in the digestive system. The words we have to use are;
    Mouth, Mucus, Teeth, Chyme, Uvula, Gastric Juices, Mastication, Pharamnx, Villi, Capillaries, Large intestine, Small intestine, Salivary Glands, Stomach, Enzymes, Starches, Esophagus, Peristalsis, Sugars, Epiglottis, Tongue, Gallbladder, Liver, Pancreas, Bile, Fats, Esophageal Sphincter, Enzymes, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Rectum, Fats Anus Stores Bile, Pyloric Sphincter.
    Help.

    • ANSWER:
      Hello... Here you are some info... I hope it helps you...

      Digestive System
      Purpose
      The digestive system prepares food for use by hundreds of millions of body cells. Food when eaten cannot reach cells (because it cannot pass through the intestinal walls to the bloodstream and, if it could would not be in a useful chemical state. The gut modifies food physically and chemically and disposes of unusable waste. Physical and chemical modification (digestion) depends on exocrine and endocrine secretions and controlled movement of food through the digestive tract.
      Mouth
      Mouth Food enters the digestive system via the mouth or oral cavity, mucous membrane lined. The lips (labia) protect its outer opening, cheeks form lateral walls, hard palate and soft palate form anterior/posterior roof. Communication with nasal cavity behind soft palate. Floor is muscular tongue. Tongue has bony attachments (styloid process, hyoid bone) attached to floor of mouth by frenulum...

      You can get more info here:

  8. QUESTION:
    Anybody good with Biology/Nutrition?
    Here's a few questions for you...

    Which of the following determines the nature of cell's work?
    a)organs
    b)mutations
    c)red blood cells
    d)genes

    The body's cells need nutrients around the clock.
    a)True
    b)False

    Which of the following is considered only a storage organ?
    a)liver
    b)gallbladder
    c)salivary glands
    d)pancreas

    Without sufficient ________, the digestive tract muscles get too little exercise and become weak.
    a)energy
    b)fiber
    c)nutrients
    d)water

    The bones provide reserves of:
    a)vitamins
    b)calcium
    c)glycogen
    d)a and b
    e)b and c

    A person in an emergency situation is unable to eat for several weeks. which of the following would provide the energy which this person would need to survive?
    a)fat
    b)liver glycogen
    c)bones
    d)muscle glycogen

    • ANSWER:
      1.a
      2.a
      3.b
      4.b
      5.b
      6.b

  9. QUESTION:
    Severly Insulin Resistant with Raised glucose but not enough to be Type II Diabetic.....?
    ONLY those who are really in the know should answer this question please....

    If somebody is Severley Insulin Resistant with raised glucose levels but is NOT yet type II Diabetic, then will diet alone get rid of the chronic fatigue?

    My doctor has left me with the impression that obesity is the cause of my daughters Insulin Resistance.

    I am of the understanding that because her bodies fat cells, Liver & Muscles are resisting the insulin it itself is being stored as solid fat bulking her up all the more. So since the body doesnt know what to do with the insulin it is unable to convert the food into necessary energy!

    So where do I go from here?

    This individual hardly eats if anything at all during the day. They eat at Tea Time a healthy dinner (and not a bucket load either) and that is it! I am worried that should they start eating breakfast, dinner & Tea that they are going to end up a sumo wrestler.

    As it is they end up sleeping all day, are unable to function and look literally drunk most of the time, if not all of the time and end up falling to sleep at the desk!

    Please help because I really dont see how just following a diet without the use of medication (ie:metaformin) is going to help.

    Besides all of this because her pancreas is mass producing insulin, it is seeping into her skin around her neck, inner elbows, armpits, groins, inner thighs/crutch and under her bust line and tummy! This leaves the body brown/black and is referred to as Acanthosis Nigricans.

    Does some practitioner or some specialist out there have the answer as to whether following a strict dietary regime (without medication) will that alone cure the chronic fatigue and result in weight loss???
    My daughter is under an Endocrinologist at The Birmingham Childrens Hospital. All I have been informed by letter is that she indeed has Acanthosis Nigricans, is Severely Insulin Resistant and already has impaired glucose tolerance, of which has not yet made her Type II diabetic.... Basically Acanthosis Nigricans is the bodies mechanisium of overspilling the surplus insulin thats being produced, (into the skin) delaying the body becoming type II Diabetic (just yet). It is diet controlled, which if done well prevents type II Diabetes coming into complete effect, but through all information I have read they are always given metformin too! I just dont understand why she hasnt been prescribed it when she is Severley Insulin Resistant. ???? She has around 5 stone to lose.....
    Thankyou for your answer but just something for you to chew on too. Type I diabetics can also become Double Diabetic and suffer from Acanthosis Nigricans. This happens if type I sufferers scoff what they want and just inject insulin as they please in line with there food consumption. Eventually they can become insulin resistant and end up with the tell tale black patches neck, armpits, groin etc...... Double diabetic being type I & type II at the same time......
    I got the following information from the following website:

    http://www.driscollchildrens.org/diabetes/ponder_docs/insresist1.asp

    Why do people with Insulin Resistance gain weight?
    The ability to produce and store fat is present in persons with Insulin Resistance and may even be higher than normal. Insulin makes the fat cells store unused energy as fat. And so, with high insulin levels, all that extra insulin will grab any extra fuel (from food) that is not being used for energy and store it as fat in your body. This equals to more weight gain!

    High insulin levels can also cause rapid growth of muscle, bone, and other tissues. It is quite common for a child with insulin resistance to be not only heavier, but also taller and appear more mature for his years compared to other children the same age.

    • ANSWER:
      Sharon, there are lots of things to address here.

      First of all severely high insulin resistance with HIGH glucose levels IS diabetes. How high are you talking about? What is her Fasting Blood Glucose levels? What is her A1C? The range of reference for normal fasting blood glucose levels is 70 - 100. 100 - 125 is considered pre-diabetic and anything over 126 is diabetes.

      Another point is that obesity does not cause diabetes. There is a strong connection between the two and obesity increases your risk factor of developing it, but there is not proof that FAT GIVES YOU diabetes. Your Dr is probably explaining that her high blood sugar levels is related to her weight which is true, but it isn't the sole cause.
      Once a diabetic, always a diabetic. Loosing weight will not reverse it. You can help CONTROL blood sugar levels with diet, exercise and weight loss, but not reverse it.

      Another point, high blood sugar will cause weight LOSS not weight GAIN. Sugar/Carbs is your body's main source of energy. When the body cannot properly break it down and utilize it, it will turn to the stored fat as a secondary source of energy. Therefore, the body will breakdown fat for energy causing weight loss. Weight loss is a symptom of high blood sugars.

      I have no idea where you get the idea that insulin is bulking her up or seeping into areas of her body. Ive never heard of this in my 13 years as a diabetic.

      In answer to controlling blood sugar without medication, it depends on how sever her insulin sensitivity is. YES you can help manage it with diet and exercise and one of the major keys in blood sugar management is DIET. But most people need to revert to medication like Metformin or insulin. Every body is different and treatment varies - she needs to find a regime that works for her.

      You need to seek an Endocrinologist to have her properly diagnosed and treated ASAP.

      EDIT
      I just looked up the condition Acanthosis Nigricans and see what you are talking about. I have noticed ppl with dark rings and never realized it was caused by insulin or over productive hormones

  10. QUESTION:
    Can anyone make sense of these biology notes?
    Ive written this down, and now its come to revising i dont understand what i meant:

    "Too much glucose in blood. Chemoreceptors in brain. Insulin released by pancreas liver turns glucose into fat/glycogen/or respired into co2 and h2o"

    "Too little blood sugar chemoreceptors in brain: LESS insulin released by pancreas. Liver turns glycogen into glucose. Fat into glucose: Less respiration."

    i really dont understand..

    can you put it into other words for me?

    thank you! :)

    • ANSWER:
      Actually you already did.
      as in ..
      'Too little blood sugar affects chemoreceptors in brain: LESS insulin released by pancreas makes the liver turn more glycogen into glucose. Fat into glucose in large amounts = Less respiration"

      Took your top notes and swapped em to the bottom.
      while my memory of My gramps diabetic challenges is kinda foggy I think you can correctly fill in more blanks now..

      Too much glucose in blood. Chemoreceptors in brain. Insulin released by pancreas liver turns glucose into fat/glycogen/or respired into co2 and h2o

  11. QUESTION:
    human anatomy help please?
    1: The functions of the skeleton include:
    hematopoiesis
    insulation
    calcium storage
    two of the above

    2: A break in the shaft of a long bone involves the
    epiphysis
    diaphysis
    periosteum
    articular cartilage

    3: The unit of contraction in muscle is the:
    sarcomere
    sarcoplasm
    sarcolemma
    sarcoplasmic reticulum

    4: Flexion of the biceps brachii is an example of a
    first class lever system.
    second class lever system.
    third class lever system.
    simple pulley system system.

    5: Muscle and nerve never touch, there is a gap between the two cells called a(n):
    synaptic vesicle
    triad
    synaptic cleft
    axon terminal

    6: The enzyme found in saliva:
    begins the stomach secretion
    contains an antimicrobial agent
    lubricates and protects the mouth
    begins the digestion of carbohydrates

    7: Wave-like contractions that move swallowed food through the esophagus is called
    mastication
    peristalsis
    momentum
    hydrolysis

    8: Glucose is stored in the liver as
    starch
    fat
    glycogen
    ATP

    9: Identify the false statement(s) below.
    the esophagus secretes digestive enzymes
    the esophagus contains stratified squamous epithelium for protection
    the esophagus undergoes peristalsis to propel solids and liquids
    the esophagus extends from the pharynx to the stomach.

    10: Pepsin is associated with:
    the mucosal lining of the stomach
    hydrochloric acid
    protein digestion
    all of the above

    11: Pancreatic juice contains all but which of the following enzymes?
    trypsin
    lipase
    amylase
    bile

    12: Which of the following is NOT a primary role of skeletal muscles?
    neutralizer
    protagonist
    fixator
    synergist

    13: Bile:
    is stored in the gall bladder
    is manufactured by the epithelial lining of the gall bladder
    passes from the common hepatic duct into the duodenum
    enters the pancreas through the cystic duct

    14: Muscle fatigue is due, in part, to the accumulation of
    lactic acid
    citric acid
    ATP
    ACTH

    15: The absorption of digested nutrients occurs in the:
    villi of the small intestine
    common bile duct
    last section of the small intestine, the duodenum
    Peyer's patches

    16: The functions of the large intestine include:
    absorption of digested nutrients
    secretion of enzymes to hydrolyze chemicals
    absorption of water and electrolytes
    all of the above

    17: Which of the following is NOT part of the reticuloendothelial system?
    adenoids
    Peyer’s patches
    vermiform appendix
    colostrum

    18: The middle portion of the small intestine is the
    ileum
    duodenum
    jejunum
    colon

    19: The first portion of the large intestine is the
    colon
    cecum
    anal canal
    rectum

    20: The first section of the small intestine, the duodenum, receives secretions from the:
    stomach
    pancreas
    liver
    all of the above

    21: Which of the following is a sesamoid bone?
    vertebra
    clavicle
    metatarsal
    patella

    22: The bone of the upper arm is the
    radius
    uln
    humerus
    femur

    23: Which of the following is NOT a product of the metabolic oxidation of glucose?
    Oxygen (O2)
    Carbon dioxide (CO 2)
    Water (H 2O)
    Energy

    24: Which muscles have striated muscle fibers as their muscle tissue?
    Skeletal muscles, like the quadriceps femoris
    Integumentary muscles, like facial muscles that can change expressions
    Extraocular muscles that move the eyeball
    All of the above

    25: Hydrolysis is:
    the uptake of nutrients by the intestinal mucosa
    the wave-like movement of the digestive tract
    the breakdown of nutrients by digestive enzymes
    the liquifaction of food by HCl

    • ANSWER:
      i'm not taking your test for you. and yes i do know the answers.

  12. QUESTION:
    Frog Dissection?? Help Please?!?
    Ok, so I'm dissecting a frog in science on Monday. Thursday, (tomorrow) however, is the external dissection. Anyway, as a prep for Monday, we have this worksheet that's a blank, cut open frog. We then have a page of organs we need to cut & paste into the frog. They need to be in the correct location. They need to be layered correctly too!
    Here are the organs...
    Large Intestine
    Small intestine
    Gall bladder
    Liver
    Testis
    Fat Body
    Spleen
    Blood Vessel
    Esophagus
    Stomach
    Pancreas
    Bladder
    Kidneys
    Lungs
    Heart

    Please be descriptive so that I can understand you and so that you can get best answer! Thanks so much!

    • ANSWER:
      Check this out-

      http://www.biologyjunction.com/frog_dissection.htm

      OR

      http://dj003.k12.sd.us/SCHOOL%20NOTES/chapter_12.htm

      Scroll near the bottom

  13. QUESTION:
    Can anyone help me with glucagon, glycogen and glucose?
    I am doing a Biology retake soon and need to recap on a few things. I know that insulin is a hormone secreted from the pancreas and it helps lower the blood glucose level and i know glucagon is another hormone produced by the pancreas used to tell the liver to turn stored fats/carbs into glucose to raise the blood glucose level. If this information is correct, does this mean that fats and carbs are stored in the liver if that is what turns them back to glucose?

    • ANSWER:
      Glucose concentrations in the blood stream are primarily controlled by the action of two antagonistic pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon. Glucose is first detected in the bloodstream by glucose transporter receptors expressed on the surface of specialized pancreatic cells known as alpha- and beta-cells. Beta-cells respond to rising levels of blood glucose by secreting the hormone insulin. Insulin restores normal levels of glucose in the blood by signaling body tissues to take up glucose for energy, or to convert glucose to glycogen and lipids as future energy stored in the liver, muscle and fat cells. In the event of low levels of glucose, the alpha-cells of the pancreas release the hormone glucagon to stimulate skeletal muscle and the liver to breakdown glycogen into glucose and adipose tissue to digest lipids into fatty acids and glycerol. Glucagon also stimulates the liver to synthesize glucose from glycerol in the blood. All these reactions work together to raise glucose levels back to normal.

  14. QUESTION:
    Please review my short notes for Human Nutrition class and tell me if I'm on the right track for my exam?
    1.) List and define the four characteristics of a healthy diet?
    Adequate, Provides enough energy, nutrients and fiber to maintain a persons health.

    Moderation, Eating the right amount of foods. Idea is to maintain a proper weight. Utilize our body's metabolism.

    Variety, Eat a lot of different foods ensures that we intake necessary vitamins and minerals.

    Balance, Proper balance of nutrients.

    2.) Know the parts of the food label? 5 components of a food label.

    1. Statement of idenity.

    2. Name and address of the manufacture.

    3. Ingreidients list.

    4. Net Contents.

    5. Nutrial facts panel;
    a. Servings size and servings per container.
    b. calories from fat/serving.
    d. nutrients
    e. percent daily valiues % DV

    < 5%= less nutritious

    <20%=more nutritious

    3.) What agency governs the food label? It's the FDA, they also govern the food pyramid.

    4.) Define Nutrition, Any chemicals found in foods that are important to human growth and function. Define Wellness, Wellness is the standard view of health. Physical, emotional and spiritual.

    5. Basic structure of essential nutrients; 6k cal carbs, (highest) fats 9 k cal, proteins 4 k cal.

    6. What are the Micronutrients ? Vitamins which are organic. Minerals, which are inorganic.

    7. Know the food guide pyramid. Know the top tip ( Red meat and butter. Also simple carbs), servings for fruits and vegetables 2-3 servings each day. What part are legumes in? The nuts which are fourth to the top.

    8. Know definitions of the following; Why are food range different in adults? Because we are all different size adults. Children's servings are more concrete.

    Appetite, Psycho-social desire for a specific food.

    Hunger, Physiological sensation that drives us to find food and eat.

    Satiation, feeling full, proteins is the fastest way to reach satiation. Also fats and carbs.

    9. 3 process of digestion, digestion, absorption, elimination. In that order.

    10. Pathways of digestion; mouth, stomach, intestines, large and small intestines, anus.

    11. Know the function of each organ. Small intestine, absorption. Stomach, chemical digestion.

    3 excessary organs;

    Gall bladder emulsifiesys fat by releasing bile.

    Liver, chemical factor.

    Pancreas, release digestive enzyme and insulin.

    Levels organization; cell tissue, organ system, individual.

    Ok I have listed a very basic study guide. Now I have a 50 multiple choice and 25 matching exam tomorrow. And I have other notes to review. Do you have any hints, and do you think I will do ok?

    • ANSWER:
      you may want to look up the specific food types digested in different areas - like carbs in the mouth and everything else in the small intestine
      I don't know what food pyramid you're using, that description seems off...

  15. QUESTION:
    Do fat people understand that Bariatric Surgery is not easy way out?
    The following is a list of possible side-effects and complications to consider before having weight-loss surgery. We will discuss these in more detail at your office consultation.

    1. Anastomotic leak (leak from a connection made to the bowel, usually requires re-operation and long hospital stay)

    2. Anastomotic stricture (narrowing or obstruction at an intestinal connection resulting in vomiting)

    3. Bowel obstruction/strangulation/internal hernia/ischemic bowel possibly needing removal (associated with pain and vomiting, usually requires re-operation)

    4. Injury to an abdominal or pelvic organ/structure (especially the liver, spleen, pancreas, bile duct, stomach, esophagus, colon, bowel, diaphragm, urinary bladder, nerve or blood vessel)

    5. Conversion to an open operation (due to bleeding, poor exposure, large liver, tension on intestines, etc.)

    6. Incisional hernia (more likely if procedure is done open)

    7. Infection or abscess (due to a leak, spillage of intestinal contents, underlying infection, etc)

    8. Bleeding and the potential need for blood transfusion. Blood transfusion carries the risk of infection with bacteria, parasites (malaria), and viruses (hepatitis, HIV/AIDS).

    9. Need for additional surgery or procedures to treat any complication that may occur

    10. Prolonged hospital stay or readmission may be needed to treat complications

    11. Deep Vein Thrombosis (blood clot in a vein)

    12. Pulmonary Embolus (blood clot going to lung, fatal 30% of the time)

    13. Atelectasis (lung collapse causing fevers, possibly pneumonia)

    14. Pneumonia, lung infection and fluid around the lungs (pleural effusion)

    15. Heart attack (myocardial infarction)

    16. Stroke

    17. Pancreatitis

    18. Rhabdomyalysis (breakdown of the muscle in the body)

    19. Pressure ulcer or decubitus (skin breakdown, may require skin grafting)

    20. Allergic reaction to anesthesia, medications or materials

    21. Nerve or ligament injury from positioning or lying on the operating table

    22. Kidney failure and/or the need for dialysis

    23. Need for ICU care

    24. Need for a ventilator (machine to help you breathe)

    25. Multi-system organ failure (liver, kidneys, lungs, etc.)

    26. Poor cosmetic results (ugly scar, keloid, unattractive incisions, contour defects)

    27. Chronic pain, discomfort, numbness, burning or tingling in the incisions or anywhere else (abdomen, back, extremities)

    28. Transient or chronic nausea/vomiting due to strictures, gastroparesis, food intolerance, etc.

    29. Dysphagia (difficulty or painful swallowing)

    30. Diarrhea, constipation, foul smelling gas and stools

    31. Heartburn (acid reflux) symptoms

    32. Ulcers or gastritis

    33. Intestinal perforation due to ulcer, foreign body, obstructed food, etc.

    34. Development of food intolerances/loss of taste

    35. Dumping syndrome (abdominal pain, heart palpitations, sweating, nausea, diarrhea)

    36. Hair loss or thinning

    37. Development of malnutrition or vitamin deficiency

    38. Anemia

    39. Metabolic bone disease (loosing calcium from the bone because of inadequate intake and supplementation) with possible osteoporosis, secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone fractures

    40. Failure to lose an adequate amount of weight

    41. Loss of too much weight

    42. Development of loose or redundant skin

    43. Sterility or inability to become pregnant

    44. Increased ability to become pregnant

    45. Birth defects or fetal injury if you become pregnant. This is less likely once weight has stabilized and laboratory tests are normal. Usually, about 2 years after surgery.

    46. Postoperative depression or other psychological reaction to surgery

    47. Need to revise or reverse the procedure at some point in the future because of nutritional deficiencies, excessive weight loss, pain or other reasons

    48. Extended disability, financial hardship as a result of complications related to weight loss surgery

    49. Parts of your stomach and/or intestines will be inaccessible by endoscopy.

    50. Death (1% nationwide) within 30 days

    • ANSWER:
      It's just amazing how thousands and thousands of people have actually survived this surgery and are now healthy and happy. How long would your list be if you listed all the things that morbid obesity causes in a person. It would be much longer and certainly more serious than those you listed. You get this surgery to save your life. It has done that for my husband who is doing just great with it. He hasn't had a single problem yet other than getting adjusted to eating the right amount to not feel so full. He has lost 80 pounds and feels great. He is so much more active and actually takes long walks all the time. His energy level has skyrocketed. He started planting a garden yesterday and doesn't need anyone to help him get down on the ground to do it which he hasn't done in many years. He doesn't get out of breath like before. His blood pressure has dropped enough to lower his medication for it. Obesity caused him to have both his knees replaced and it still bothered him. Now he no longer has any pain in his knees, and he walks with ease. Next week, we are going to start riding our bikes. I always have had to do it without him, but no more. He is going along with others family and friends. This surgery has done much more for him than anyone can imagine. I don't know why you want to keep running it down, but it is a real lifesaver to many people. Yes, there are risks. But the real question is whether or not the risks of staying obese are greater than the surgery. Most doctors will agree that obesity is the bigger risk for anyone morbidly obese. My husband loves his new life without all that weight. He knew all the risks before he had it done. It was well worth taking those risks for his good health now.

  16. QUESTION:
    Biology Question ? [Homeostasis in systems]?
    Hello :)

    Okay so I have this worksheet that I have to put in order I believe. And It says it is for Blood Glucose Regulation. So could anyone please help me put these in order ?

    Thank You :)

    These are not in order, I need to put them in order.

    1) Pancreas detects increase in blood glucose (after a meal)

    2) Increase in insulin secretion because of increase in blood sugar and parasympathetic stimulation.

    3) Increased uptake of glucose due to insulin excess converted to glycogen ( stored in muscle liver) or fat (stored in adipose tissue) which causes decrease in glucose in blood.

    4) Pancreas detects decrease in glucose.Physical activity causes increased sympathetic stimulation of pancreas in epinephrine from adrenal medulla.

    5) Decreased blood sugar causes decreased secretion of insulin, sympathetic stimulation and epinephrine.

    6) Decreased uptake of glucose in tissue provides more glucose for brain, glycogen broken down to glucose, glucose synthesized, fat is broken down which increases glucose in blood and release from liver.

    Could you please help me put all six of these sentences in order please. Thanks a ton ♥

    • ANSWER:
      I think it would be better for you to figure it out on your own, sorry, but I do have something that I think might help you. Please refer to the source section of my answer. I hope it's helpful. I think it'd be better for you to figure it out from the picture, you'll learn it better.

  17. QUESTION:
    What is left for me to say.....?
    I typed up a report on diabetes, it is supposed to be 6 pages dubble spaced, but now i don't know what else to put, all i need is a half a page more. Thank you!

    Diabetes Type 1
    Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. People with diabetes have problems using food for energy. After a meal, carbohydrates in food are broken down into a sugar called glucose, which is carried by the blood to cells throughout the body. Cells require insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas, to help use blood glucose for energy. People develop diabetes because the pancreas does not make enough insulin or because the cells in the muscles, liver, and fat do not respond to insulin properly, or both. As a result, the amount of glucose in the blood increases while the cells are starved of energy.
    Prior to 1997, the type of diabetes typically diagnosed in young people was called juvenile diabetes or type 1. Diabetes emerging in adults was called adult-onset diabetes or type 2. Then in 1997, the official names of the types were changed to type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is the second most common chronic disease in children (after asthma). About 13,000 new cases are diagnosed in the U.S. each year. Patients with type 1 diabetes make up about 5 percent of all cases of diabetes. It most commonly appears in girls and boys when they are about 14 years old. Usually, type 1 diabetes is first diagnosed in children, teenagers, or young adults but it can occur at any age. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas that make insulin. As a result, the pancreas does not make insulin, a hormone which helps use blood sugar (glucose) for energy. The cells become starved of energy and there is an excess of glucose in the blood. People with Type 1 diabetes must have daily injections of insulin to live. Proper diet, exercise and home blood sugar monitoring are essential to manage the disease. Food and exercise must also be balanced because of the risk of hypoglycemia, low blood sugar, and hyperglycemia, high blood sugar. Both are life threatening concerns. When hypoglycemia develops, cells are not getting enough glucose. Confusion, loss of consciousness, comma and death results when the brain is deprived of glucose for too long. Hyperglycemia and prolonged absence of insulin may lead to ketoacidosis, the accumulation of ketones in the blood when the body uses fat for energy instead of glucose. Ketones make the blood acidic and slow down all body functions. Like hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia can also lead to comma and death. The only cure available today for type 1 diabetes is a pancreas transplant, which is rarely done. Because both pancreas transplants and kidney transplants require lifelong use of powerful drugs to suppress immune reactions that can reject the organs, pancreatic transplants are usually done to those with type 1 diabetes who also need a kidney transplant. The side effects of immune- suppressive drugs can be severe and even worse than the disease. One or two people out of every 10 who get the surgery die within a year. Also the new pancreas is rejected by half of the people who get this operation. If the transplant fails, diabetes returns. Recently, experimental treatments with stem cells have shown some promise. For most people, type 1 diabetes is a life-long disease that can be effectively managed with insulin.

    Signs and Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes
    •Urinates frequently. The kidneys respond to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream by flushing out the extra glucose in urine. A child with diabetes needs to urinate more frequently and in larger volumes.
    •Is abnormally thirsty. Because the child is loosing so much fluid from peeing so much, he or she becomes very thirsty to help avoid becoming dehydrated. A child who has developed diabetes drinks a lot in an attempt to keep the level of body water normal.
    •Loses weight. (or fails to gain weight as he or she grows) in spite of a good appetite. Kids and teens who develop type 1 diabetes may have an increased appetite, but often lose weight. This is because the body breaks down muscle and stored fat in an attempt the provide fuel to the hungry cells.
    •Often feels tired. Because the body can’t use glucose for energy properly.

    But in some cases, other symptoms may be the signal that something is wrong. Sometimes the first sign of diabetes is bedwetting in a child who has been dry at night. The possibility of diabetes should also be suspected if a vaginal yeast infection (also called a Candida infection) occurs in a girl who hasn’t started puberty yet. If these early symptoms of diabetes aren’t recognized and treatment isn’t started, chemicals called ketones can build up in the child’s blood and cause stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, fruity- smelling breath, breathing problems; even loss of consciousness. Sometimes these symptoms are mistaken f

    • ANSWER:
      Watch out on using advice from yahoo answers if truthfulness is graded. While 80% of type 2's are overweight, only 18% of obese people are diabetic.

  18. QUESTION:
    What do U think advocates call Americans lazy fat how many illegals did this GI's heart saves family friend?
    WASHINGTON — Cpl. Benjamin Kopp gave his life. And then he saved one.

    An Army Ranger who had been on his third tour of duty, Kopp was buried Friday at Arlington National Cemetery. Sadly, it's a familiar story: a young man dead before his time, shot by enemies on the other side of the world.

    But this time, there was a renewed life too. Kopp wanted to be an organ donor.

    And after he died, his heart was transplanted into a family member's friend who had a rare form of congenital heart disease.

    "How can you have a better heart?" said a grateful Judy Meikle, 57, of Winnetka, Ill., who is still recovering from the surgery. "I have the heart of a 21-year-old Army Ranger war hero beating in me."

    Kopp's mother, Jill

    Stephenson, of Rosemount, Minn., said that in addition to her son's heart, doctors removed his kidneys, pancreas and liver for transplant.
    Kopp had served two tours of duty in Iraq when he left this spring for Afghanistan. On July 10, his unit attacked a Taliban haven in Helmand province, according to the 75th Ranger Regiment. The fight lasted several hours, resulting in the deaths of more than 10 Taliban fighters, but Kopp was shot in the leg.

    He was eventually transferred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington.

    "Initially, it was really comforting to have him be there" on U.S. soil, Stephenson said. "And then it was tough to see him in that condition. . . . He looked like a big, strong guy. But he was full of tubes and cords and wires."

    On July 18, Stephenson posted an online journal entry telling family and friends about Kopp's passing and said they would donate his organs.

    Maria Burud, Stephenson's first cousin in Chicago, had been following Kopp's condition on the website. What occurred next was happenstance.

    Burud and Meikle are friends who had worked together in the 1980s. Burud knew that Meikle needed a heart transplant, and Stephenson happened to see her cousin's message in time.

    Meikle knew it might not work out, that Kopp's heart might not be a match.

    "It's a million-to-one shot," she said.

    It had taken her seven months to get on the eligibility list because she needed to build up a tolerance for heparin, a drug used to prevent blood clots during heart surgery.

    But she got a call later that day from Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago.

    In the early hours of July 20 — two days after Kopp died — Meikle had her transplant surgery at Northwestern.

    "Ben and Jill were so courageous that something good came out of something that was the worst thing that could happen to someone," Meikle said.

    "I'm just the luckiest woman alive."

    • ANSWER:
      It's beyond me how so many can defend, or be complacent about an illegal population who's allegiance can be questioned so easily. Our soldiers that are serving our country at this moment are renewing my faith in the younger generation. At the very least we need to remove the illegal population so that when our young people come home they can have a job to continue their lives, and not be left wondering if their service was in vein.
      We cannot dishonor their sacrifice.

  19. QUESTION:
    anyone help me with sum q's on bio?
    1) which isnt a hydrolytic enzyme?
    a) lipase b) trypsin c) amylase d) carbonic anhydrase

    2) which pair on enzymes has similar substrate?
    a) pepsin and trypsin b) pepsin and maltasec) amylase and lipase d) maltase and peptidase

    3) what enzymes are correctly matched with its site of production?
    a) pepsin-liver b) lipase-stomach c) amylase-pancreas d) trypsin-salivary glands

    4) trypsin functions best in which of conditions?
    a) basic b) acidic c) neutral d) low pH

    5) which combinations produce most product in presence of water?
    a) amylase and fat at pH 7.4 b) lipase and starch at pH 8.0 c) trypsin and protein at pH 8.0 d) nuclease and nucleic acid at pH 3.0

    6) whats a reactant in chemical digestion of food?
    a) water b) enzymes c) hormones d) heavy metals

    7) what substance is digested by secretions from both salivary glands and pancreas?
    a) fat b) starch c) protein d) maltose

    8) what can be found in stomach after a meal?
    a) water,salts,maltase,bile b) starch, amylase, glycerol, trypsin c) protein, pepsin, hydrochloric acid, maltose d) hydrochloric acid, peptides, bicarbonate ions, nuclease

    • ANSWER:
      1. c) amylase
      2. b) pepsin and maltasec
      3. b) lipase-stomach
      4. d) low pH
      5. a) amylase and fat at pH 7.4
      6. d) heavy metals
      7. d) maltose
      8. c) protein, pepsin, hydrochloric acid, maltose

  20. QUESTION:
    Enzymes that act on fats, proteins and carbohydrates are found in fluid secreted by the ?
    A) liver.
    B) large intestine.
    C) pancreas.
    D) mouth.

    • ANSWER:
      The answer is C, pancreas. It secretes lipases, proteases, and amylases to break down the respective food types.

  21. QUESTION:
    Biology help? basic bio GCSE level?
    complete this please and correct me if ever
    These are questions in a wordsearch
    I have to find the words then place them as answers
    can you please help me finish this quickly i still need to do lots of things

    another name for fats and oils == lipids
    big crushing teeth of dog == ??
    Big grinding teeth == premolar
    enzyme that breaks down starch == amylase
    enzyme that breaks down fat == lipase
    enzyme that breaks down proteins == protease
    helps in the digestion of fat == ???
    needed by plants to help enzyme work== ??
    needed by plants to make amino acids = ?
    organ where bile is produced == liver?? pancreas??
    organ where sugar is absorbed by active transport == ??
    part of cell where respiration occurs == ???
    proteins are broken down into == ???
    site of diffusion of gas in lungs == alveoli???
    sharp pointy teeth == canine
    teeth in front of molars = premolar??
    these speed up digestion == ??
    type of acid found in stomach == hydrochloric acid?
    undigested food == ??
    what a plant cell wall is made of == ??
    what bile does to fat =??
    where the reaction takes place in a cell == cytoplasm

    thanks in advance

    • ANSWER:
      big crushing teeth of dog == molars
      helps in the diegestion of fat == bile
      needed by plants to make amino acids = nitrogen
      where bile is produced == liver
      part of cell where respiration occurs== mitochondrion or mitochondria
      what bile does to fat= emulsify, emulsifies, emulsification
      what a plant cell wall is made of == cellulose
      these speed up digestion== enzymes
      teeth in front of molars == premolars
      it goes molars, premolars, canines, incisors

  22. QUESTION:
    I feel like vomiting/cramps/diarrhea after eating?
    I am 19, and female. I have a history of getting sick. I get horrible cramps during my menstrual cycle. I am hypoglycemic, but don't take medication for it. I am slightly overweight and carry my fat in my chest and lower body (legs, butt) with a little around my midsection. I also have mild Lactose Intolerance and an allergy to caffeine.

    Recently (about a week to two weeks), I have been having trouble with my digestive tract. When I eat anything, or when I drink a lot, I get cramps, a feeling like I am going to vomit (never do), my stomach makes a lot of noise and I am stricken with diarrhea. When I haven't eaten, it just feels annoying... It isn't painful, its just feels like i can feel my stomach more. When I eat and get cramps, the cramps are usually around the liver/pancreas area or around my lower midsection (around the uterus, colon, small intestine and bladder area). Sometimes I wake up feeling a little sick and it only really kicks in a short while after I eat.

    side note: I am 99% sure I am not pregnant, 1% counts for memory loss of some sort.

    • ANSWER:
      drink only water and lots of it. eat apples. bananas. rice. keep it mild.
      walk around the block a few times. maybe you are experiencing a new allergic reaction to something you ate, or maybe you ate something that was bad, or maybe you are experiencing this because of stress. rule these things out first before you get too nervous about what is happening.

  23. QUESTION:
    Very sick kitten, any suggestions?
    Brought home kitten about 6 weeks ago, in the beginning the vet thought she had coccidia because she had bloody diarrhea and she was placed on Albon. That cleared up the bloody diarrhea but we've had mushy stool ever since. Shes been tested numerous times for parasites, worms, etc. and nothing ever shows up. About two weeks ago she was completely listless, ravenously hungry all the time, and not gaining weight, so the vet is thinking that it could be a liver/pancreas problem and has put her on viokase, which breaks down the food for her. While the viokase has definitely improved her activity level she hasn't gained any weight. Her activity seems to be okay, she purrs and plays, but she is nowhere near as crazy as a kitten should be. The vet seems to want to wait until shes a little bigger to do any sort of tests in order for her to be more prepared for it. Shes on CD, a vet food with extra fat in it, but her continuous nonweight gain is worrisome, any suggestions?

    • ANSWER:
      I know this is probably going to sound ridiculous as I'm sure it's been a consideration but have you treated her recently for worms? I know you said she doesn't have worms but I ask for specific reasons. Based on your description, I would swear you and I have the same cat! LiveWire is 16 weeks old. She was hand fed from two weeks old after she was found on the side of the road in a box. She is VERY tiny even today. First she had Coccidia. Then it was Conjunctivitis. Then it was an upper respitatory infection. Then it was worms. Then it was a bowel obstruction. It was endless. After all of that and two surgeries she seemed fine and then something began to change. First it was just instinct and she just didn't look well to me. Then she seemed to just lay there ALL the time. Her stools though not runny were still soft as well, sorta pasty I guess? And she never stopped eating. She was already super tiny and then the weight started going away. We're talking about a 12 weeks old kitten who weighed 1 pound to begin with. I freaked. My gut told me it was worms. It was textbook worm symptoms though the vet said it was not worms. I asked for Drontal anyway and he reluctantly gave it to me to treat her for the worms he said she didn't have. He told me I was retarded and wasting money too..ain't he sweet?! He's a good guy really though. He tells me the truth, whether I want to hear it or not, which is great in my book.
      I too was told LiveWire may present more symptoms and to wait until she got older and grew more "into" whatever could be wrong or "out of" it before we did tests, just as you've been told. I'm hoping for "out of it."
      Don't get me wrong. I wouldn't trade my vet for a million bucks but they do make mistakes and tests are not ALWAYS accurate. He is the one who told me that after what I found in my cat! Keep in mind. She was wormed at 3 weeks and at 7 weeks. This happened at 12 weeks old........
      I got my Wire' home and wormed her. Three hours later I followed her to the litter box. What I found brought tears to my eyes and I just couldn't reason in my mind what I was seeing. It almost brought me to my knees. I have done rescue work with cats for my entire adult life and I had never seen a cat infested with worms the way this one was. It was so bad that I had to scoop it up and take it to the light to look at it more closely and poke around in it to actually believe what I was seeing. It is nothing short of a miracle from God that she was still alive. I took this treat straight to the vet. The vet actually said "HOLY SH*T, that came out of WIRE..OH MY GOD TAMMY?!?!"
      Wire' also has digestive problems. It started when she was still being hand fed. The formula would go in one end and come out exactly the same way on the other end. It was a nightmare. She got bloated. She had gas so bad it would run you out of the room. From mushy stools I was ready to put a diaper on her because her butt was always, shall we say...slimy?
      Looks like you got yourself a problem child just like I do. I thank God she has YOU, someone who obviously isn't willing to write her off or give up on her. Thank you for being so kind to this creature.
      I have put Wire on an extremely high protein diet. People food. She gets a lot of Gerber 2nd stage baby food meats, boiled chicken, turkey, tuna with the oil squeezed out of it and rice. I mix some 2nd stage vegetables in with her food and tiny amounts of kitten replacement formula as well and she's done beautifully. I give her vitamins three times a week and she gets Pedialyte instead of water at least once a day. Once a day she gets a drop of pancake syrup on her lil tounge to keep her blood sugar up. It's expensive, it's time consuming but it's paid off. She's gorgeous and this is a plain ole black domestic shorthair! She's nice and plump for the first time in her life and her lil coat is so shiny and soft the vet is amazed. Above all, her lil stools look MUCH better. Still not firm and tubular like most cats but still much better for my Wire'. She's up to two pounds now...YAY WIRE!!!
      Try some of this for your baby. The Gerber is super easy to digest and also gives the body a chance to try to break the food down on it's own instead of relying on the medication to do it for her. The tuna oil kinda lubricates everything...sorta like a fishy draino for kitties.
      I'm certainly not for one instant suggesting that you take her off the meds or stop listening to your vet. I would never pretend to know more than he/she does about cats. But my vet WAS wrong about the worms and what I feed her now works, and it came from good old fashioned know how from running a cat (or whatever else!) rescue for years. I don't always have access to fifty medications or tests when someone brings me a sick animal so I've learned to improvise until I can get to the vet. I've learned to overcome the symptoms as best I can naturally until I can get help. My vet has taught me a lot of what I know about using foods and other means to overcome some symptoms and effects of illness.
      I am still having some minor problems with Wire' but nothing quite so severe as before. She still sleeps entirely too much in my opinion (about 12 hours a day) and the stools show no sign of improvement (still pasty or mushy but even coloring) but what's going in IS being digested now and when she IS up and prowling..look out...she bounces off the walls now like a kitten should.
      I wish you THE BEST of luck. I'd very much like to know how this goes for you since your cat and my Wire's symptoms are so similar. Let's just hope that they both outgrow it. I know I for one will sleep much better at night. With Wire we're thinking it's a developmental deficiency and that it's taken a lot longer for her body's systems to work properly. But regardless of what's wrong with your cat I have every confidence that with you she's going to get every chance in the world to overcome it. God Bless you both.

  24. QUESTION:
    Science help please.?
    1. Which accessory organ is important to mechanical digestion?
    liver
    pancreas
    gallbladder
    teeth

    2. What type of digestion takes place in the esophagus?
    chemical
    mechanical
    both
    neither

    3. A molecule of _____ is made of building blocks called amino acids.
    carbohydrate
    fat
    protein
    water

    4. Which of the following nutrients is used for replacement and repair of body cells and for growth?
    carbohydrates
    proteins
    minerals
    vitamins

    5. The main function of the respiratory system is to bring oxygen in the body and remove _____.
    carbon dioxide
    dust
    glucose
    oxygen

    6. The ____ is a tubelike passageway for food, liquids, and air.
    epiglottis
    nostril
    pharynx
    trachea

    7. Which of the following functions does the urinary system perform?
    It removes wastes from the blood.
    It balances the amounts of salts and water in the body.
    It controls blood volume by removing excess water produced by body cells.
    All of these

    • ANSWER:
      1) teeth
      2) both
      3) protein
      4) protein
      5)carbon dioxide
      6)trachea
      7) all of these

      hope this helps i think its right
      goodluck
      xxkimxx

  25. QUESTION:
    help with a few questions for home work?
    11. Look at the figure shown. For which disease is the death rate increasing?

    cancer
    diabetes
    pneumonia and flu
    stroke

    12. Which accessory organ is important to mechanical digestion?

    liver
    pancreas
    gallbladder
    teeth

    13. What type of digestion takes place in the esophagus?

    chemical
    mechanical
    both
    neither

    14. A molecule of _____ is made of building blocks called amino acids.

    carbohydrate
    fat
    protein
    water

    15. Which of the following nutrients is used for replacement and repair of body cells and for growth?

    carbohydrates
    proteins
    minerals
    vitamins

    16. The main function of the respiratory system is to bring oxygen in the body and remove _____.

    carbon dioxide
    dust
    glucose
    oxygen

    17. The ____ is a tubelike passageway for food, liquids, and air.

    epiglottis
    nostril
    pharynx
    trachea

    18. Which of the following functions does the urinary system perform?

    It removes wastes from the blood.
    It balances the amounts of salts and water in the body.
    It controls blood volume by removing excess water produced by body cells.
    All of these

    19. Kidneys are made of many ______ that filter water, sugar, salt, and wastes from the blood.

    nephrons
    neurons
    ureters
    veins

    • ANSWER:

  26. QUESTION:
    lymph vessel question?
    34. lacteals (lymph Vessel) of the intestinal villi recieve
    a. glycerol and glycogen
    b. reassembled triglycerides
    c. amino acids and glucose
    d. peptides and glycerin

    32. When passing through the gastr-intestinal tract, carbohydrates are acted upon first by enzymes in the
    a. mouth
    b.stomache
    c.small intestine
    d. liver

    16. enzymes that act on fats, protiens and carbohydrates are found in fluid secreted by the
    a. large intestine
    b. mouth
    c.liver
    d. pancreas
    haha, I'm a pre-medical student that is re-doing my Biology 101, in order to have a better chance in acceptance to med school out of 150 questions in one unit ive asked about 5, please Do not tell me to read my books, I'm Pre-Med, I know how to stay up all night and study...

    • ANSWER:
      b.
      a.
      d.

  27. QUESTION:
    Does a Doctor have the right to do this?
    Okay so i see a Gastroenterologist (A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and biliary system) and i don't have any disorders or diseases with any of my functions but my liver had a funny outburst of pain and high enzymes but basically im just a little over weight than most 17 year olds not dramatically like baby fat and my doctor is a foreign doctor but he threats to use the cuff on my stomach or liver if i don't lose 5 lbs everytime i see him and i just have to lose 15lbs to be in the healthy weight range but he wants me to lose unrealistic weight in a unrealistic amounts of time and he doesnt care if i starve myself or develop a eating disorder he just wants me to lose the weight but i think this is wrong he encourages me to develop a eating disorder in order to lose more weight and on top of that he keeps treating me with the cuff over my stomach or liver to stop my eating and my mom works with doctors and she even told him herself that this isnt right its too extreme and too sudden for no reason

    but i'm wondering if its okay for a doctor to be telling me things like this :/
    my mom told me that maybe he is pulling the scare tatic on me but i try sooo hard to lose weight i even go to the gym 5 days a week and work out for 2 hours and even during school i work out and i adopted a crazy whole new diet plan! and he trys to make me lose about 10 lbs every two weeks and i once heard it takes like 2 weeks to lose barely 3 or 5 lbs :/ and i see him every 2 weeks also!!! im losing my mind with this doctor

    • ANSWER:
      He's bluffing he just wants you to be scred so that u will lose wieght so I woundt be worried. But yes it is wrong to do that you font threaten no one its just plain wrong

  28. QUESTION:
    Can anybody help me with this Biology???
    Which of the following provides the most calories per gram?

    carbohydrates proteins
    fats trace elements

    2. Minerals that are required by your body are called

    trace elements vitamins
    amino acids proteins

    3. Amylases break down starches into

    amino acids polypeptides
    fatty acids sugars

    4. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the

    mouth stomach
    small intestine colon

    5. The hormone that regulates the synthesis of HCl in the stomach is called

    bile gastrin
    lysine chyme

    6. Most digestive enzymes are produced in the

    gastric pits pancreas
    liver colon

    7. The products of digestion are absorbed into the bloodstream through

    villi in the small intestine the rectum of the large intestine
    microvilli in the duodenum the gastric pit of the stomach

    8. No digestion takes place in the

    mouth stomach
    small intestine large intestine

    9. The processes of filtration and reabsorption that occur in the nephron lead to the formation of

    sodium ions hormones
    urine feces

    10. Once the bladder is full, urine exits the body through the

    nephron ureter
    urethra glomerulus

    11. A dialysis machine serves the function of a

    ureter urinary bladder
    kidney urethra

    Part 2

    TRUE OR FALSE. Type TRUE if the statement is true. If the statement is FALSE, replace the underlined word(s) with another word which will make the statement true. Place your answer in the text box below each question.

    (Each question is worth one point)
    12. A Calorie is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 2 degrees C.

    13. Humans are able to manufacture all of the amino acids necessary to make proteins.

    14. Vitamins must be obtained from the foods we eat because we are unable to manufacture them.

    15. During emulsification, bile salts break large fat globules into smaller fat droplets.

    16. Saliva is secreted into the human mouth by three pairs of salivary glands.

    17. Once food passes through the pharynx, it enters the esophagus.

    18. Chyme regulates the synthesis of HCl, permitting it to be made only when the pH in the stomach is higher than about 1.5.

    19. Ulcers in the stomach or small intestine are caused by extreme obesity.

    20. Bile, made in the liver, is stored in the gall bladder and passes through ducts into the duodenum.

    21. Microvilli on the surface of the villi greatly increase the internal surface area of the large intestine.

    Part 3

    TRUE OR FALSE. Type TRUE if the statement is true. If the statement is FALSE, replace the underlined word(s) with another word which will make the statement true. Place your answer in the text box below each question.

    (Each question is worth one point)
    22. Urea is the principal component of urine.

    23. The kidney is composed of two blood filtering units called nephrons.

    24. The fluid inside Bowman's capsule is called filtrate.

    25. A transplanted kidney is never rejected by the recipient's body.
    YOU ARE THE BOMB>COM!!!!!!!!!!!

    • ANSWER:
      1. fats
      2. trace elements
      3. sugars
      4. mouth
      5. gastrin
      6. pancreas
      7. villi in the small intestine
      8. large intestine
      9. urine
      10. urethra
      11. kidney
      12. FALSE: A Calorie (capital "C") is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 KG of water 1 degree C.
      13. FALSE: Humans cannot make eight of the 20 amino acids, they must be provided in the diet and are called the essential amino acids. They are: phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine and leucine.
      14. TRUE.
      15. TRUE
      16. TRUE
      17. TRUE
      18. FALSE: GASTRIN regulates HCl production.
      19. FALSE: A stomach ulcer is usually caused by an infection with a bacterium called H. pylori.
      20. TRUE
      21. TRUE
      22. FALSE: Water is the principal component of urine.
      23. FALSE: The kidney is composed of a million blood filtering units called nephrons
      24. TRUE
      25. FALSE: A transplanted kidney is SOMETIMES rejected by the recipient's body

  29. QUESTION:
    Can Somebody Help Me Please!!!!!!!?
    Which of the following provides the most calories per gram?

    carbohydrates proteins
    fats trace elements

    2. Minerals that are required by your body are called

    trace elements vitamins
    amino acids proteins

    3. Amylases break down starches into

    amino acids polypeptides
    fatty acids sugars

    4. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the

    mouth stomach
    small intestine colon

    5. The hormone that regulates the synthesis of HCl in the stomach is called

    bile gastrin
    lysine chyme

    6. Most digestive enzymes are produced in the

    gastric pits pancreas
    liver colon

    7. The products of digestion are absorbed into the bloodstream through

    villi in the small intestine the rectum of the large intestine
    microvilli in the duodenum the gastric pit of the stomach

    8. No digestion takes place in the

    mouth stomach
    small intestine large intestine

    9. The processes of filtration and reabsorption that occur in the nephron lead to the formation of

    sodium ions hormones
    urine feces

    10. Once the bladder is full, urine exits the body through the

    nephron ureter
    urethra glomerulus

    11. A dialysis machine serves the function of a

    ureter urinary bladder
    kidney urethra

    Part 2

    TRUE OR FALSE. Type TRUE if the statement is true. If the statement is FALSE, replace the underlined word(s) with another word which will make the statement true. Place your answer in the text box below each question.

    (Each question is worth one point)
    12. A Calorie is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 2 degrees C.

    13. Humans are able to manufacture all of the amino acids necessary to make proteins.

    14. Vitamins must be obtained from the foods we eat because we are unable to manufacture them.

    15. During emulsification, bile salts break large fat globules into smaller fat droplets.

    16. Saliva is secreted into the human mouth by three pairs of salivary glands.

    17. Once food passes through the pharynx, it enters the esophagus.

    18. Chyme regulates the synthesis of HCl, permitting it to be made only when the pH in the stomach is higher than about 1.5.

    19. Ulcers in the stomach or small intestine are caused by extreme obesity.

    20. Bile, made in the liver, is stored in the gall bladder and passes through ducts into the duodenum.

    21. Microvilli on the surface of the villi greatly increase the internal surface area of the large intestine.

    Part 3

    TRUE OR FALSE. Type TRUE if the statement is true. If the statement is FALSE, replace the underlined word(s) with another word which will make the statement true. Place your answer in the text box below each question.

    (Each question is worth one point)
    22. Urea is the principal component of urine.

    23. The kidney is composed of two blood filtering units called nephrons.

    24. The fluid inside Bowman's capsule is called filtrate.

    25. A transplanted kidney is never rejected by the recipient's body.

    • ANSWER:
      Looks like a test or a review ...

      If we answer your questions then you will not be able to claim the work and that is a disfavor to you, not to mention making you guilty of plagiarism ...

      The answers are all easy, just review or look them up ...

  30. QUESTION:
    Would this work to help with acne and acne scars? #2?
    Key Ingredients:

    Vitamin A is important for the prevention of night blindness and other eye problems, as well as some skin disorders, such as acne. It is also important in the formation of bones and teeth. Numerous other benefits include maintenance and repair of epithelial tissue, of which skin and mucous membranes are (1) composed, protection against infections, and antioxidant cell protection.

    Vitamin B Complex: Eight different nutrients make up the Vitamin B Complex: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, Pyridoxine, Cyanocobalamin, Biotin, and Folic Acid. Though grouped as a family, they each perform unique and separate functions, which include enhancing the metabolic rate by breaking down fats, carbohydrates and protein for energy, and maintaining healthy nerves, skin, eyes, hair, liver, and brain function. They are important for heart health and are an effective aid in lowering cholesterol. B-complex vitamins also act as coenzymes, helping enzymes to react (2) chemically with other substances.

    Vitamin C is critical for numerous metabolic functions, including tissue growth and repair, glandular functions, and healthy gums. It aids in the production of anti-stress hormones and interferon (an immune- system protein), and it can combine with toxic substances, such as certain heavy metals, and render them harmless so they can be eliminated from the body. Vitamin C works synergistically with Vitamins A and E; that is, when working together, they have a greater effect than the sum of their individual effects. Supplementation of this vitamin is critical, as the body cannot manufacture it.(3)

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin required for absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus. It is especially important for the growth and development of bones and teeth. It protects against muscle weakness and aids in heartbeat regulation.(4)

    Lutein is an important antioxidant for eye and skin health. Research also suggests that Lutein found in blood serum may be linked with less thickening of arterial walls.(5)

    Lycopene is a phytochemical found to reduce the risk of prostate and lung cancer. With correct dosages, Lycopene may also reduce the risk of digestive cancers.

    Astaxanthin eases arthritis and joint pain, sore muscles, and protects against heart disease. It is a potent antioxidant derived from micro algae. Because it crosses the blood/brain barrier, it offers oxidative protection for the nervous system.

    Zeaxanthin protects cells in the eyes from free radical damage, which may reduce the risk of macular degeneration.

    Alpha Lipoic Acid is a powerful antioxidant that aids in protecting the liver and pancreas.(6)

    Green Tea Leaf Extract is used to lower cholesterol levels, stimulate the immune system, and regulate blood sugar and insulin levels.

    Amino Acid Complex important for metabolic functions, such as helping the brain receive and send messages. Facilitates the absorption and assimilation of vitamins and minerals by the body.

    Herbal Energy Blend (Peppermint leaf, Rhodiola rosea root, Eleuthero): Promotes stress-relieving effects for added energy, which contribute to immune system enhancement. Also aids in digestion.

    • ANSWER:
      dont forget about vitamin E!

      it's what your skin produces to help heal itself so if you can find vitamin E oil or some kind of moisturizer with vitamin E it will seriously benefit your skin :)

  31. QUESTION:
    Digestive System Questions 2?
    The enzyme salivary amylase starts the breakdown of proteins in the mouth.

    •True
    •False

    Which of the following is involved in the intestinal phase of digestion?

    •gastrin stimulates the release of gastric juice
    •secretin stimulates the flow of pancreatic juices
    •cholecystokinin makes you hungry
    •the sight, taste and smell of food makes you salivate
    •stretching of the rectum initiates the defaecation reflex

    The organ that stores fat, glycogen, iron and certain minerals, and detoxifies certain chemicals is the:

    •stomach.
    •colon.
    •liver.
    •spleen.
    •pancreas.

    • ANSWER:
      • False (breaks starch)
      • gastrin stimulates the release of gastric juice
      • liver.

  32. QUESTION:
    please help with these asap?
    1. In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the: (Points: 2)
    muscles and liver.
    kidney and muscles.
    liver and kidney.
    liver and pancreas.

    2. Which of the following hormones is released when your blood glucose levels fall too low? (Points: 2)
    insulin
    estrogen
    bile
    glucagon

    3. Over 16 million Americans have diabetes. Which of the following is the most prevalent form of diabetes? (Points: 2)
    type 1
    type 2
    gestational
    pediatric

    4. Which of the following is TRUE regarding type 1 diabetes? (Points: 2)
    Its increased prevalence is linked to the rise in obesity.
    Therapy typically is limited to the use of hypoglycemic medications.
    It has only been diagnosed in individuals over the age of 20.
    Because individuals do not produce any insulin, treatment always involves insulin therapy.

    5. Diabetes is a condition in which the body doesn't process ________ properly. (Points: 2)
    vitamins
    protein
    carbohydrate
    fat

    6. Lactose intolerance is due to a(n): (Points: 2)
    deficiency of lactose.
    deficiency of lactase.
    deficiency of the GI flora (healthy bacteria).
    allergy to casein (milk protein).

    7. Which of the following is responsible for food spoilage? (Points: 2)
    oxygen
    heat
    light
    All of these are responsible for food spoilage.

    8. Which of the following food preservation methods limits spoilage by drawing water out of foods, making them inhospitable to bacterial growth? (Points: 2)
    sugaring
    salting
    smoking
    all of these

    9. Which of the following is TRUE concerning the safe storage of leftovers? (Points: 2)
    Leftovers should be refrigerated within two hours of serving.
    Leftovers should be refrigerated in closed containers
    Leftovers should only be refrigerated for up to four days.
    All of these are true.

    10. Why is rBGH given to many U.S. dairy cows? (Points: 2)
    to prevent the growth of microbes in the cows' milk
    to improve the nutritional quality of the cows' milk
    to strengthen the cows' immune systems
    to increase milk production without increasing feed
    please let me know if you are sure or you are guessing thanks

    • ANSWER:
      . In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the: (Points: 2)
      muscles and liver.

      2. Which of the following hormones is released when your blood glucose levels fall too low? (Points: 2)
      insulin

      3. Over 16 million Americans have diabetes. Which of the following is the most prevalent form of diabetes? (Points: 2)

      type 2

      4. Which of the following is TRUE regarding type 1 diabetes? (Points: 2)
      Its increased prevalence is linked to the rise in obesity.

      5. Diabetes is a condition in which the body doesn't process ________ properly. (Points: 2)
      carbohydrate

      6. Lactose intolerance is due to a(n): (Points: 2)
      deficiency of lactase.

      7. Which of the following is responsible for food spoilage? (Points: 2)
      All of these are responsible for food spoilage.

      8. Which of the following food preservation methods limits spoilage by drawing water out of foods, making them inhospitable to bacterial growth? (Points: 2)
      all of these

      9. Which of the following is TRUE concerning the safe storage of leftovers? (Points: 2)

      All of these are true.

      10. Why is rBGH given to many U.S. dairy cows? (Points: 2)
      to increase milk production without increasing feed (BEST of the available answer. It increases milk production, but you have to increase the feed as well.)

  33. QUESTION:
    PLEASE HELP!Cholecystokinin from the intestinal wall is stimulated by the presence of...The greater omentum is?
    1. Secretions from the salivary glands
    a. are mostly digestive enzymes
    b. help to control bacterial populations in the mouth
    c. help to lubricate the oral cavity and its contents
    d. help to control bacterial populations in the mouth and help lubricate the oral cavity and its contents
    e. all of these

    2. Cholecystokinin from the intestinal wall is stimulated by the presence of
    a. fats and proteins in the duodenum
    b. acid in the stomach
    c. protein in the stomach
    d. fat in the stomach
    e. acid in the duodenum

    3. The greater omentum is
    a. a major portion of the stomach
    b. attached to the stomach at the lesser curvature
    c. important in the digestion of fats
    d. a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera
    e. a sheet of connective tissue that attaches the stomach to the liver and pancreas

    • ANSWER:
      1. e, all of these. Saliva has enzymes to help break down our food, antibacterial compounds, and it moistens our mouths
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saliva

      2. a, fats and proteins in the duodenum. It will then "tell" the stomach to stop emptying more food in the duodenum.
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholecystokinin

      3. This one I am not sure of. It is connected to the greater curvature of the stomach, so b is not true. It is important for storage of fats, not digestion, so I am not sure if c is correct either. I think that d is probably the best answer, since it sort of seems to hang over the intestines.
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_omentum

  34. QUESTION:
    PLEASE HELP WITH ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY?
    1. Secretions from the salivary glands
    a. are mostly digestive enzymes
    b. help to control bacterial populations in the mouth
    c. help to lubricate the oral cavity and its contents
    d. help to control bacterial populations in the mouth and help lubricate the oral cavity and its contents
    e. all of these

    2. Cholecystokinin from the intestinal wall is stimulated by the presence of
    a. fats and proteins in the duodenum
    b. acid in the stomach
    c. protein in the stomach
    d. fat in the stomach
    e. acid in the duodenum

    3. The greater omentum is
    a. a major portion of the stomach
    b. attached to the stomach at the lesser curvature
    c. important in the digestion of fats
    d. a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera
    e. a sheet of connective tissue that attaches the stomach to the liver and pancreas

    • ANSWER:
      Number 1 is e. all the the above
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salivary_gland
      Number 2 is a. fats and proteins in the duodenum
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholecystokinin
      Number 3 is d. a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal
      viscera
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_omentum

  35. QUESTION:
    Study questions for Human Anatomy?
    Okay well i really don't need any BS on that i'm supposed to do it myself; bottom line we just found out today that we have a suprise test tomorrow and just got the questions and i already answered over half of them. Please help me with the rest and keep the answers short and sweet(simple).
    All help is thanked and welcomed. :)
    1. How many incisors do you have? Give there function.
    2. What is pepsin, salivary amylase, pancreatic amylase, and what do they do?
    3. What are the names of the 3 main salivary glands and where are they located?
    4. List the parts of the small and large intestine in order.
    5. Where is bile produced? Stored?
    6. Which are true digestive organs and which are accessory organs? (I believe which is meant to be what)
    7. What does the salivary amylase breakdown?
    8. What are the names of the enzymes that breakdown starches from the beginning to the end of the alimentary canal?
    9. What are the end products of digestion?
    10. What are the enzymes produced by the pancreas?
    11. Where is Hydrochloric Acid(HCl) secreted?
    12. What do molars do?
    13. Give the function of the follow structures: large intestine, liver, lacteal, pancreas, mouth.
    14. Where is(are) feces stored?
    15. Where is food absorbed in the small intestine?
    16. Where does starch, protein, and fat digestion begin?
    17. Be able to label a diagram of the digestive system.(A Link Maybe?)

    • ANSWER:
      umm you need to do your own homework. That's why it's called HOMEwork

  36. QUESTION:
    Something keeps shifting below my sternum when I breathe. What is it?
    Each time I breathe, I feel as if something shifts back and forth below my sternum. Its violent enough to actually see something "slip" back in place each time I exhale. Usually its not just one thump, but rather a series of "ridges" if you may, slipping up and down my chest cavity. When im in certain positions it doesn't happen, but when im laying down its bound to start again.

    It doesn't give me any discomfort in the form of pain, but it is awfully annoying. Imagine someone tapping you just below your sternum with each breath you take while you're trying to sleep.

    Im gonna throw out a wild hunch as a complete layman in medical stuff, and say its somehow my liver or pancreas or some other organ moving about?

    I might want to note that im obese, but I refuse to accept the lazy standard "you're too fat" doctors answer to my question. (their answer to any aliment when you're overweight, blame the fat..) Ive had some tests done, bloodpressure, cholesterol, hormones, and bloodsugar all came back healthy.

    What on earth could it be?

    • ANSWER:

  37. QUESTION:
    Acne Help: Deadly Meds? Be Serious, Please?
    Ok so everyone gets acne, right? You know you've had a zit at one point. But some people get a different type of acne, like cystic or nodular acne. This type of acne is more aggressive than regular and usually can develop cysts under the skin, which are hard lumps.

    So I went to a dermatologist almost a month ago and I was told about this program, the "iPLEDGE" program. It's really a program developed around this prescription for cystic/nodular acne called "Isotretinoin". The whole "pledge" part of this program is mainly focused around female patients, because you have to "pledge" that you won't have sexual contact with a male during the time you are on this medicine because it has a great chance of giving your baby birth defects. Pretty much, they are so serious about this to females because if you were to say get pregnant and have a babe while on this medicine, the baby would definitely have serious issues. But for male patients, it just talks about the risks associated with this medicine.

    So I have another appointment with this dermatologist soon, and I need to decide if I want to go on this program. Being a guy, I only have to worry about the risks associated with the medicine. Which there are a lot of, and they are sort of scary. Pretty much everything that could go wrong with your body, can go wrong. But they tell me that it probably won't happen, they just have to warn me about it. But I can't trust anyone, they might only want my money :/.

    Some of the side effects of "Isotretinoin":

    -Depression
    -Psychosis (seeing or hearing things that aren't real)
    -Suicide
    -Crying spells
    -Loss of interest in acitvities you once enjoyed
    -Sleep too much/trouble sleeping
    -Become more irritable/aggressive
    -Change in body weight
    -Withdrawal from friends/family
    -Thoughts about hurting yourself or taking your own life

    Those are some of the side effects, but not the issues that can arise.

    Isotretinoin can cause:

    -Serious brain problems:
    Pressure on the brain that can lead to permanent loss of eyesight, and in "rare cases", death.
    -Stomach area (abdomen) problems:
    Internal organs can be damaged. These include the liver, pancreas, bowel, and esophagus.
    -Bone and muscle problems
    -Hearing problems:
    Hearing loss may be permanent.
    -Vision problems:
    Isotretinoin can affect your ability to see in the dark. And after taking Isotretinoin this may persist and be permanent.
    -Lipid problems:
    Isotretinoin can raise the level of fats and cholestrol in your blood.
    -Serious allergic reactions
    -Blood sugar problems
    -Decreased red and white blood cells

    So that is pretty much the summary I took about this medicine from the booklet they gave me. Pretty scary and serious stuff, huh? So should I go through with it? Is it worth risking my life to clear up my face, when I'm 17 and it may possibly clear up within the next few years anyways? I'm not as embarrassed by my face as I was when I was younger, but I am conscious of my acne. I'm not a recluse or anything but I'm not as confident as other people because I feel like people look at me for my acne.

    So leave your thoughts on what I should do. PLEASE don't give me any stupid advice like "oh just put rubbing alcohol on it, it'll go away!" Believe me, I have tried and I don't have your regular acne, regular treatment isn't going to work for me.

    Thanks.

    • ANSWER:

  38. QUESTION:
    Doesn't anyone care about them DUMPING High Fructose Corn Syrup in all our Food?
    I would like to be able to have a slice of bread, or bowl of cereal again or even a soda. But I can't, becuase it's all poisoned with HFCS. Why is this so bad? Isn't it like sugar. No. Sugar is natural and processed by your pancreas. HFCS is processed by your liver and turns it into tryglyclerides (fat in the bloodstream). It is the number one reason obesity is on the rise now. So they are deliberately making us fat and sick. That's just wrong. By the way, HFCS is ILLEGAL in other countries. Is America against us?

    http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/chronicle/archive/2004/02/18/FDGS24VKMH1.DTL

    • ANSWER:
      I know exactly what you mean! HFCS is a terrible plight on American Society. And what gets me is that people think if they switch to diet foods and diet soda that they will help themselves lose weight. But in reality, that HFCS is preventing any weight loss from occuring. It's what I've always called the "sugar that sticks".

      I stopped drinking soda, that was the only change I made, no more or less exercise, no other diet changes, and within 3 months I'd dropped 18 lbs!!!!

      American's should be educated about HFCS and how it's harming our bodies and causing the obesity epidemic across not only our nation, but across the globe!

  39. QUESTION:
    Health! I just have a few questions i cant figure out?
    1.Which organ of the digestive system is responsible for absorbing nutrients that the body needs from digested food?
    A.Stomach
    B.Pancreas
    C.Small intestine
    D.Large intestine

    2.All of the following are parts of the large intestine EXCEPT:
    A.Duodenum
    B.Cecum
    C.Colon
    D.Rectum

    3.The length of the small intestine is
    A.1 – 2 feet.
    B.5 – 10 feet.
    C.10 – 12 feet.
    D.20 – 28 feet.

    4.Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
    A.To secrete chemicals that aid in the digestion of fat
    B.To produce insulin
    C.To store energy reserves and iron
    D.To break down chemical wastes and poisons in the blood

    5.Which of the following is a function of the pancreas?
    A.To secrete chemicals that aid in the digestion of fat
    B.To absorb nutrients that the body needs
    C.To make stomach acid
    D.To secrete enzymes that break down carbohydrates and proteins

    6.The main organ of the excretory system is
    A.the lungs.
    B.the skin.
    C.the kidneys.
    D.the liver.

    7.After the kidneys filter blood, it is carried back to the heart by
    A.renal arteries.
    B.renal veins.
    C.nephrons.
    D.neurons.

    8.The hollow muscular sac that stores urine until release is the
    A.ureter.
    B.urethra.
    C.urinary bladder.
    D.urinary tract.

    9.All of the following are organs of the digestive system EXCEPT:
    A.Stomach
    B.Liver
    C.Kidneys
    D.Pancreas

    • ANSWER:
      Here you go...please double check.
      1.C
      2.A
      3.D
      4.B
      5.D
      6.C
      7.C
      8.C
      9.C

  40. QUESTION:
    need some help for health please help?
    Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?

    A.To secrete chemicals that aid in the digestion of fat
    B.To produce insulin
    C.To store energy reserves and iron
    D.To break down chemical wastes and poisons in the blood
    5.Which of the following is a function of the pancreas?

    A.To secrete chemicals that aid in the digestion of fat
    B.To absorb nutrients that the body needs
    C.To make stomach acid
    D.To secrete enzymes that break down carbohydrates and proteins
    6.The main organ of the excretory system is

    A.the lungs.
    B.the skin.
    C.the kidneys.
    D.the liver.
    7.After the kidneys filter blood, it is carried back to the heart by

    A.renal arteries.
    B.renal veins.
    C.nephrons.
    D.neurons.
    8.The hollow muscular sac that stores urine until release is the

    A.ureter.
    B.urethra.
    C.urinary bladder.
    D.urinary tract.
    9.All of the following are organs of the digestive system EXCEPT:

    A.Stomach
    B.Liver
    C.Kidneys
    D.Pancreas

    • ANSWER:
      Hello,
      1. C. To store energy reserves and iron
      5. D. To secrete enzymes that break down carbohydrates and proteins [I'm not sure on this one but I think it may be A or D]
      6. C. Kidneys
      7. B. renal veins
      8. C. urinary bladder
      9. C. Kidneys

      Hope that helps!

  41. QUESTION:
    Gallstones - anyone else had bad diarrhea with mucus?
    Two months ago my bile duct became blocked which caused me to have jaundice and affected my liver and pancreas. I had an ERCP to widen my bile duct and also an MRI scan which showed all was ok except for the gallstones These were discovered after an ultrasound scan. I have hundreds of gallstones and my gallbladder is quite enlarged. I am awaiting a date to have my gallbladder removed. Last week i suffered 4 gallstone attacks, ranging from pressure , vomiting to severe pain ,one session lasted almost 24 hours. The past three days the pain etc has gone but I now have really bad diarrheaa, yellow in colour with mucas. I am running to the loo all the time. I am very careful with my diet and fats in fact im scared to eat anything right now. Has anyone else had this? is this related to the gallstones or is something else going on ? I will see my consultant in 2 days but thought I would ask if anyone else had had this experience.

    • ANSWER:
      You need to get those stones out yesterday.

      This may or may not be related. It could be some other problem in your abdominal area and could be very serious. I cannot believe you are on a waiting list. Go to the emergency room if you have another attack before seeing your "consultant." This is horrible.

      I am guessing you do not live in the USA but in The UK. I guess medicine is a little different there and I hope that is why you are having to wait for a cholecystectomy.

  42. QUESTION:
    The lesser omentum is?
    A a major portion of the stomach.
    B attached to the stomach at the greater curvature.
    C important in the digestion of fats.
    D a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera.
    E a sheet of connective tissue that attaches the stomach to the liver and pancreas.

    • ANSWER:
      D. a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera

  43. QUESTION:
    Overweight and Pregnant?
    I am pretty overweight, or actually I'm considered obese. In early pregnancy I believe the uterus or something swells to acomodate the growing baby right? Can this cause the fat and other organs to be pushed up or squished and causing upper abdominal pain? Its like in my liver area and pancreas area. I don't have a gallbladder so I know its not gallstones and I have had pancreatitis before but I'm pretty sure its not that. So that had me wondering if maybe its because of my size. What do you think?
    Thanks so much everyone. The pain is not terrible at all. I was just trying to figure it out. And who knows, maybe it is just gas!!

    • ANSWER:
      well first of all, you should ask your doctor because I am not one ;)

      However, I am not overweight and I experienced a lot of pain, almost similar to cramping, in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy due to my uterus expanding. Thats normal.

      Since you've clearly had gallbaldder problems in the past and pancreatitis as well, I would consider you a high risk patient and would want to be in contact with your doctor about any and all issues.

  44. QUESTION:
    NEED PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL ADVICE FROM A DOCTOR ..... " CT ABDOMEN AND PELVIS. CLINICAL INFO. " HELPPP!?
    Can anyone interpret this? Is it serious? What to do next?
    My girlfriends not well. Need help. Many docs are recommending various stuff. Please Suggest ideas.

    ...............................................................................................

    CT ABDOMEN AND PELVIS.

    CLINICAL INFO.

    Abdominal pain and fever.

    CT scan of abdomen performed after administration of oral contrast with IV contrast administration.

    Ther is short segment of terminal ilium close to ilio caecal junction showing concentric wall thickening. Streekiness of mesenteric fat is seen. Multiple well defined lymph nodes are seen in the mesentery with diameter upto 1.1cm. Minimal free fluid is seen in pelvis. No intra abdominal masses. Liver , spleen, adrenals pancreas and kidneys are unremarkable. Note is made of cystic ovaries on both sides(functional cysts).Uterine cavity shows fluid density.No focal myometrial lesions in the uterus. No gross lytic or sclerotic lesions in the bones.

    OPINION.

    Short segment concentric thickening of terminal ilium close tothe junction associated with minimal free fluid in the pelvis and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Consider the possibility of inflammatory pathology/tuberculosis.Crhon's disease is differential diagnosis.Suggest correlation with biopsy.

    ...................................................................................................

    • ANSWER:
      I am not a doctor but from what I am reading looks like your friend could have someting wrong with their colon, some sort of inflammation in the colon they mentioned crohns disease, which is controlled with medication and diet. They also want to do further testing to confirm it. Hang in there ..

  45. QUESTION:
    Can someone help me with my results from my CT scan?
    Anyway, the findings on the CT scan were as follows.. small hiatal hernia, mild fat containing umbilical hernia, mild diverticular disease is noted without evidence of acute diverticulitis, the appendix is normal,there is no evidence of obstruction, free fluid or free air. no evidence of urinary tract stone or obstruction. also, the report says liver, spleen, and pancreas are normal in size, position, and density. the gallbladder is normal. the adrenal glands are normal, no significan retroperitoneal adenopathy appreciated. aortic diameter is less than 3cm. kidneys are normal in size. no evidence of hydronephrosis. no renal stone noted. tiny anterior cortical cyst on the left.
    the doctor really just told me everything was normal, didn't go into much detail

    • ANSWER:
      Your doctor told you everything was normal, because it mostly is.

      You have tiny hernias which will probably never bother you, and mild diverticulitis. If you ever have unexplained pain on the left side of your stomach (left side is most common, but it could be right), then it could be because your itis has become an osis. When it's diverticulosis, it means one of the little pouches in your intestines (pouches in your intestines is diverticulitis) has become infected. When this happens, you will always need an antibiotic to cure it. Once you have diverticulitis, you will always have it. You can manage it by taking Citrucel daily, as it cleans out all the little pouches and doesn't give them a chance to get infected. The rest all says your organs look normal and in the right place. I hope this resolves your questions. If not, post them, and I will try to answer.

  46. QUESTION:
    anatomy questions?
    1.) the ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and the pancreas respectively unite to form the
    a. portal vein
    b. pancreatic acini
    c. bile canaliculus
    d. hepatopancreatic ampulla

    2.) if an incision has to be made in the s.i. to remove an obstruction, the 1st layer of tissue to be cut is the:
    a. serosa
    b. mucosa
    c. muscuaris externa
    d. submucosa

    3.) _____ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor?
    a. iron
    b. sodium
    c. phosphorous
    d. calcium

    4.) an example of a monosaccharide is
    a. glucose
    b. glycogen
    c. maltose
    d. cellulose

    5. in which of these solvents would fat be insoulble?
    a. water
    b. ethy alcohole
    c. benzene
    d. carbon tetrachloride.

    6.) which of these chemical elements is found in proteins but not in lipids or carbohydrates?
    a. carbon
    b. hydrogen
    c. nitrogen
    d. oxygen

    thank you!!!!

    • ANSWER:
      1.c
      2.i dont know what you mean by s.i.(will probably be c)
      edit. oh you mean GI tract, in that case the serosa will be the first layer you have to cut through
      3.d
      4.a
      5.a
      6.c

  47. QUESTION:
    Help me understand this diagnosis/lab report?
    I picked up a lab report about some tests I had done. The nurse explains some things to me. And assured me nothing major was wrong with me. Now when I get home I read the report myself and some of the stuff there worries me. Can anyone make any sense of what this is saying.

    Visualized lung bases are clear. There are granulomatous calcifications within left hilar lymph nodes. Visualized portions of the heart and pericardium are normal.

    Liver gallbladder spleen pancreas and adrenal glands are normal. The kidneys function normally without evidence of obstructive uropathy..

    No evidence of bowel obstruction. No free intraperitoneal air or fluid. There is mild diffuse subjective wall thickening of nearly the entire colon, but no regional inflammatory fat stranding. Appendix is not well visualized and is likely surgically absent. Scattered small lymph nodes in the mesentery, expecially the right lower quadrant are likely reactive in nature.

    Normal CT appearance of the urinary bladder.

    Their impressions of this is

    1. Mild apparent subjective wall thickeining of the colon maybe attributable to under distension, but colitis in not entirely excluded. No evidence of bowel obstruction.
    2. mildly prominent mesenteric lymph nodes are likely reactive in nature.

    I am trying to figure out what does granulomatous calcifications in hilar lymph nodes mean. and is this something to worry about?

    why they couldnt see my appendix, I have never had it removed.

    what does it mean when they say the scattered lymph nodes are likely reactive in nature?

    And last when they give their impression of all this what are they saying the wall thickening may be attributable to under distension.

    Anyone have a clue?

    • ANSWER:
      angelheart:
      who ordered the CAT scan? has that person given you any answers, have you had a follow up with them yet? do you really want an anonymous person on yahoo answers to try to interpret a CT report when they have never met you, they don't know what symptoms are present, and what prior testing has been done. Write down any and all questions you have and make a checklist to bring with you to the follow up. Insisting on answers is completely reasonable.By the way, a normal appendix usually can't be seen on CAT scan, it is too small and thin

  48. QUESTION:
    How does the vegetal pole differ from the animal pole?
    The vegetal pole of the zygote differs from the animal pole in that
    Question 5 answers
    the polar bodies bud from this region.
    the vegetal pole has a higher concentration of yolk.
    the posterior end of the embryo forms at the vegetal pole.
    the vegetal pole cells undergo mitosis but not cytokinesis.

    Question 6 text Question 6 2 points Save
    At the time of fertilization, the complete maturation of each oogonium has resulted in
    Question 6 answers
    two primary oocytes.
    one secondary oocyte and three polar bodies.
    four primary oocytes.
    four secondary oocytes.
    four zygotes.

    Question 7 text Question 7 2 points Save
    To leave the digestive tract, a substance must cross a cell membrane. During which stage of food processing does this take place?
    Question 7 answers
    elimination
    ingestion
    absorption
    hydrolysis
    digestion

    Question 8 text Question 8 2 points Save
    Which of the following organs of the digestive system is different from the other four because it does NOT produce any secretions that aid in the digestive process?
    Question 8 answers
    pancreas
    liver
    stomach
    colon

    Question 9 text Question 9 2 points Save
    Four of the five answers listed below are responses of the body to a really hot day. Select the exception.
    Question 9 answers
    increased sweating
    dilation of peripheral blood vessels
    increased water loss
    increased alertness and muscle activity

    Question 10 text Question 10 2 points Save
    Which of the following is an advantage of a complete digestive system over a gastrovascular cavity?
    Question 10 answers
    Specialized regions are possible.
    Intracellular digestion is easier.
    Extracellular digestion is not needed.
    Digestive enzymes can be more specific.
    Extensive branching is possible.

    Question 11 text Question 11 2 points Save
    Bile
    Question 11 answers
    helps in the digestion of fats
    helps in the digestion of carbohydrates
    helps in the digestion of proteins
    helps in the digestion of both proteins and carbohydrates

    Question 12 text Question 12 2 points Save
    Which embryonic membrane below creates a fliud filled sac that protects the fetus from shocks and dehydration.
    Question 12 answers
    allantois
    chorion
    amnion
    yolk sac

    Question 13 text Question 13 2 points Save
    In the kidney, most of the water, glucose, amino acids, and sodium is reabsorbed in the
    Question 13 answers
    ureter
    proximal tubule
    distal tubule
    loop of Henle

    Question 14 text Question 14 2 points Save
    What is the most abundant metabolic waste in urine produced by humans?
    Question 14 answers
    urea
    ammonia
    uric acid
    carbon dioxide

    Question 15 text Question 15 2 points Save
    Sexual reproduction
    Question 15 answers
    enables males and females to remain isolated from each other while rapidly colonizing habitats.
    allows animals to conserve resources and reproduce only during optimal conditions.
    can produce diverse phenotypes that may enhance survival of a population in a changing environment.
    yields more numerous offspring more rapidly than is possible with asexual reproduction.
    guarantees that both parents will provide care for each offspring.

    Question 16 text Question 16 2 points Save
    How does a freshwater fish get it's internal water?
    Question 16 answers
    it gulps water often (drinks)
    osmosis
    metabolic water formation after eating
    reverse renal flow

    Question 17 text Question 17 2 points Save
    This hormone is produced by the embryo during the first trimester and is necessary to maintain the pregnancy.
    Question 17 answers
    progesterone
    human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
    follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
    gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

    Question 18 text Question 18 2 points Save
    Ruminants need special enzymes to digest _______, while carnivores don't.
    Question 18 answers
    starch
    lipids
    cellulose
    nucleic acids

    Question 19 text Question 19 2 points Save
    After ingestion, the first type of macromolecule to be worked on by enzymes (amylase in saliva) in the human digestive system is
    Question 19 answers
    carbohydrate.
    protein.
    nucleic acid.
    glucose.
    cholesterol

    Question 20 text Question 20 2 points Save
    The first part of the small intestine is the
    Question 20 answers
    duodenom
    jejunum
    cecum
    ileum

    Question 21 text Question 21 2 points Save
    Increasing the surface area with microvilli in the small intestinal epithelium directly facilitates which of the following digestive processes?
    Question 21 answers
    elimination
    absorption
    chemical breakdown
    Both B and C are true

    Question 22 text Question 22 2 points Save
    Processes which occur in nephrons include:
    Question 22 answers
    Glome

    • ANSWER:
      The Animal Pole is above the Vegetal Pole. It is also less yolky and less slower during cell division.

  49. QUESTION:
    Science digestion?
    1: The human body has three pairs of salivary glands.
    True
    False

    2: The function of the salivary enzyme is to aid in swallowing.
    True
    False

    3: "Wisdom teeth" are more properly called molars.
    True
    False

    4: Incisors and canines are adapted for biting.
    True
    False

    5: Teeth are dead structures and have no blood supply.
    True
    False

    6: Cavities in teeth may be enlarged by microorganisms.
    True
    False

    7: The diaphragm is located just below the stomach.
    True
    False

    8: Stomach gland cells secrete gastric juice.
    True
    False

    9: A muscular valve at the end of the stomach controls the movement of food into the small intestine.
    True
    False

    10: Most of the chemical breakdown in digestion takes place in the stomach.
    True
    False

    11: The end-products of digestion are soluble in water.
    True
    False

    12: Liver bile contains a number of different digestive enzymes.
    True
    False

    13: Fat digestion takes place in the pancreas.
    True
    False

    14: Alcohol may be absorbed by blood vessels in the stomach wall.
    True
    False

    15: Glucose provides the main source of energy for body cells.
    True
    False

    16: The intestines are normally free of bacteria.
    True
    False

    17: From ages twelve to sixteen, boys and girls need only about 1,000 Calories of food energy per day.
    True
    False

    18: Potatoes are much richer in proteins than is lean beef.
    True
    False

    19: A good portion of the food eaten by the average American consists of indigestible material.
    True
    False

    • ANSWER:
      1: true
      2: true
      3:true
      4: false
      5: false
      6: true
      7: ?
      8:false
      9: true
      10: true
      11: false
      12: true
      13: false (liver)
      14: true (but it ruins the cell wall and takes a long time for the cells to streach and fix the damaged area.)
      15: ?
      16: false
      17: false (it depends on your body weight.)
      18: false
      19: true.
      19

  50. QUESTION:
    poll: do you worry about eating high fructose corn syrup ?
    look at this

    why is HFCS Bad for us?
    Since HFCS’s widespread introduction in the 1980’s North American obesity rates have skyrocketed. Obesity has been linked to may heath issues including heart disease and many forms of cancer. When HFCS is ingested, it travels straight to the liver which turns the sugary liquid into fat, and unlike other carbohydrates HFCS does not cause the pancreas to produce insulin; which acts as a hunger quenching signal to the brain. So we get stuck in a vicious cycle, eating food that gets immediately stored as fat and never feeling full.

    Read more: http://healthmad.com/nutrition/dangers-of-high-fructose-corn-syrup/#ixzz0xn1znPrJ

    • ANSWER:
      Well I never have worried about it before but it does give me food for thought and I wonder why our government doesn't have big red warning signs on every product that contains high fructose corn syrup